Rationale: The burden of asthma is highest among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; however, its impact is differentially distributed among racial and ethnic groups.
Objectives: To assess the collective effect of maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type on childhood asthma among minority, urban youth.
Methods: We included Mexican American (n = 485), other Latino (n = 217), and African American (n = 1,141) children (aged 8–21 yr) with and without asthma from the San Francisco Bay Area. An index was derived from maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type to assess the collective effect of socioeconomic status on predicting asthma. Logistic regression stratified by racial and ethnic group was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further examined whether acculturation explained the socioeconomic-asthma association in our Latino population.
Measurements and Main Results: In the adjusted analyses, African American children had 23% greater odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.38). Conversely, Mexican American children have 17% reduced odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and this relationship was not fully explained by acculturation. This association was not observed in the other Latino group.
Conclusions: Socioeconomic status plays an important role in predicting asthma, but has different effects depending on race and ethnicity. Further steps are necessary to better understand the risk factors through which socioeconomic status could operate in these populations to prevent asthma.
asthma; health status disparities; minority health; educational status; poverty
Atopy varies by ethnicity even within Latino groups. This variation may be due to environmental, socio-cultural or genetic factors.
To examine risk factors for atopy within a nationwide study of U.S. Latino children with and without asthma.
Aeroallergen skin test repsonse was analyzed in 1830 US latino subjects. Key determinants of atopy included: country / region of origin, generation in the U.S., acculturation, genetic ancestry and site to which individuals migrated. Serial multivariate zero inflated negative binomial regressions, stratified by asthma status, examined the association of each key determinant variable with the number of positive skin tests. In addition, the independent effect of each key variable was determined by including all key variables in the final models.
In baseline analyses, African ancestry was associated with 3 times as many positive skin tests in participants with asthma (95% CI:1.62–5.57) and 3.26 times as many positive skin tests in control participants (95% CI: 1.02–10.39). Generation and recruitment site were also associated with atopy in crude models. In final models adjusted for key variables, Puerto Rican [exp(β) (95%CI): 1.31(1.02–1.69)] and mixed ethnicity [exp(β) (95%CI):1.27(1.03–1.56)] asthmatics had a greater probability of positive skin tests compared to Mexican asthmatics. Ancestry associations were abrogated by recruitment site, but not region of origin.
Puerto Rican ethnicity and mixed origin were associated with degree of atopy within U.S. Latino children with asthma. African ancestry was not associated with degree of atopy after adjusting for recruitment site. Local environment variation, represented by site, was associated with degree of sensitization.
Latino; atopy; region of origin; genetic ancestry; immigration; skin test; aeroallergen
Rationale: Air pollution is a known asthma trigger and has been associated with short-term asthma symptoms, airway inflammation, decreased lung function, and reduced response to asthma rescue medications.
Objectives: To assess a causal relationship between air pollution and childhood asthma using data that address temporality by estimating air pollution exposures before the development of asthma and to establish the generalizability of the association by studying diverse racial/ethnic populations in different geographic regions.
Methods: This study included Latino (n = 3,343) and African American (n = 977) participants with and without asthma from five urban regions in the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Residential history and data from local ambient air monitoring stations were used to estimate average annual exposure to five air pollutants: ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, particulate matter not greater than 10 μm in diameter, and particulate matter not greater than 2.5 μm in diameter. Within each region, we performed logistic regression to determine the relationship between early-life exposure to air pollutants and subsequent asthma diagnosis. A random-effects model was used to combine the region-specific effects and generate summary odds ratios for each pollutant.
Measurements and Main Results: After adjustment for confounders, a 5-ppb increase in average NO2 during the first year of life was associated with an odds ratio of 1.17 for physician-diagnosed asthma (95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.31).
Conclusions: Early-life NO2 exposure is associated with childhood asthma in Latinos and African Americans. These results add to a growing body of evidence that traffic-related pollutants may be causally related to childhood asthma.
air pollution; minority; children; asthma
Background. The use of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) in patients with acute infective endocarditis (IE) remains a controversial issue. Our study attempts to estimate the impact of ACT on the occurrence of embolic complications and the usefulness of ACT in the prevention of embolism in IE patients. Methods. The present authors analyzed 150 patients with left-sided IE. Embolisms including cerebrovascular events (CVE) and the use of ACT were checked at the time of admission and during hospitalization. Results. 57 patients (38.0%) experienced an embolic event. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CVE and in-hospital mortality between patients with and without warfarin use at admission, although warfarin-naïve patients were significantly more likely to have large (>1 cm) and mobile vegetation. In addition, there was no significant difference in the incidence of postadmission embolism and in-hospital death between patients with and without in-hospital ACT. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, ACT at admission was not significantly associated with a lower risk of embolism in patients with IE. Conclusions. The role of ACT in the prevention of embolism was limited in IE patients undergoing antibiotic therapy, although it seems to reduce the embolic potential of septic vegetation before treatment.
