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1.  Neural correlates of attention‐executive dysfunction in lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease 
Human Brain Mapping  2015;37(3):1254-1270.
Abstract
Attentional and executive dysfunction contribute to cognitive impairment in both Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Using functional MRI, we examined the neural correlates of three components of attention (alerting, orienting, and executive/conflict function) in 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 32 patients with Lewy body dementia (19 with dementia with Lewy bodies and 13 with Parkinson's disease with dementia), and 23 healthy controls using a modified Attention Network Test. Although the functional MRI demonstrated a similar fronto‐parieto‐occipital network activation in all groups, Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia patients had greater activation of this network for incongruent and more difficult trials, which were also accompanied by slower reaction times. There was no recruitment of additional brain regions or, conversely, regional deficits in brain activation. The default mode network, however, displayed diverging activity patterns in the dementia groups. The Alzheimer's disease group had limited task related deactivations of the default mode network, whereas patients with Lewy body dementia showed heightened deactivation to all trials, which might be an attempt to allocate neural resources to impaired attentional networks. We posit that, despite a common endpoint of attention‐executive disturbances in both dementias, the pathophysiological basis of these is very different between these diseases. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1254–1270, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
doi:10.1002/hbm.23100
PMCID: PMC4784171  PMID: 26705763
Alzheimer's disease; attention; attention network test; executive; functional MRI; Lewy body dementia
2.  MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases 
Brain  2016;139(4):1211-1225.
Distinguishing between the degenerative dementias during life can be challenging. Using histopathologically confirmed cases for comparison, Harper et al. evaluate six visual rating scales for use with routinely acquired structural MRI. Automated classification based on all six scales provides a practical, fast and inexpensive means of improving diagnostic certainty.
Distinguishing between the degenerative dementias during life can be challenging. Using histopathologically confirmed cases for comparison, Harper et al. evaluate six visual rating scales for use with routinely acquired structural MRI. Automated classification based on all six scales provides a practical, fast and inexpensive means of improving diagnostic certainty.
Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value. Reliability of scan assessment was generally good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.7), and average time to apply all six scales was <3 min. There was a very close association between the pattern of grey matter loss and the regions of interest each scale was designed to assess. Using automated classification based on all six rating scales, the accuracy (estimated using the area under the receiver-operator curves) for distinguishing each pathological group from controls ranged from 0.86–0.97; and from one another, 0.75–0.92. These results were substantially better than the accuracy of any single scale, at least as good as expert reads, and comparable to previous studies using molecular biomarkers. Visual rating scores from magnetic resonance images routinely acquired as part of the investigation of dementias, offer a practical, inexpensive means of improving diagnostic accuracy.
doi:10.1093/brain/aww005
PMCID: PMC4806219  PMID: 26936938
brain atrophy; dementia; MRI; neuropathology; visual rating
3.  Circadian Clock Control of Connexin36 Phosphorylation in Retinal Photoreceptors of the CBA/CaJ Mouse Strain 
Visual neuroscience  2015;32:E009.
The gap-junction-forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) represents the anatomical substrate of photoreceptor electrical coupling in mammals. The strength of coupling is directly correlated to the phosphorylation of Cx36 at 2 regulatory sites: Ser110 and Ser293. Our previous work demonstrated that the extent of biotinylated tracer coupling between photoreceptor cells, which provides an index of the extent of electrical coupling, depends on the mouse strain. In the C57Bl/6J strain, light or dopamine reduces tracer coupling and Cx36 phosphorylation in photoreceptors. Conversely, darkness or a dopaminergic antagonist increases tracer coupling and Cx36 phosphorylation, regardless of the time of day. In the CBA/CaJ strain, photoreceptor tracer coupling is regulated by light and dopamine, but also by a circadian clock, a type of oscillator with a period close to 24 h and intrinsic to the retina, so that under prolonged dark-adapted conditions tracer coupling is broader at night compared to daytime. In the current study, we examined whether the modulation of photoreceptor coupling by a circadian clock in CBA/CaJ mouse photoreceptors reflected a change in Cx36 protein expression and/or phosphorylation. We found no significant change in Cx36 expression or in the number of Cx36 gap junction among the conditions examined. However, we found that Cx36 phosphorylation is higher under dark-adapted conditions at night than in the daytime, and is the lowest under prolonged illumination at any time of the day/night cycle. Our observations are consistent with the view that the circadian clock regulation of photoreceptor electrical coupling is mouse strain-dependent and highlight the critical position of Cx36 phosphorylation in the control of photoreceptor coupling.
doi:10.1017/S0952523815000061
PMCID: PMC4760741  PMID: 26241696
retina; gap junction; electrical coupling; photoreceptors; circadian clock
4.  The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance: Evidence of validity 
Background
An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance.
