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1.  Management of latent tuberculous infection in Norway in 2009: a descriptive cross-sectional study 
Public Health Action  2013;3(2):166-171.
Despite a steep increase in the number of individuals treated for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI), few data are available on how treatment is implemented.
To obtain baseline information on initiation and completion of treatment for LTBI in Norway in 2009.
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
All 721 patients treated for LTBI in 2009 in Norway were included, of whom 607 (84%) completed treatment. The treatment regimen generally consisted of 3 months of rifampicin and isoniazid. The three main reasons for starting treatment were: 1) countries of origin with high tuberculosis (TB) prevalence, 2) a positive tuberculin skin test, and 3) a positive interferon gamma release assay. The use of directly observed treatment varied by health region and age. The majority of the 34 medical specialists interviewed saw a need for new national guidelines to improve the selection of high-risk patients with LTBI.
Management of LTBI is in accordance with current guidelines, with a high completion rate. More targeted selection of which patients should be offered preventive treatment is required, and new guidelines and tools to enhance risk assessment are necessary.
PMCID: PMC4463116  PMID: 26393022
screening; prophylactic treatment; directly observed therapy; completion
2.  Expression of ectopeptidases in scleroderma. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1995;54(2):111-116.
OBJECTIVES--To examine the expression and concentrations of three ectopeptidases likely to be involved in regulating the functional levels of adhesion molecules and the turnover of connective tissue components, in patients with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) (SSc) and in normal individuals. METHODS--Monoclonal antibodies against these antigens were used for immunoperoxidase staining of cryostat skin sections and for flow cytometric (fluorescence activated cell sorter) analysis of cultured dermal fibroblasts grown from SSc patients and normal controls. RESULTS--Although neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP) (CD10) was not detected in either SSc or normal skin, aminopeptidase N (APN) (CD13) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) (CD26) were both readily visualised. However, DPPIV appeared to be present in smaller concentrations in the SSc biopsy specimens. Moreover, while fibroblasts grown in vitro from both SSc and normal skin also had similar concentrations of APN, the expression of DPPIV in the cultured SSc cells was found to be very much less than that present in the normal fibroblasts. It is noteworthy that NEP, which was not detected in the tissue sections, was nevertheless readily detected in fibroblasts in culture. CONCLUSIONS--These results show that a number of cell surface proteases are expressed by dermal fibroblasts both in vivo and in vitro, and it is suggested that the marked downregulation of DPPIV in SSc could be at least partly responsible for the increased concentrations of adhesion molecules and matrix proteins associated with the molecular pathology of this disease.
PMCID: PMC1005532  PMID: 7702397
3.  Phylogeny of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. and related bacteria. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1994;176(3):725-732.
The phylogenetic structure of the bacteroides subgroup of the cytophaga-flavobacter-bacteroides (CFB) phylum was examined by 16S rRNA sequence comparative analysis. Approximately 95% of the 16S rRNA sequence was determined for 36 representative strains of species of Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Porphyromonas and related species by a modified Sanger sequencing method. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a corrected distance matrix by the neighbor-joining method, and the reliability of tree branching was established by bootstrap analysis. The bacteroides subgroup was divided primarily into three major phylogenetic clusters which contained most of the species examined. The first cluster, termed the prevotella cluster, was composed of 16 species of Prevotella, including P. melaninogenica, P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and the ruminal species P. ruminicola. Two oral species, P. zoogleoformans and P. heparinolytica, which had been recently placed in the genus Prevotella, did not fall within the prevotella cluster. These two species and six species of Bacteroides, including the type species B. fragilis, formed the second cluster, termed the bacteroides cluster. The third cluster, termed the porphyromonas cluster, was divided into two subclusters. The first contained Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. endodontalis, P. asaccharolytica, P. circumdentaria, P. salivosa, [Bacteroides] levii (the brackets around genus are used to indicate that the species does not belong to the genus by the sensu stricto definition), and [Bacteroides] macacae, and the second subcluster contained [Bacteroides] forsythus and [Bacteroides] distasonis. [Bacteroides] splanchnicus fell just outside the three major clusters but still belonged within the bacteroides subgroup. With few exceptions, the 16 S rRNA data were in overall agreement with previously proposed reclassifications of species of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas. Suggestions are made to accommodate those species which do not fit previous reclassification schemes.