To determine the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among infants and young children who received preventive care at pediatric preventative care clinics associated with an urban public hospital. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been used to study SHS exposure in population-based studies of children 3 years of age or older.
Retrospective study using a convenience sample.
Urban county pediatric primary care clinics in San Francisco, California.
A total of 496 infants and children (mean [SD] age, 2.4 [1.9] years).
Discarded plasma samples (which were routinely collected for lead screening) were tested, and medical records were reviewed, for SHS exposure.
Main Outcome Measure
Secondhand smoke exposure based on cotinine plasma level and history of exposure in the medical record.
Thirteen percent of parents reported that their child was exposed to SHS, yet biochemical testing detected cotinine in 55% of samples, at a geometric mean (SD) of 0.23 (3.55) ng/mL. There were no significant sex or age differences. African American children had much higher mean cotinine levels than did Latino children (geometric mean difference, 6.07 ng/mL [95% CI, 4.37 to 8.43 ng/mL]).
In a city with a low smoking rate (12%) and public smoking bans, we documented 55% exposure among infants and young children, using a plasma biomarker, compared with 13% exposure reported by parents. Because SHS is associated with significant respiratory diseases and parents underreport exposure, routine biochemical screening should be considered as a tool to identify and reduce SHS exposure.
Rationale: Obesity is associated with increased asthma morbidity, lower drug responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, and worse asthma control. However, most prior investigations on obesity and asthma control have not focused on pediatric populations, considered environmental exposures, or included minority children.
Objectives: To examine the association between body mass index categories and asthma control among boys and girls; and whether these associations are modified by age and race/ethnicity.
Methods: Children and adolescents ages 8–19 years (n = 2,174) with asthma were recruited from the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE II). Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their confidence intervals (95% CI) for worse asthma control.
Measurements and Main Results: In adjusted analyses, boys who were obese had a 33% greater chance of having worse asthma control than their normal-weight counterparts (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04–1.71). However, for girls this association varied with race and ethnicity (P interaction = 0.008). When compared with their normal-weight counterparts, obese African American girls (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.41–1.05) were more likely to have better controlled asthma, whereas Mexican American girls had a 1.91 (95% CI, 1.12–3.28) greater odds of worse asthma control.
Conclusions: Worse asthma control is uniformly associated with increased body mass index in boys. Among girls, the direction of this association varied with race/ethnicity.
obesity; asthma control; race and ethnicity; age; sex
Cerebrovascular complications (CVCs) frequently occur in patients with acute infective endocarditis (IE). The aim of this study is to describe the clinical findings of CVCs and to evaluate the impact of CVCs on long-term mortality in patients with IE.
We retrospectively analyzed 144 patients who fulfilled the modified Duke’s criteria for definite left-sided IE. CVCs were classified into minor (silent cerebral embolism, TIA and stroke with an initial modified Rankin scale ≤ 2) or major (an initial modified Rankin scale ≥ 3) CVCs. Cox proportional hazards model was used for mortality analysis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained.
The mean age of the 144 patients (96 males and 48 females) was 49.1 years (range 6-85 years). A CVC was found in 37 (25.7%) patients. Of these, 25 were treated with surgical therapy. The patients who underwent early surgery within 2 weeks after stroke had a statistical trend toward a higher risk of postoperative brain hemorrhage (50% versus 4.8%, P = 0.057 by Fisher exact test). The minor CVC group had a similar risk of death as the no-CVC group (P = 0.803; HR 0.856; CI 0.253-2.894), whereas the major CVC group had a higher mortality (P = 0.013; HR 2.865; CI 1.254-6.548) than the no-CVC group. In the multivariate analysis, major CVC (P = 0.002; HR 3.893; CI 1.649-9.194) was a significant predictor of mortality in IE patients, together with advanced age (P = 0.005; HR 3.138; CI 1.421-6.930) and prosthetic valve IE (P = 0.008; HR 2.819; CI 1.315-6.044).
IE can give rise to various forms of CVC, most frequently, acute ischemic brain lesions. In our study, major CVC was associated with high risk of mortality although total CVC was not significantly related to the risk of death in patients with IE.