Methods
Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T.
Results
The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001).
Conclusions
The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.05.1756
PMCID: PMC4422168  PMID: 25267715
Hippocampal volumetry; Magnetic resonance; Alzheimer's disease; Biomarkers; Diagnostic criteria; Enrichment; Clinical trials; Validation; Harmonized protocol; Standard operating procedures; Manual segmentation
5.  Multiplex analyte assays to characterize different dementias: brain inflammatory cytokines in poststroke and other dementias 
Neurobiology of Aging  2016;38:56-67.
Both the inflammatory potential and cognitive function decline during aging. The association between the repertoire of inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. Inflammatory cytokines have been reported to be increased, decreased, or unchanged in the cerebrospinal fluid and sera of subjects with dementia. We assessed 112 postmortem brains from subjects diagnosed with poststroke dementia (PSD), vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), comparing those to poststroke nondemented (PSND) subjects and age-matched controls. We analyzed 5 brain regions including the gray and white matter from the frontal and temporal lobes for a panel of cytokine and/or chemokine analytes using multiplex-array assays. Of the 37 analytes, 14 were under or near the detection limits, 7 were close to the lowest detection level, and 16 cytokines were within the linear range of the assay. We observed widely variable concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A at the high end (1–150 ng/mg protein), whereas several of the interleukins (IL, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor) at the low end (1–10 pg/mg). There were also regional variations; most notable being high concentrations of some cytokines (e.g., CRP and angiogenesis panel) in the frontal white matter. Overall, we found decreased concentrations of several cytokines, including IL-1 beta (p = 0.000), IL-6 (p = 0.000), IL-7 (p = 0.000), IL-8 (p = 0.000), IL-16 (p = 0.001), interferon-inducible protein–10 (0.044), serum amyloid A (p = 0.011), and a trend in IL-1 alpha (p = 0.084) across all dementia groups compared to nondemented controls. IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly lower in dementia subjects than in nondemented subjects in every region. In particular, lower levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were notable in the PSD compared to PSND subjects. Because these 2 stroke groups had comparable degree of vascular pathology, the lower production of IL-6 and IL-8 in PSD reaffirms a possible specific involvement of immunosenescence in dementia pathogenesis. In contrast, CRP was not altered between dementia and nondementia subjects or between PSD and PSND. Our study provides evidence not only for the feasibility of tracking cytokines in postmortem brain tissue but also suggests differentially impaired inflammatory mechanisms underlying dementia including AD. There was a diminished inflammatory response, possibly reflecting immunosenescence and cerebral atrophy, in all dementias. Strategies to enhance anti-inflammatory cytokines and boost the immune system of the brain may be beneficial for preventing cognitive dysfunction, especially after stroke.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.10.021
PMCID: PMC4759608  PMID: 26827643
Aging; Cognitive impairment; Immunosenescence; Inflammation; Poststroke dementia; Stroke; Vascular dementia; White matter
6.  Heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses are abundant in goldfish brain 
Neuroscience  2014;0:166-193.
Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at “large myelinated club ending” synapses on Mauthner cells of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to evoke short-latency electrical “pre-potentials” immediately preceding their accompanying glutamate-induced depolarizations, making these the first unambiguously identified “mixed” (i.e., chemical plus electrical) synapses in the vertebrate CNS. We recently showed that gap junctions at these synapses exhibit asymmetric electrical resistance (i.e., electrical rectification), which we correlated with total molecular asymmetry of connexin composition in their apposing gap junction hemiplaques, with Cx35 restricted to axon terminal hemiplaques and Cx34.7 restricted to apposing Mauthner cell plasma membranes. We now show that similarly heterotypic neuronal gap junctions are abundant throughout goldfish brain, with labeling exclusively for Cx35 in presynaptic hemiplaques and exclusively for Cx34.7 in postsynaptic hemiplaques. Moreover, the vast majority of these asymmetric gap junctions occur at glutamatergic axon terminals. The widespread distribution of heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses throughout goldfish brain and spinal cord implies that pre- vs. postsynaptic asymmetry at electrical synapses evolved early in the chordate lineage. We propose that the advantages of the molecular and functional asymmetry of connexins at electrical synapses that are so prominently expressed in the teleost CNS are unlikely to have been abandoned in higher vertebrates. However, to create asymmetric coupling in mammals, where most gap junctions are composed of Cx36 on both sides, would require some other mechanism, such as differential phosphorylation of connexins on opposite sides of the same gap junction or on asymmetric differences in the complement of their scaffolding and regulatory proteins.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.10.057
PMCID: PMC4282965  PMID: 25451276
7.  Neurophysiological biomarkers for Lewy body dementias 
Clinical Neurophysiology  2016;127(1):349-359.
