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1.  Density functional theory study of the local molecular properties of acetamide derivatives as anti-HIV drugs 
Accurate quantum chemical computations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed on the series of 2-(4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylthio)-N-acetamide (TTA) derivatives. The local reactivity of the acetamide derivatives as anti-HIV drugs were studied in terms of Fukui functions in the framework of DFT. The results based on the basis set superposition error (BSSE) corrections showed that the mechanism of bond formation between the acetamide derivatives and tyrosine as a biological molecule occurs mainly through nitrogen atoms. The intramolecular interaction energies between the acetamide derivatives and tyrosine were calculated and the nature of the intermolecular interaction was revealed by natural bond orbital charge (NBO) analysis. The results suggest that acetamide derivatives with bromophenyl and nitrophenyl substitutions are the most potent as anti-HIV drugs.
PMCID: PMC3757594  PMID: 24082898
2-(4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylthio)-N-acetamides (TTAs); Anti-HIV drugs; Density functional theory (DFT); Fukui function; Softness indices
2.  Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage following Reduced Doses of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and a 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Booster▿ †  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2010;17(12):1970-1976.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a reduced-dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) primary series followed by a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPS) booster on nasopharyngeal (NP) pneumococcal carriage. For this purpose, Fijian infants aged 6 weeks were randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 PCV doses. Within each group, half received 23vPPS at 12 months. NP swabs were taken at 6, 9, 12, and 17 months and were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Isolates were serotyped by multiplex PCR and a reverse line blot assay. There were no significant differences in PCV vaccine type (VT) carriage between the 3- and 2-dose groups at 12 months. NP VT carriage was significantly higher (P, <0.01) in the unvaccinated group than in the 3-dose group at the age of 9 months. There appeared to be a PCV dose effect in the cumulative proportion of infants carrying the VT, with less VT carriage occurring with more doses of PCV. Non-PCV serotype (NVT) carriage rates were similar for all PCV groups. When groups were pooled by receipt or nonreceipt of 23vPPS at 12 months, there were no differences in pneumococcal, VT, or NVT carriage rates between the 2 groups at the age of 17 months. In conclusion, there appeared to be a PCV dose effect on VT carriage, with less VT carriage occurring with more doses of PCV. By the age of 17 months, NVT carriage rates were similar for all groups. 23vPPS had no impact on carriage, despite the substantial boosts in antibody levels.
PMCID: PMC3008188  PMID: 20943882
3.  Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serogroup 6 Isolates from Fijian Children, Including Newly Identified Serotypes 6C and 6D▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(11):4298-4300.
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was applied to all unique serotype 6C and 6D isolates and a random selection of serotype 6B and 6A isolates from nasopharyngeal swabs from Fijian children enrolled in a recent vaccine trial. The results suggest that Fijian serotype 6D has arisen independently from both serotypes 6A/C and 6B.
PMCID: PMC3020807  PMID: 20810769
4.  Identification of Newly Described Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6D by Use of the Quellung Reaction and PCR ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(9):3378-3379.
We tested 121 pneumococcal serogroup 6 isolates (including 30 serotype 6C and 24 serotype 6D isolates) by serotype-specific PCR and the Quellung reaction, using “old” and “new” pool B, factor 6b, and new factor 6d antisera. In combination with group B and other factor antisera, factor 6d antiserum can reliably identify the newly described serotype 6D.
PMCID: PMC2937698  PMID: 20610680
6.  Distribution of Serotypes, Genotypes, and Resistance Determinants among Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates ▿  
Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as an important clinical problem worldwide over the past decade. The aim of this study was to analyze the phenotypes (serotype and antibiotic susceptibility), genotypes (multilocus sequence type [MLST] and antibiotic resistance gene/transposon profiles) among the 31% (102/328) of invasive isolates from children in New South Wales, Australia, in 2005 that were resistant to erythromycin. Three serotypes—19F (47 isolates [46%]), 14 (27 isolates [26%]), and 6B (12 isolates [12%])—accounted for 86 (84%) of these 102 isolates. Seventy four (73%) isolates had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance phenotype and carried Tn916 transposons (most commonly Tn6002); of these, 73 (99%) contained the erythromycin ribosomal methylase gene [erm(B)], 34 (47%) also carried the macrolide efflux gene [mef(E)], and 41 (55%) belonged to serotype 19F. Of 28 (27%) isolates with the M phenotype, 22 (79%) carried mef(A), including 16 (57%) belonging to serotype 14, and only six (19%) carried Tn916 transposons. Most (84%) isolates which contained mef also contained one of the msr(A) homologues, mel or msr(D); 38 of 40 (95%) isolates with mef(E) (on mega) carried mel, and of 28 (39%) isolates with mef(A), 10 (39%) carried mel and another 11(39%) carried msr(D), on Tn1207.1. Two predominant macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae clonal clusters (CCs) were identified in this population. CC-271 contained 44% of isolates, most of which belonged to serotype 19F, had the MLSB phenotype, were multidrug resistant, and carried transposons of the Tn916 family; CC-15 contained 23% of isolates, most of which were serotype 14, had the M phenotype, and carried mef(A) on Tn1207.1. Erythromycin resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in New South Wales is mainly due to the dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae strains or horizontal spread of the Tn916 family of transposons.
PMCID: PMC2825966  PMID: 20065057
7.  Simple, Accurate, Serotype-Specific PCR Assay To Differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes 6A, 6B, and 6C▿ †  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(8):2470-2474.
In this study, we developed a simple, reliable, serotype-specific PCR method to differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, and 6C. It was more efficient and practical than the assays currently being used to identify serotypes 6A, 6B, and 6C. Of 120 selected serogroup 6 isolates from subjects with invasive (n = 101) and noninvasive (n = 19) pneumococcal disease, most of which were collected after 2003 in New South Wales, 45 had been identified as 6A and 75 had been identified as 6B by the Quellung reaction. PCR analysis confirmed the results for serotype 6B isolates and identified two different subtypes. Fourteen of 45 isolates that had been identified as serotype 6A actually belonged to serotype 6C.
PMCID: PMC2725661  PMID: 19535528

Results 1-7 (7)