Infective endocarditis; Cerebrovascular complication; Stroke
Congenital pericardial defects are rare and asymptomatic for both partial and complete defects. However, some patients can experience syncope, arrhythmia, and chest pain. When a patient experiences a symptom, it may be caused by herniation and dynamic compression or torsion of a heart structure including the coronary arteries. Diagnosis of a congenital pericardial defect may be difficult, especially in old patients with concomitant coronary artery disease. The clinical importance of congenital pericardial defect has not been stressed and congenital pericardial defects are regarded as benign, but in this case, pericardial defect was responsible for myocardial ischemia. The authors report a case of partial congenital pericardial defect causing herniation and dynamic compression of the coronary arteries, presenting as an acute coronary syndrome in an old man, with an emphasis on the unique features of the coronary angiogram that support the diagnosis of partial pericardial defects.
Heart defects, congenital; Pericardium; Coronary artery disease
Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) remains a challenge, especially in cases of multiple valve surgery. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of native valve IE and compared the outcomes of single valve surgery with those of multiple valve surgery.
Materials and Methods
From 1997 to 2011, 90 patients underwent surgery for native valve IE; 67 patients with single valve surgery (single valve group) and 23 patients with multiple valve surgery (multiple valve group). The mean follow-up duration was 73.1±47.4 months.
The surgical mortality in the total cohort was 4.4%. The overall survival (p=0.913) and valve-related event-free survival (p=0.204) did not differ between the two groups. The independent predictor of postoperative complications was New York Heart Association class (p=0.001). Multiple valve surgery was not a significant predictor of surgical mortality (p=0.225) or late mortality (p=0.936). Uncontrolled infection, urgent or emergency surgery, and postoperative complications were identified as independent predictors of valve-related morbidity, excluding multiple valve surgery (p=0.072).
In native valve IE, multiple valve surgery as a factor was not an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity. The number of surgically corrected valves in native IE seems to be unrelated to perioperative and long-term outcomes.
Endocarditis; Heart valves; Thoracic surgery; Mortality; Morbidity
Among people with asthma, the clinical impact and relative contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy (in utero smoking) and current secondhand smoke exposure on asthma control is poorly documented, and there is a paucity of research involving minority populations.
To examine the association between poor asthma control and in utero smoking and current secondhand smoke exposure among Latino and Black children with asthma.
Case-only analysis of 2 multi-center case-control studies conducted from 2008–2010 using similar protocols. We recruited 2,481 Latinos and Blacks with asthma (ages 8–17) from the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of in utero smoking and current secondhand smoke exposures on National Heart Lung and Blood Institute-defined asthma control.
Poor asthma control among children 8–17 years of age was independently associated with in utero smoking (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval = 1.5; 1.1–2.0). In utero smoking via the mother was also associated with secondary asthma outcomes, including early onset asthma (1.7; 1.1–2.4), daytime symptoms (1.6; 1.1–2.1), and asthma-related limitation of activities (1.6; 1.2–2.2).
Maternal smoking while in utero is associated with poor asthma control in Black and Latino subjects assessed at 8–17 years of age.
Secondhand smoke; prenatal exposure delayed effects; asthma; health status disparities
This study attempts to explore the clinical features, possible mechanisms and prognosis of the neurologic complications in patients with acute aortic dissection (AD).
Medical records of 278 consecutive patients with AD (165 with type A and 113 with type B dissection) over 11.5 years were retrospectively analyzed for clinical history, CT findings, neurologic complications and outcome. Neurologic complications were classified into early-onset or delayed-onset complications. Independent t-test or Chi-square test (or Fisher exact test) was used for comparing the different groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent association between variables.
The mean age of the included patients (145 male and 133 female) was 59.4 years (range 19–91 years). 41 patients (14.7%) had a neurologic complication, which included 21 with early-onset complication and 23 with delayed-onset complication, including 3 with both. Advanced age and classic type of dissection were independently associated with the neurologic complication in patients with type A dissection. The most frequent manifestation was ischemic stroke (26 patients, 9.4%), followed by hypoxic encephalopathy (9, 3.2%), ischemic neuropathy (5, 1.8%), spinal cord ischemia (5, 1.8%), seizure (2, 0.7%), hoarseness (1, 0.4%) and septic encephalopathy (1, 0.4%). Overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%, whereas the complicated group had a mortality rate of 43.9%. Renal impairment, pulse deficit, neurologic complication and nonsurgical treatment were independent variables for determining in-hospital mortality in patients with type A dissection.