Highlights
•Biomarkers are needed to improve Lewy body dementia (LBD) diagnosis and measure treatment response.•There is substantial heterogeneity in neurophysiology biomarker methodologies limiting comparison.•However, there is tentative evidence to suggest neurophysiological approaches may show promise as potential biomarkers of LBD.
Objective
Lewy body dementias (LBD) include both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and the differentiation of LBD from other neurodegenerative dementias can be difficult. Currently, there are few biomarkers which might assist early diagnosis, map onto LBD symptom severity, and provide metrics of treatment response. Traditionally, biomarkers in LBD have focussed on neuroimaging modalities; however, as biomarkers need to be simple, inexpensive and non-invasive, neurophysiological approaches might also be useful as LBD biomarkers.
Methods
In this review, we searched PubMED and PsycINFO databases in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers in the LBDs.
Results
We identified 1491 studies; of these, 37 studies specifically examined neurophysiological biomarkers in LBD patients. We found that there was substantial heterogeneity with respect to methodologies and patient cohorts.
Conclusion
Generally, many of the findings have yet to be replicated, although preliminary findings reinforce the potential utility of approaches such as quantitative electroencephalography and motor cortical stimulation paradigms.
Significance
Various neurophysiological techniques have the potential to be useful biomarkers in the LBDs. We recommend that future studies focus on maximising the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the most promising neurophysiological biomarkers.
doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2015.06.020
PMCID: PMC4727506  PMID: 26183755
Biomarkers; Dementia with Lewy bodies; Parkinson’s disease with dementia; Cognitive fluctuations; Neurophysiology
8.  The ever-changing electrical synapse 
A wealth of research has revealed that electrical synapses in the central nervous system exhibit a high degree of plasticity. Several recent studies, particularly in the retina and inferior olive, highlight this plasticity. Three classes of mechanisms can alter electrical coupling over time courses ranging from milliseconds to days. Changes of membrane conductance through synaptic input or spiking activity shunt current and decouple neurons on the millisecond time scale. Such activity can also alter coupling symmetry, rectifying electrical synapses. More stable rectification can be accomplished through molecular asymmetry of the synapse itself. On the minutes time scale, changes in connexin phosphorylation can change coupling quasi-stably with order of magnitude dynamic range. On the hours to days time scale, changes in expression level of connexins alter coupling through the course of circadian time, over developmental time, or in response to tissue injury. Combined, all of these mechanisms allow electrical coupling to be highly dynamic, changing in response to demands at the whole network level, in small portions of a network, or at the level of an individual synapse.
doi:10.1016/j.conb.2014.05.011
PMCID: PMC4252917  PMID: 24955544
9.  Top-Down Strategies for the Structural Elucidation of Intact Gram-negative Bacterial Endotoxins 
Re-modelling of lipopolysaccharides, which are the primary constituent of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, modulates pathogenesis and resistance to microbials. Reported herein is the characterization of intact Gram-negative bacterial lipooligosaccharides (LOS) via a new strategy utilizing online liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry. Compared to collision-based MS/MS methods, UVPD and UVPD/HCD promoted a greater array of cleavages within both the glycan and lipid moieties, including C-C, C-N, C-O cleavages in the acyl chains as well as glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages, thus providing the most far-reaching structural characterization of LOS. This LC-MS/MS strategy affords a robust analytical method to structurally characterize complex mixtures of bacterial endotoxins that maintains the integrity of the core oligosaccharide and lipid A domains of LOS, providing direct feedback about the cell envelope architectures and LOS modification strategies involved in resistance host innate immune defense.
doi:10.1039/C4SC01034E
PMCID: PMC4224326  PMID: 25386333
10.  Cortical tau load is associated with white matter hyperintensities 
Introduction
Cerebral white matter lesions (WML), visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on T2-weighted MRI, encompass structural damage and loss of integrity of the cerebral white matter (WM) and are commonly assumed to be associated with small vessel disease (SVD). However, it has been suggested that WM damage may also be the result of degenerative axonal loss that is secondary to cortical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathologies i.e., hyperphosphorylated tau (HPτ) and amyloid-beta (Aβ). Here we investigate the influence of HPτ, Aβ and SVD on WMH severity.
