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1.  The oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine solid tumor cell lines 
Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy for cancer treatment for humans and dogs. Reovirus has been proven to be a potent oncolytic virus in human medicine. Our laboratory has previously reported that canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma were susceptible to reovirus. In this study, canine solid tumor cell lines (mammary gland tumor, osteosarcoma and malignant melanoma) were tested to determine their susceptibility towards reovirus. We demonstrated that reovirus induces more than 50% cell death in three canine mammary gland tumors and one canine malignant melanoma cell line. The reovirus-induced cell death occurred via the activation of caspase 3. Ras activation has been shown to be one of the important mechanisms of reovirus-susceptibility in human cancers. However, Ras activation was not related to the reovirus-susceptibility in canine solid tumor cell lines, which was similar to reports in canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma. The results of this study highly suggest that canine mammary gland tumor and canine malignant melanoma are also potential candidates for reovirus therapy in veterinary oncology.
PMCID: PMC4478733  PMID: 25648933
cancer; canine; oncolytic virotherapy; reovirus; solid tumor
2.  Seroepidemiology of Reovirus in Healthy Dogs in Six Prefectures in Japan 
Reovirus infection is common in mammals. However, seroepidemiological data of reovirus neutralizing antibodies are limited in dogs. In this study, sera of 65 healthy dogs from six prefectures across Japan were tested for neutralizing antibodies against reovirus serotype 1 strain Lang (T1L), serotype 2 strain Amy (T2A) and serotype 3 strain Dearing (T3D) using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Seropositivity against reovirus T1L, T2A and T3D was 53.85%, 33.85% and 46.15%, respectively. Distribution of reovirus seropositive samples displayed no distinguishable geographical pattern. However, reovirus seropositivity increased with age and in dogs housed outdoor. Co-infection of multiple reovirus serotypes in dogs was also detected. These data will provide valuable insights towards the usage of reovirus in oncolytic virotherapy in canine cancers.
PMCID: PMC4013379  PMID: 24284973
canine; neutralizing antibody; plaque reduction neutralization test; reovirus; seroepidemiology
3.  Oncolytic Reovirus in Canine Mast Cell Tumor 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73555.
The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC3779226  PMID: 24073198
4.  Dogs as Sentinels for Human Infection with Japanese Encephalitis Virus 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2010;16(7):1137-1139.
Because serosurveys of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among wild animals and pigs may not accurately reflect risk for humans in urban/residential areas, we examined seroprevalence among dogs and cats. We found that JEV-infected mosquitoes have spread throughout Japan and that dogs, but not cats, might be good sentinels for monitoring JEV infection in urban/residential areas.
PMCID: PMC3321903  PMID: 20587189
Sentinel surveillance; encephalitis; Japanese; dogs; viruses; vector-borne infections; dispatch
5.  Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in Dogs in a Village of Eastern Sudan by Using a Screening PCR and Sequencing Methodologies 
Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.
PMCID: PMC1287771  PMID: 16275954
6.  Molecular Detection of a New Anaplasma Species Closely Related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canine Blood from South Africa 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(6):2934-2937.
Canine DNA samples from South Africa were found to contain 16S rRNA gene nucleotide and citrate synthase gene nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences that were most similar to Anaplasma phagocytophilum: 98%, 66%, and 69% similarity, respectively. This suggests that a new Anaplasma species closely related to A. phagocytophilum occurs in Africa.
PMCID: PMC1151900  PMID: 15956424
7.  Transcriptional Control of BubR1 by p53 and Suppression of Centrosome Amplification by BubR1 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(10):4046-4061.
Elimination of the regulatory mechanism underlying numeral homeostasis of centrosomes, as seen in cells lacking p53, results in abnormal amplification of centrosomes, which increases the frequency of chromosome segregation errors, and thus contributes to the chromosome instability frequently observed in cancer cells. We have previously reported that p53−/− mouse cells in prolonged culture undergo genomic convergence similar to that observed during tumor progression; early-passage p53−/− cells are karyotypically heterogeneous due to extensive chromosome instability associated with centrosome amplification, while late-passage p53−/− cells are aneuploid yet karyotypically homogeneous and chromosomally stable. Moreover, they contain numerically normal centrosomes. Through the microarray analysis of early- and late-passage p53−/− cells, we identified the BubR1 spindle checkpoint protein, which plays a critical role in suppression of centrosome amplification and stabilization of chromosomes in late-passage p53−/− cells. Up-regulation of BubR1 augments the checkpoint function, which effectively senses the spindle/chromosome aberrations associated with centrosome amplification. We further found that BubR1 transcription is largely controlled by p53. In early-passage p53−/− cells, BubR1 expression is low and the checkpoint function in response to microtubule toxin is considerably compromised. In late-passage cells, however, regaining of BubR1 expression restores the checkpoint function to mitotic aberrations caused by microtubule toxin. Our studies demonstrate the molecular aspect of genomic convergence in cultured cells, providing critical information for understanding the stepwise progression of tumors.
PMCID: PMC1087701  PMID: 15870277
8.  Detection of Ehrlichial DNA in Haemaphysalis Ticks Recovered from Dogs in Japan That Is Closely Related to a Novel Ehrlichia sp. Found in Cattle Ticks from Tibet, Thailand, and Africa 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(3):1353-1355.
Tick DNA samples from dogs in Japan were examined for Ehrlichia infection by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR and sequencing. Three positive samples were detected from Haemaphysalis ticks, and higher levels of similarity (98.46 to 99.06%) were found to recently detected Ehrlichia spp. from cattle ticks in Tibet, Thailand, and Africa.
PMCID: PMC356832  PMID: 15004117
9.  Epidemiological Survey of Babesia Species in Japan Performed with Specimens from Ticks Collected from Dogs and Detection of New Babesia DNA Closely Related to Babesia odocoilei and Babesia divergens DNA 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(8):3494-3498.
Detection and analysis of Babesia species from ticks recovered from dogs in Japan were attempted by PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene, respectively. A total of 1,136 ticks were examined for Babesia DNA by 18S rRNA-based PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Partial sequences of Babesia canis vogeli DNA were detected from six ticks in Aomori, Nara, Hiroshima, Oita, and Okinawa Prefectures; and Babesia gibsoni Asia-1 DNA was also detected in four ticks in Osaka, Hiroshima, Miyazaki, and Okinawa Prefectures. Unique sequences of 1,678 bp were also obtained from Ixodes ovatus ticks in Akita and Fukui Prefectures. The sequences were similar to those of Babesia odocoilei (97.7%) and Babesia divergens (97.6%). This is the first report of the detection of DNA belonging to this group in Japan.
PMCID: PMC179768  PMID: 12904344
10.  Determination of the Nucleotide Sequences of Heat Shock Operon groESL and the Citrate Synthase Gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys for Phylogenetic and Diagnostic Studies 
The 1,670-bp nucleotide sequence of the heat shock operon groESL and the 1,236-bp sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys were determined. The topology of the groEL- and gltA-based phylogenetic tree was similar to that derived from 16S rRNA gene analyses with distances. Both groESL- and gltA-based PCRs specific to A. platys were also developed based upon the alignment data.
PMCID: PMC120055  PMID: 12204973

Results 1-10 (10)