The dominance of neurologic symptom in the early stage of AD may make its early diagnosis difficult. Besides chest pain and widened mediastinum in chest x-ray, variable neurologic symptoms including left hemiparesis with asymmetric pulse and hypotension may suggest underlying AD.
Asthma has been hypothesized to be associated with lung cancer (LC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of 16 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) to quantitatively assess this association and compared the results with 36 previously published studies. In total, information from 585 444 individuals was used. Study-specific measures were combined using random effects models. A meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity. The overall LC relative risk (RR) associated with asthma was 1.28 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.16–1.41] but with large heterogeneity (I2 = 73%, P < 0.001) between studies. Among ILCCO studies, an increased risk was found for squamous cell (RR = 1.69, 95%, CI = 1.26–2.26) and for small-cell carcinoma (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 0.99–2.95) but was weaker for adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.88–1.36). The increased LC risk was strongest in the 2 years after asthma diagnosis (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.09–4.17) but subjects diagnosed with asthma over 10 years prior had no or little increased LC risk (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.94–1.30). Because the increased incidence of LC was chiefly observed in small cell and squamous cell lung carcinomas, primarily within 2 years of asthma diagnosis and because the association was weak among never smokers, we conclude that the association may not reflect a causal effect of asthma on the risk of LC.
Rupture of an aortic arch aneurysm is a life-threatening condition that requires emergency operation. For rupture of a distal arch aneurysm, we performed—with the patient under total circulatory arrest—an emergency total arch replacement with an elephant-trunk procedure, followed by one-stage antegrade stent-grafting. Prompt institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and total circulatory arrest has the advantage of lessening the risk of overt aortic rupture in this emergency situation.
Aorta, thoracic/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/surgery; aortic arch/surgery; aortic rupture/surgery; blood vessel prosthesis implantation/methods; endovascular procedures; stents
The effects of in utero tobacco smoke exposure on childhood respiratory health have been investigated, and outcomes have been inconsistent.
To determine if in utero tobacco smoke exposure is associated with childhood persistent asthma in Mexican, Puerto Rican, and black children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
There were 295 Mexican, Puerto Rican, and black asthmatic children, aged 8 to 16 years, who underwent spirometry, and clinical data were collected from the parents during a standardized interview. The effect of in utero tobacco smoke exposure on the development of persistent asthma and related clinical outcomes was evaluated by logistic regression.
Children with persistent asthma had a higher odds of exposure to in utero tobacco smoke, but not current tobacco smoke, than did children with intermittent asthma (odds ratio [OR]: 3.57; P = .029). Tobacco smoke exposure from parents in the first 2 years of life did not alter this association. Furthermore, there were higher odds of in utero tobacco smoke exposure in children experiencing nocturnal symptoms (OR: 2.77; P = .048), daily asthma symptoms (OR: 2.73; P = .046), and emergency department visits (OR: 3.85; P = .015) within the year.
Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero was significantly associated with persistent asthma among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and black children compared with those with intermittent asthma. These results suggest that smoking cessation during pregnancy may lead to a decrease in the incidence of persistent asthma in these populations.
asthma; tobacco; Latino; African American; pregnancy
Tobacco smoke and its metabolites are carcinogens that increase tissue oxidative stress and induce target tissue inflammation. We hypothesized that genetic variation of inflammatory pathway genes plays a role in tobacco-related carcinogenesis and is modified by tobacco smoking. We evaluated the association of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms of eight inflammation-related genes with tobacco-related cancers (lung, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, bladder, and kidney) using three case-control studies from: Los Angeles (population-based; 611 lung and 553 upper aero-digestive tract cancer cases and 1,040 controls); Taixing, China (population-based; 218 esophagus, 206 stomach, 204 liver cancer cases, and 415 controls); and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (hospital-based; 227 bladder cancer cases and 211 controls). After adjusting for age, education, ethnicity, gender, and tobacco smoking, IL10 rs1800871 was inversely associated with oropharyngeal cancer (CT+TT versus CC adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–0.95), and among never smokers was positively associated with lung cancer (TT versus CT+CC aOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–5.1) and inversely with oropharyngeal cancer (CT+TT versus CC aOR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41–0.95). Among all pooled never smokers (588 cases and 816 controls), TNF rs1799964 was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer (CC versus CT+TT aOR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.17–0.77). Bayesian correction for multiple comparisons suggests that chance is unlikely to explain our findings (although epigenetic mechanisms may be in effect), which support our hypotheses, suggesting that IL10 rs1800871 is a susceptibility marker for oropharyngeal and lung cancers, and that TNF rs1799964 is associated with smoking-related cancers among never smokers.