Results
36 human post-mortem right fixed cerebral hemispheres (mean age 84.4 ± 7.7 years; male: 16, female: 20) containing varying amounts of AD-pathology (AD: 23, controls: 13) underwent T2- weighted MRI with WMH assessed according to the age related white matter change scale (ARWMC). After dissection, using tissue samples from the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital regions from the right hemisphere, we quantitatively assessed cortical HPτ and Aβ pathology burden by measuring the percentage area covered by AT8 immunoreactivity (HPτ-IR) and 4G8 immunoreactivity (Aβ-IR), and assessed the severity of WM SVD by calculating the sclerotic index (SI) of WM arteries/arterioles. HPτ-IR, Aβ-IR, and SI were compared with ARWMC scores. HPτ-IR, Aβ-IR and WM ARWMC scores were all significantly higher in AD cases compared to controls, while SI values were similar between groups. ARWMC scores correlated with HPτ-IR, Aβ-IR and SI in various regions, however, linear regression revealed that only HPτ-IR was a significant independent predictor of ARWMC scores.
Conclusions
Here we have shown that increasing cortical HPτ burden independently predicted the severity of WMH indicating its potentially important role in the pathogenesis of WM damage. Moreover, our findings suggest that in AD patients the presence of WMH may indicate cortical AD-associated pathology rather than SVD. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the pathological processes that lead to WM damage and to clarify if WMH may serve as a general biomarker for cortical AD-associated pathology.
doi:10.1186/s40478-015-0240-0
PMCID: PMC4589169  PMID: 26419828
Hyperphosphorylated tau; White matter hyperintensities; White matter lesions; Small vessel disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Post-mortem MRI
11.  Characterization of Native Protein Complexes Using Ultraviolet Photodissociation Mass Spectrometry 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2014;136(37):12920-12928.
Ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to characterize the sequences of proteins in native protein–ligand and protein–protein complexes and to provide auxiliary information about the binding sites of the ligands and protein–protein interfaces. UVPD outperformed collisional induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) in terms of yielding the most comprehensive diagnostic primary sequence information about the proteins in the complexes. UVPD also generated noncovalent fragment ions containing a portion of the protein still bound to the ligand which revealed some insight into the nature of the binding sites of myoglobin/heme, eIF4E/m7GTP, and human peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase 1 (Pin1) in complex with the peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD). Noncovalently bound protein–protein fragment ions from oligomeric β-lactoglobulin dimers and hexameric insulin complexes were also produced upon UVPD, providing some illumination of tertiary and quaternary protein structural features.
doi:10.1021/ja505217w
PMCID: PMC4351866  PMID: 25148649
12.  Connexin 57 Is Expressed by the Axon Terminal Network of B-type Horizontal Cells in the Rabbit Retina 
The Journal of comparative neurology  2012;520(10):2256-2274.
In the rabbit retina there are two types of horizontal cell (HC). A-type HCs (AHC) are axonless and extensively coupled via connexin (Cx)50 gap junctions. The B-type HC (BHC) is axon-bearing; the somatic dendrites form a second network coupled by gap junctions while the axon terminals (ATs) form a third independent network in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). The mouse retina has only one type of HC, which is morphologically similar to the B-type HC of the rabbit. Previous work suggested that mouse HCs express Cx57 (Hombach et al. [2004] Eur J Neurosci 19:2633–2640). Therefore, we cloned rabbit Cx57 and raised an antibody to determine the distribution of Cx57 gap junctions among rabbit HCs. Dye injection methods were used to obtain detailed fills for all three HC networks for analysis by confocal microscopy. We found that Cx57 was associated with the B-type AT plexus. Cx57 plaques were anticorrelated with the B-type somatic dendrites and the A-type HC network. Furthermore, there was no colocalization between Cx50 and Cx57. We conclude that in the rabbit retina, Cx57 is only found on BHC-AT processes. Thus, in species where there are two types of HC, different connexins are expressed. The absence of Cx57 labeling in the somatic dendrites of B-type HCs suggests the possibility of an additional unidentified HC connexin in the rabbit.
doi:10.1002/cne.23060
PMCID: PMC4568982  PMID: 22495514
connexin 57; horizontal cells; retina; rabbit
13.  Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Lipid A From the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria 
SHORT ABSTRACT
Isolation and characterization of the lipid A domain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria provides insight into cell surface based mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, bacterial survival and fitness, and how chemically diverse lipid A molecular species differentially modulate host innate immune responses.
