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1.  Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group 
Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)  2006;40(1):61-65.
This article describes the proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG), which was held in Baltimore, Maryland on June 24, 2006. The meeting was held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism and was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The 2005–2006 FASDSG officers, Daniel J. Bonthius (president), Heather Carmichael Olson (vice-president), and Jennifer Thomas (secretary-treasurer), organized the meeting. Nationally prominent speakers delivered plenary lectures on topics of newborn screening, ethics, and neuroscience. Selected members of the FASDSG provided brief scientific data (FASt) reports, describing new research findings. Representatives from national agencies involved in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) research, treatment, and prevention provided updates regarding priorities, funding, and agency activities. Presentations were also made by the 2006 Student Merit Award recipient and by the 2006 Rosett Award recipient. The meeting served as a forum for clinicians, neuroscientists, psychologists, social scientists and other professionals to discuss recent advances in FAS research and to identify the most important gaps in the understanding of alcohol-induced teratology.
doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2006.09.003
PMCID: PMC1865502  PMID: 17157721
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders; Ethanol; Prenatal; Teratology
2.  The Lililwan Project: study protocol for a population-based active case ascertainment study of the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in remote Australian Aboriginal communities 
BMJ Open  2012;2(3):e000968.
Introduction
Anecdotal reports suggest that high-risk drinking in pregnancy is common in some remote Australian communities. Alcohol is teratogenic and may cause a range of lifelong conditions termed ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorders’ (FASD). Australia has few diagnostic services for FASD, and prevalence of these neurodevelopmental disorders remains unknown. In 2009, Aboriginal leaders in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia identified FASD as a community priority and initiated the Lililwani Project in partnership with leading research organisations. This project will establish the prevalence of FASD and other health and developmental problems in school-aged children residing in the Fitzroy Valley, providing data to inform FASD prevention and management.
Methods and analysis
This is a population-based active case ascertainment study of all children born in 2002 and 2003 and residing in the Fitzroy Valley. Participants will be identified from the Fitzroy Valley Population Project and Communicare databases. Parents/carers will be interviewed using a standardised diagnostic questionnaire modified for local language and cultural requirements to determine the demographics, antenatal exposures, birth outcomes, education and psychosocial status of each child. A comprehensive interdisciplinary health and neurodevelopmental assessment will be performed using tests and operational definitions adapted for the local context. Internationally recognised diagnostic criteria will be applied to determine FASD prevalence. Relationships between pregnancy exposures and early life trauma, neurodevelopmental, health and education outcomes will be evaluated using regression analysis. Results will be reported according to STROBE guidelines for observational studies.
Ethics and dissemination
Ethics approval has been granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Information and Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Country Health Service Board Research Ethics Committee and the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum Research Sub-committee. Results will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed manuscripts, reports, conference presentations and the media.
Article summary
Article focus
To establish the need for prevalence data on FASD in remote Australia and for improved awareness and diagnosis of FASD.
To describe the protocol used in Australia's first population-based study of FASD prevalence using active case ascertainment in remote Aboriginal communities.
To demonstrate a process of community consultation and clinical research that respects the priorities, language and culture of Aboriginal communities.
Key messages
Accurate prevalence data on FASD and other health and developmental outcomes will inform prevention, service provision and policy in child health, education and justice.
This research will provide immediate and direct benefits to participants and the broader community, including a feasible and transferable model of FASD diagnosis and a model for culturally responsive research with Aboriginal communities.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The study was a response to a local community initiative and followed extensive community consultation.
The population-based active method of case ascertainment will provide the most accurate prevalence data for diagnoses on the entire FASD spectrum and other health and developmental outcomes.
Standardised and locally developed clinical assessments whose interpretation is less biased by culture and language have been chosen carefully with cross-cultural considerations in mind and are considered valid for the purpose of the study.
There are no normative data for Aboriginal children for the assessments used in the study.
Study findings may not generalise to all children born in the Fitzroy Valley following the introduction of community-led alcohol restrictions in 2007, after which time FASD prevalence may have decreased.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000968
PMCID: PMC3346942  PMID: 22556161
3.  Functional magnetic resonance imaging outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders 
A comprehensive neuropsychological/psychiatric, MR imaging, (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI) assessment was administered to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to determine if global and/or focal abnormalities could be identified, and distinguish diagnostic subclassifications across the spectrum. The four study groups included: 1. FAS/Partial FAS; 2. Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol Exposed (SE/AE); 3. Neurobehavioral Disorder/Alcohol Exposed (ND/AE); and 4. healthy peers with no prenatal alcohol exposure. fMRI outcomes are reported here. The neuropsychological/psychiatric, MRI, and MRS outcomes are reported separately. fMRI was used to assess activation in seven brain regions during performance of N-back working memory tasks. Children across the full spectrum of FASD exhibited significant working memory deficits and altered activation patterns in brain regions that are known to be involved in working memory. These results demonstrate the potential research and diagnostic value of this non-invasive MR tool in the field of FASD.
doi:10.1007/s11689-009-9004-0
PMCID: PMC3164017  PMID: 21547622
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD); Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); Working memory; FASD 4-Digit Diagnostic Code; N-back

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