PMCID: PMC205110  PMID: 8300528
4.  Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(6):2002-2013.
Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving strains (indicated by differing numbers of base changes incorporated into the 16S rRNA sequence relative to outgroup organisms). While the results presented a clear picture of the phylogenetic relationships, the complexity of the branching will make division of the family into genera a difficult and somewhat subjective task. We do not suggest any taxonomic changes at this time.
PMCID: PMC205807  PMID: 1548238
5.  Multivariate analyses of cellular fatty acids in Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Wolinella, and Campylobacter spp. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(1):183-189.
The genera Bacteroides, Wolinella, and Campylobacter contain several similar species that require taxonomic revision. Fatty acid profiles of whole bacterial cells have proven useful for taxonomy. In this study, cellular fatty acids from Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Wolinella, and Campylobacter spp. were identified and quantitated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the data were subjected to principal component analyses. Bacteroides fragilis, the type species of the genus Bacteroides, was distinct from the other organisms. While Bacteroides gracilis, Wolinella succinogenes, Wolinella curva, Wolinella recta, and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis were close to each other, Prevotella (Bacteroides) buccae, Prevotella oralis, Prevotella oris, Prevotella disiens, Prevotella veroralis, Prevotella heparinolyticus, Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) endodontalis, and Bacteroides ureolyticus could be distinguished. B. fragilis was characterized by the presence of C3OH-i-1-, Ca-15, and Ci-15 and the absence of C12:0 and unsaturated fatty acids. For comparison, B. gracilis, B. ureolyticus, W. succinogenes, W. curva, W. recta, and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis contained C12:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C3-OH-14 acids but lacked branched hydroxy and branched nonhydroxy acids. B. gracilis and B. ureolyticus are not "true" bacteroides.
PMCID: PMC269725  PMID: 1993755
6.  Multivariate analyses of cellular carbohydrates and fatty acids of Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1990;28(8):1854-1857.
Quantitative data of major cellular carbohydrates distinguished Candida albicans or Torulopsis glabrata from Saccharomyces cerevisiae but not C. albicans from T. glabrata. Multivariate analyses of both carbohydrate and fatty acid variables (I. Brondz, I. Olsen, and M. Sjöström, J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:2815-2819, 1989), however, differentiated all three species.
PMCID: PMC268059  PMID: 2203815
7.  Gas chromatographic assessment of alcoholyzed fatty acids from yeasts: a new chemotaxonomic method. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1989;27(12):2815-2819.
An alternative chemotaxonomic method to methanolysis was developed for gas chromatographic assessment of fatty acids in whole yeast cells. Clinical and reference strains of the medically important yeasts Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were cultured for 48 h at 26 degrees C. Cellular lysis and transesterification were then performed with ethanol, propanol, butanol, or methanol. The relative recovery rates for cellular fatty acids, including the volatile acids C10:0 and C12:0, were similar after alcoholysis with ethanol, propanol, or butanol, while methanolysis gave lower recoveries of volatile fatty acids. Thus, after ethanolysis, the recovery of C10:0 acid (0.1, 1, and 10%) from a defined matrix (lyophilized Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans cells) varied from 97 to 102%, while the recovery of C10:0 after methanolysis varied from 49 to 75%. This indicated that with the frequently used methanolysis technique, there is a considerable loss of volatile fatty acids. These acids may be used as marker molecules for taxonomic differentiation between yeasts.
PMCID: PMC267132  PMID: 2687322
8.  Chemical differences in lipopolysaccharides from Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus: clues to differences in periodontopathogenic potential and taxonomic distinction. 
Infection and Immunity  1989;57(10):3106-3109.
While Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been associated with rapidly progressive periodontal destruction in man, the closely related Haemophilus aphrophilus has not been related to periodontal disease. This may be due to differences in composition and structure of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of these dental-plaque bacteria, since LPS probably exerts a series of detrimental effects on the periodontium. LPS was prepared by the phenol-water procedure from the type strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, purified by hexane extraction and ultracentrifugation, and analyzed with gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. While the lipid content of LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans constituted 35.4%, it was only 18.4% in H. aphrophilus: 3-hydroxytetradecanoic and tetradecanoic acids were 21.1 and 14.3% in A. actinomycetemcomitans and 10.9 and 7.5% in H. aphrophilus. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the polysaccharide portions of their LPS. A actinomycetemcomitans contained both D-glycero-D-mannoheptose and L-glycero-D-mannoheptose (7.8 and 11.3%); H. aphrophilus contained only L-glycero-D-mannoheptose (17.4%). The rhamnose, fucose, galactose, glucose, and glucosamine/galactosamine contents in A. actinomycetemcomitans were 2.6, 5.2, 10.1, 22.4, and 5.2%, respectively; in H. aphrophilus, they were 2.1, 2.6, 19.4, 36.4, and 3.7%. Chemical differences in LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus may contribute to the divergence in periodontopathogenic potential of these organisms and help taxonomic differentiation.
PMCID: PMC260776  PMID: 2777374
9.  Differentiation among closely related organisms of the Actinobacillus-Haemophilus-Pasteurella group by means of lysozyme and EDTA. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1985;22(4):629-636.
Bacteriolysis in Tris-maleate buffer (0.005 M, pH 7.2) supplemented with EDTA (0.01 M) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL, 1.0 microgram/ml) was set up to assist differentiation between the taxonomically closely related Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus. A. actinomycetemcomitans was more sensitive to lysis in this system than H. aphrophilus. The standard method for bacteriolysis separated the 10 tested strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans into two groups (I and II) based on their lysis patterns, whereas the 7 strains of H. aphrophilus examined were homogeneous. In group I of A. actinomycetemcomitans, EDTA displayed a considerable lytic effect, which was not increased by supplementation with HEWL. In group II, the lytic effect of EDTA was much less, but HEWL had a considerable supplementary lytic effect. When the turbidity of A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 29522) or H. aphrophilus (ATCC 33389) suspended in Tris buffer was monitored at close pH intervals (0.2) from pH 5.2 to 9.2, maximal lysis of ATCC 29522 occurred with EDTA at pH 8.0 and with EDTA-HEWL at pH 7.6, while ATCC 33389 lysed with EDTA at pH 9.0 and with EDTA-HEWL at pH 9.2. When other members of the family Pasteurellaceae (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Pasteurella ureae) were included for comparison, the group I strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were the most rapidly lysed by EDTA. H. paraphrophilus was the least sensitive of the gram-negative strains tested, but not as resistant as Micrococcus luteus (control). M. luteus was the organism most sensitive to lysozyme, followed by P. ureae and the group II strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while the group I strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. paraphrophilus, and P. haemolytica were the least sensitive organisms.
PMCID: PMC268481  PMID: 3935663
10.  Identification of Propionate as an Endogenous CO2 Acceptor in Rhodospirillum rubrum and Properties of Purified Propionyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase 
Journal of Bacteriology  1968;95(5):1774-1778.
A heat-stable endogenous CO2 acceptor has been found in extracts of Rhodospirillum rubrum grown photoheterotrophically on acetate. Evidence is presented which suggests that this factor is propionic acid. Thus, paper and gas chromatographic analyses have indicated that propionic acid is present in boiled extracts prepared from R. rubrum cells. The products of 14CO2 fixation obtained with either the boiled extract or propionic acid as the CO2 acceptor were identical and were identified as methylmalonic acid and succinic acid by paper chromatography. The enzyme which catalyzes the carboxylation of propionyl-coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA carboxylase) was purified from R. rubrum cells grown on acetate and its properties were studied. The enzyme is similar to propionyl-CoA carboxylases isolated from mammalian sources.
PMCID: PMC252211  PMID: 5650084

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