LONG ABSTRACT
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major cell surface molecule of Gram-negative bacteria, deposited on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane bilayer. LPS can be subdivided into three components: the distal O-polysaccharide, a core oligosaccharide, and the lipid A hydrophobic anchor, where lipid A is the only component essential for bacterial cell survival. Following its synthesis, lipid A is chemically modified in response to environmental stresses such as pH or temperature, to promote resistance to antibiotic compounds, and to evade recognition by mediators of the host innate immune response. The following protocol details the small- and large-scale isolation of lipid A from Gram-negative bacteria. Isolated material is then chemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) or mass-spectrometry (MS). In additional to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS we also describe tandem MS protocols for analyzing lipid A molecular species using electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to collision induced dissociation (CID) and newly employed ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) methods. Our MS protocols allow for unequivocal determination of chemical structure, paramount to characterization of lipid A molecules that contain unique or novel chemical modifications. We also describe the radioisotopic labeling, and subsequent isolation, of lipid A from bacterial cells for analysis by TLC. Relative to MS-based protocols, TLC provides a more economical and rapid characterization method, but cannot be used to unambiguously assign lipid A chemical structures without the use of standards of known chemical structure. Over the last two decades isolation and characterization of lipid A has led to numerous exciting discoveries that have improved our understanding of the physiology of Gram-negative bacteria, mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, the human innate immune response and have provided many new targets in the development of antibacterial compounds.
doi:10.3791/50623
PMCID: PMC3885993  PMID: 24084191
lipid A; Bligh-Dyer; thin layer chromatography (TLC); lipopolysaccharide; mass spectrometry; Collision Induced Dissociation (CID); Photodissociation (PD)
14.  Baseline and longitudinal grey matter changes in newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease: ICICLE-PD study 
Brain  2015;138(10):2974-2986.
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PDMCI) is associated with progression to dementia in a majority of patients. Mak et al. reveal accelerated cortical thinning in patients with PDMCI compared to non-cognitively impaired patients and healthy controls. Patterns of cortical thinning may constitute biomarkers for increased dementia risk.
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PDMCI) is associated with progression to dementia in a majority of patients. Mak et al. reveal accelerated cortical thinning in patients with PDMCI compared to non-cognitively impaired patients and healthy controls. Patterns of cortical thinning may constitute biomarkers for increased dementia risk.
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease is associated with progression to dementia (Parkinson’s disease dementia) in a majority of patients. Determining structural imaging biomarkers associated with prodromal Parkinson’s disease dementia may allow for the earlier identification of those at risk, and allow for targeted disease modifying therapies. One hundred and five non-demented subjects with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and 37 healthy matched controls had serial 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans with clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, which were repeated after 18 months. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria were used to classify the Parkinson’s disease subjects into Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment (n = 39) and Parkinson’s disease with no cognitive impairment (n = 66). Freesurfer image processing software was used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes at baseline and follow-up. We compared regional percentage change of cortical thinning and subcortical atrophy over 18 months. At baseline, cases with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated widespread cortical thinning relative to controls and atrophy of the nucleus accumbens compared to both controls and subjects with Parkinson’s disease with no cognitive impairment. Regional cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with global cognition in the combined Parkinson’s disease cohort. Over 18 months, patients with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated more severe cortical thinning in frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, including hippocampal atrophy, relative to those with Parkinson’s disease and no cognitive impairment and healthy controls, whereas subjects with Parkinson’s disease and no cognitive impairment showed more severe frontal cortical thinning compared to healthy controls. At baseline, Parkinson’s disease with no cognitive impairment converters showed bilateral temporal cortex thinning relative to the Parkinson’s disease with no cognitive impairment stable subjects. Although loss of both cortical and subcortical volume occurs in non-demented Parkinson’s disease, our longitudinal analyses revealed that Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment shows more extensive atrophy and greater percentage of cortical thinning compared to Parkinson’s disease with no cognitive impairment. In particular, an extension of cortical thinning in the temporo-parietal regions in addition to frontal atrophy could be a biomarker in therapeutic studies of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease for progression towards dementia.
doi:10.1093/brain/awv211
PMCID: PMC4671477  PMID: 26173861
Parkinson’s disease; neurodegeneration; neuroimaging; dementia
15.  Amyloid imaging for dementia in clinical practice 
BMC Medicine  2015;13:163.