IL10; TNF; single nucleotide polymorphisms; inflammation; tobacco-related cancer
Constituents of tobacco smoke can cause DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), leading to tumorigenesis. The NBS1 gene product is a vital component in DSB detection and repair, thus genetic variations may influence cancer development. We examined the associations between NBS1 polymorphisms and haplotypes and newly incident smoking-related cancers in three case–control studies (Los Angeles: 611 lung and 601 upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer cases and 1040 controls; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: 227 bladder cancer cases and 211 controls and Taixing, China: 218 esophagus, 206 stomach, 204 liver cancer cases and 415 controls). rs1061302 was associated with cancers of the lung [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 2.4], larynx (ORadj = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.97) and liver (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Additionally, positive associations were found for rs709816 with bladder cancer (ORadj = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 12) and rs1063054 with lung cancer (ORadj = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3). Some associations in lung and stomach cancers varied with smoking status. CAC haplotype was positively associated with smoking-related cancers: lung (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) and UADT (ORadj = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.7), specifically, oropharynx (ORadj = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.2) and larynx (ORadj = 4.8, 95% CI: 1.7, 14). Bayesian false-discovery probabilities were calculated to assess Type I error. It appears that NBS1 polymorphisms and haplotypes may be associated with smoking-related cancers and that these associations may differ by smoking status. Our findings also suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the binding region of the MRE-RAD50-NBS1 complex or microRNA targeted pathways may influence tumor development. These hypotheses should be further examined in functional studies.
Indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been extended as the experience of ECMO in various clinical settings accumulates and the outcome after ECMO installation improves. We report two cases of successful mitral valve surgery for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation in patients on ECMO support for cardiogenic shock which developed upon coronary angiography.
Mitral valve; Coronary artery disease; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
The incidence of stomach cancer is high in certain parts of the world, particularly in China. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the main risk factor, yet the vast majority of infected individuals remain unaffected with cancer, suggesting an important role of other risk factors. We conducted a population-based case-control study including 196 incident stomach cancer cases and 397 matched controls to test the hypothesis that adverse SNP genotypes and haplotypes within genes of the DNA repair and immune regulatory pathways are associated with increased stomach cancer risk. Genomic DNA isolated from blood samples was used for genotyping, and results were obtained for 57 putatively functional SNPs in 28 genes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from adjusted logistic regression models. For PTGS2, a gene involved in the inflammatory response, associations with stomach cancer risk were observed for TC genotype carriers of rs5279 (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.08–0.73), CT genotype carriers of the 3’ UTR SNP rs689470 (OR, 7.49; 95% CI, 1.21–46.20), and CTTC haplotype carriers of rs5277, rs5278, rs5279, and rs689470 (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.18–0.95). For ERCC5, a gene involved in nucleotide excision repair, TC genotype carriers of rs1047768 (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.41–1.03), GC genotype carriers of the non-synonymous SNP rs2227869 (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13–0.67), and CCG haplotype carriers of rs1047768, rs17655, rs2227869 (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20–1.04) were associated with reduced stomach cancer risk. In conclusion, PTGS2 and ERCC5 were associated with stomach cancer risk in a Chinese population.
stomach cancer; DNA repair; inflammation; genetic polymorphism; SNP
Triple valve surgery is usually complex and carries a reported operative mortality of 13% and 10-yr survival of 61%. We examined surgical results based on our hospital's experience. A total of 160 consecutive patients underwent triple valve surgery from 1990 to 2006. The most common aortic and mitral valve disease was rheumatic disease (82%). The most common tricuspid valve disease was functional regurgitation (80%). Seventy-four percent of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III and IV. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of early and late survival. Operative mortality was 6.9% (n=11). Univariate factors associated with mortality included old age, preoperative renal failure, postoperative renal failure, pulmonary complications, and stroke. Of them, postoperative renal failure and stroke were associated with mortality on multivariable analysis. Otherwise, neither tricuspid valve replacement nor reoperation were statistically associated with late mortality. Survival at 5 and 10 yr was 87% and 84%, respectively. Ninety-two percent of the patients were in NYHA class I and II at their most recent follow-up. Ten-year freedom from prosthetic valve endocarditis was 97%; from anticoagulation-related hemorrhage, 82%; from thromboembolism, 89%; and from reoperation, 84%. Postoperative renal failure and stroke were significantly related with operative mortality. Triple valve surgery, regardless of reoperation and tricuspid valve replacement, results in acceptable long-term survival.
Triple valve surgery; Renal Failure; Stroke