In vivo imaging of brain amyloid using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is widely used in research studies of dementia, with three amyloid PET ligands being licenced for clinical use. The main clinical use of PET is to help confirm or exclude the likely diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in challenging cases, where diagnostic uncertainty remains after current clinical and investigative work up. Whilst diagnostically valuable in such select cases, much wider clinical adoption, especially for very early disease, will be limited by both cost and the lack of a currently effective disease-modifying treatment that requires such early case identification. The use of amyloid imaging to appropriately stratify subjects for prognostic studies and therapeutic trials should increase the efficiency and potentially shorten the time of such studies, and its use combined with other biomarkers and genetics will likely lead to new ways of defining and classifying the dementias.
doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0404-6
PMCID: PMC4499896  PMID: 26170121
Amyloid; Dementia; Imaging; Positron emission tomography
16.  Characterization of a novel and potentially lethal designer drug, (±)-cis-para-methyl-4-methylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR, or “Serotoni”) 
Drug testing and analysis  2014;6(0):684-695.
During the second half of 2013, a total of 26 deaths involving para-methyl-4-methylaminorex (4,4’-DMAR) were reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. While aminorex and 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR) are known psychostimulants, nothing is known about the comparatively new para-methyl analogue. Analytical characterization of two independent samples obtained from online vendors confirmed the presence of the (±)-cis isomer that also appeared to be involved in at least 18 of the 26 deaths. Extensive characterizations included crystal structure analysis, single, tandem and high-resolution mass spectrometry, liquid and gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. For the work described here, both the (±)-cis and (±)-trans racemates were also synthesized, confirming that the differentiation between these two forms was straight-forward. Monoamine transporter activity was studied using rat brain synaptosomes. (±)-cis-4,4'-DMAR was a potent, efficacious substrate-type releaser at transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin with EC50 values of 8.6 ± 1.1 nM (DAT), 26.9 ± 5.9 nM (NET) and 18.5 ± 2.8 nM (SERT), respectively. A comparison with d-amphetamine, aminorex and (±)-cis-4-MAR revealed that activity at SERT varied more than 100-fold across the four drugs, with (±)-cis-4,4’-DMAR exhibiting the highest potency for releasing 5-HT. The potent releasing activity of (±)-cis-4,4’-DMAR at all three monoamine transporters predicts a potential for serious side-effects such as psychotic symptoms, agitation, hyperthermia and cardiovascular stimulation, especially after high-dose exposure or following combination with other psychostimulants.
doi:10.1002/dta.1668
PMCID: PMC4128571  PMID: 24841869
Aminorex; 4-methylaminorex; para-methyl-4-methylaminorex; new psychoactive substances; psychostimulants; internet; monoamine transporters; synaptosomes
17.  Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement 
Background
Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination.
Methods
Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force.
Results
Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized.
Conclusions
The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved.
doi:10.1097/WAD.0000000000000034
PMCID: PMC4139434  PMID: 24632990
Vascular dementia; vascular cognitive disorder; vascular cognitive impairment; diagnostic criteria; cerebrovascular disease; multi-infarct dementia; post-stroke dementia; subcortical dementia
18.  Connexins in neurons and glia: targets for intervention in disease and injury 
Neural Regeneration Research  2015;10(7):1013-1017.
Both neurons and glia throughout the central nervous system are organized into networks by gap junctions. Among glia, gap junctions facilitate metabolic homeostasis and intercellular communication. Among neurons, gap junctions form electrical synapses that function primarily for communication. However, in neurodegenerative states due to disease or injury gap junctions may be detrimental to survival. Electrical synapses may facilitate hyperactivity and bystander killing among neurons, while gap junction hemichannels in glia may facilitate inflammatory signaling and scar formation. Advances in understanding mechanisms of plasticity of electrical synapses and development of molecular therapeutics to target glial gap junctions and hemichannels offer new hope to pharmacologically limit neuronal degeneration and enhance recovery.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.160092
PMCID: PMC4541216  PMID: 26330808
ischemia; retinal degeneration; amacrine cells; astrocytes; dopamine receptors; adenosine receptors; NMDA receptors; connexin mimetic peptides
19.  Cortical Thickness in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease: A Comparison of Prodromal and Dementia Stages 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0127396.
Objectives
To assess and compare cortical thickness (CTh) of patients with prodromal Dementia with Lewy bodies (pro-DLB), prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pro-AD), DLB dementia (DLB-d), AD dementia (AD-d) and normal ageing.
Methods
Study participants(28 pro-DLB, 27 pro-AD, 31 DLB-d, 54 AD-d and 33 elderly controls) underwent 3Tesla T1 3D MRI and detailed clinical and cognitive assessments. We used FreeSurfer analysis package to measure CTh and investigate patterns of cortical thinning across groups.
Results
Comparison of CTh between pro-DLB and pro-AD (p<0.05, FDR corrected) showed more right anterior insula thinning in pro-DLB, and more bilateral parietal lobe and left parahippocampal gyri thinning in pro-AD. Comparison of prodromal patients to healthy elderly controls showed the involvement of the same regions. In DLB-d (p<0.05, FDR corrected) cortical thinning was found predominantly in the right temporo-parietal junction, and insula, cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral occipital cortices. In AD-d(p<0.05, FDR corrected),the most significant areas affected included the entorhinal cortices, parahippocampal gyri and parietal lobes. The comparison of AD-d and DLB-d demonstrated more CTh in AD-d in the left entorhinal cortex (p<0.05, FDR corrected).
Conclusion
Cortical thickness is a sensitive measure for characterising patterns of grey matter atrophy in early stages of DLB distinct from AD. Right anterior insula involvement may be a key region at the prodromal stage of DLB and needs further investigation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127396
PMCID: PMC4489516  PMID: 26061655
20.  Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies 
This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our understanding of the pathological background of DLB and its progression.
doi:10.1186/alzrt248
PMCID: PMC4055038  PMID: 25031634
21.  Identification of a broad family of lipid A late acyltransferases with non-canonical substrate specificity 
Molecular microbiology  2014;91(5):887-899.
Summary
Most gram-negative organisms produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex macromolecule anchored to the bacterial membrane by the lipid A moiety. Lipid A is synthesized via the Raetz pathway, a conserved nine-step enzymatic process first characterized in Escherichia coli. The Epsilonproteobacterium Helicobacter pylori uses the Raetz pathway to synthesize lipid A; however, only eight of nine enzymes in the pathway have been identified in this organism. Here, we identify the missing acyltransferase, Jhp0255, which transfers a secondary acyl chain to the 3′-linked primary acyl chain of lipid A, an activity similar to that of E. coli LpxM. This enzyme, reannotated as LpxJ due to limited sequence similarity with LpxM, catalyzes addition of a C12:0 or C14:0 acyl chain to the 3′-linked primary acyl chain of lipid A, complementing an E. coli LpxM mutant. Enzymatic assays demonstrate that LpxJ and homologs in Campylobacter jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes can act before the 2′ secondary acyltransferase, LpxL, as well as the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase, KdtA. Ultimately, LpxJ is one member of a large class of acyltransferases found in a diverse range of organisms that lack an E. coli LpxM homolog, suggesting that LpxJ participates in lipid A biosynthesis in place of an LpxM homolog.
doi:10.1111/mmi.12501
PMCID: PMC3947442  PMID: 24372821
lipid A; acyltransferase; Helicobacter pylori; LpxJ; LpxM; DUF374; lipopolysaccharide; outer membrane
22.  Longitudinal assessment of global and regional atrophy rates in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies 
NeuroImage : Clinical  2015;7:456-462.
Background & objective
Percent whole brain volume change (PBVC) measured from serial MRI scans is widely accepted as a sensitive marker of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the utility of PBVC in the differential diagnosis of dementia remains to be established. We compared PBVC in AD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and investigated associations with clinical measures.
Methods
72 participants (14 DLBs, 25 ADs, and 33 healthy controls (HCs)) underwent clinical assessment and 3 Tesla T1-weighted MRI at baseline and repeated at 12 months. We used FSL-SIENA to estimate PBVC for each subject. Voxelwise analyses and ANCOVA compared PBVC between DLB and AD, while correlational tests examined associations of PBVC with clinical measures.
Results
AD had significantly greater atrophy over 1 year (1.8%) compared to DLB (1.0%; p = 0.01) and HC (0.9%; p < 0.01) in widespread regions of the brain including periventricular areas. PBVC was not significantly different between DLB and HC (p = 0.95). There were no differences in cognitive decline between DLB and AD. In the combined dementia group (AD and DLB), younger age was associated with higher atrophy rates (r = 0.49, p < 0.01).
Conclusions
AD showed a faster rate of global brain atrophy compared to DLB, which had similar rates of atrophy to HC. Among dementia subjects, younger age was associated with accelerated atrophy, reflecting more aggressive disease in younger people. PBVC could aid in differentiating between DLB and AD, however its utility as an outcome marker in DLB is limited.
Highlights
•AD showed faster global and regional brain atrophy in comparison to DLB.•Similar rates of global and regional atrophy were found in DLB and HC.•Longitudinal imaging could improve clinical differentiation of DLB from AD.•Atrophy rates might not be a useful marker to track disease progression in DLB.
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.01.017
PMCID: PMC4325088  PMID: 25685712
Dementia; Alzheimer's disease; Lewy bodies; Neuroimaging; Atrophy
23.  193 nm Ultraviolet Photodissociation Mass Spectrometry for the Structural Elucidation of Lipid A Compounds in Complex Mixtures 
Analytical Chemistry  2014;86(4):2138-2145.
Here we implement ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) in an online liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) strategy to support analysis of complex mixtures of lipid A combinatorially modified during development of vaccine adjuvants. UVPD mass spectrometry at 193 nm was utilized to characterize the structures and fragment ion types of lipid A from Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The fragment ions generated by UVPD were compared to those from collision induced dissociation (CID) and higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) with respect to the precursor charge state. UVPD afforded the widest array of fragment ion types including acyl chain C–O, C–N, and C–C bond cleavages and glycosidic C–O and cross ring cleavages, thus providing the most comprehensive structural analysis of the lipid A. UVPD exhibited virtually no dependence on precursor ion charge state and was best at determining lipid A structure including acyl chain length and composition, giving it an advantage over collision based methods. UVPD was incorporated into an LC–MS/MS methodology for the analysis of a number of structural variants in a complex mixture of combinatorially engineered Escherichia coli lipid A.
doi:10.1021/ac403796n
PMCID: PMC3958132  PMID: 24446701
24.  A Winding Road: Alzheimer’s Disease Increases Circuitous Functional Connectivity Pathways 
Neuroimaging has been successful in characterizing the pattern of cerebral atrophy that accompanies the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Examination of functional connectivity, the strength of signal synchronicity between brain regions, has gathered pace as another way of understanding changes to the brain that are associated with AD. It appears to have good sensitivity and detect effects that precede cognitive decline, and thus offers the possibility to understand the neurobiology of the disease in its earliest phases. However, functional connectivity analyzes to date generally consider only the strongest connections, with weaker links ignored. This proof-of-concept study compared patients with mild-to-moderate AD (N = 11) and matched control individuals (N = 12) based on functional connectivities derived from blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) sensitive functional MRI acquired during resting wakefulness. All positive connectivities irrespective of their strength were included. Transitive closures of the resulting connectome were calculated that classified connections as either direct or indirect. Between-group differences in the proportion of indirect paths were observed. In AD, there was broadly increased indirect connectivity across greater spatial distances. Furthermore, the indirect pathways in AD had greater between-subject topological variance than controls. The prevailing characterization of AD as being a disconnection syndrome is refined by the observation that direct links between regions that are impaired are perhaps replaced by an increase in indirect functional pathways that is only detectable through inclusion of connections across the entire range of connection strengths.
doi:10.3389/fncom.2015.00140
PMCID: PMC4649041  PMID: 26635593
neuroimaging; Alzheimer disease; functional connectivity; transitivity; semi metricity; connectome
25.  Body mass index is associated with the maternal lines but height is heritable across family lines in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(12):e005732.
Objectives
Overweight and obesity is a problem in children in particular and determining pathways of transmission is important in prevention. We aimed to examine associations for body mass index (BMI) across three generations of the same families.
Participants
Members of 556 families in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study 2001–2014.
Setting
Community-based study with linkage to health records in the Republic of Ireland.
Methods
Employing a novel mixed-method approach which adjusts for age and familial group, BMI correlations were estimated at three ages of the index child, that is, at birth and at ages 5 and 9. Height was also examined for comparative purposes.
Results
Correlation of offspring's BMI with that of the mother increased with age (correlation coefficient 0.15 increasing to 0.28, p value <0.001 in all cases) while no consistent pattern was seen with offspring and fathers. There was an association also with each parent and their own mother. Offspring's BMI was correlated to a lesser extent with that of the maternal grandmother while for girls only there was an association with that of the paternal grandmother at ages 0 and 5 (correlation coefficients 0.25, 0.28, p values 0.02, 0.01, respectively). In contrast, height of the child was strongly associated with those of all family members at age 5, but at birth and at age 9 only there was an association with those of the parents and the paternal grandfather. Correlation of offspring's height with those of the mother and father increased with age.
Conclusions
The results suggest that BMI is predominantly associated with the maternal line, possibly either with intrauterine development, or inherited through the X chromosome, or both, while height is a more complex trait with genetic influences of the parents and that of the paternal grandfather predominating.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005732
PMCID: PMC4275682  PMID: 25518873
Body Mass Index; height; heritability; Intergenerational Relations; Population genetics

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