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1.  Linezolid Dependence in Staphylococcus epidermidis Bloodstream Isolates 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(1):129-132.
We document linezolid dependence among 5 highly linezolid-resistant (LRSE) Staphylococcus epidermidis bloodstream isolates that grew substantially faster at 32 µg/mL linezolid presence. These isolates carried the mutations T2504A and C2534T in multiple 23S rRNA copies and 2 mutations leading to relevant amino acid substitutions in L3 protein. Linezolid dependence could account for increasing LRSE emergence.
doi:10.3201/eid1901.111527
PMCID: PMC3557967  PMID: 23260390
L3 mutations; 23S rDNA mutations; growth rate; protein synthesis; ribosome; Staphylococcus epidermidis; bacteria; antibiotic; antimicrobial resistance
2.  Activity of Oxacillin versus That of Vancomycin against Oxacillin-Susceptible mecA-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates Evaluated by Population Analyses, Time-Kill Assays, and a Murine Thigh Infection Model 
We compared the activity of dicloxacillin with that of vancomycin against 15 oxacillin-susceptible, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OS-MRSA) clinical isolates. By population analyses, we found that 6 OS-MRSA isolates were able to grow in the presence of up to 8 μg/ml dicloxacillin and 9 isolates were able to grow in 12 to >32 μg/ml dicloxacillin; all isolates grew in up to 2 μg/ml vancomycin. Both drugs exhibited similar bactericidal activities. In experimental infections, the therapeutic efficacy of dicloxacillin was significant (P < 0.05 versus untreated controls) in 10 OS-MRSA isolates and vancomycin was effective (P < 0.05) against 12 isolates; dicloxacillin had an efficacy that was comparable to that of vancomycin (P > 0.05) in 8 isolates. The favorable response to dicloxacillin treatment might suggest that antistaphylococcal penicillins could be used against OS-MRSA infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00103-12
PMCID: PMC3370787  PMID: 22430957
3.  Macrolide resistance determinants among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from carriers in Central Greece 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:255.
Background
We sought to characterize the temporal trends in nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant pneumococci during a period with increased heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) coverage in Central Greece.
Methods
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were recovered from 2649 nasopharyngeal samples obtained from day-care center attendees in Central Greece during 2005–2009. A phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the isolates was performed, including the identification of macrolide resistance genes mef(A), subclasses mef(A) and mef(E), as well as erm(B).
Results
Of the 1105 typeable S. pneumoniae isolates, 265 (24%) were macrolide-resistant; 22% in 2005, 33.3% in 2006, 23.7% in 2007, and 20.5% in 2009 (P=0.398). Among these macrolide-resistant pneumococci, 28.5% possessed erm(B), 24.3% erm(B)+mef(E), 41.8% mef(E), and 5.3% mef(A). A mef gene as the sole resistance determinant was carried by 31% of macrolide-resistant isolates belonging to PCV7 serotypes and 75.8% of the non-PCV7 serotypes. Across the 4 annual surveillances, pneumococci carrying mef(A) gradually disappeared, whereas serotype 19F isolates carrying both erm(B) and mef(E) persisted without significant yearly fluctuations. Among isolates belonging to non-PCV7 serotypes, macrolide-resistance was observed in those of serotypes 6A, 19A, 10A, 15A, 15B/C, 35F, 35A, and 24F. In 2009, ie 5 years after the introduction of PCV7 in our country, 59% of macrolide-resistant pneumococci belonged to non-PCV7 serotypes.
Conclusions
Across the study period, the annual frequency of macrolide-resistant isolates did not change significantly, but in 2009 a marked shift to non-PCV7 serotypes occurred. Overall, more than half of the macrolide-resistant isolates possessed erm(B) either alone or in combination with mef(E). erm(B) dominated among isolates belonging to PCV7 serotypes, but not among those of non-PCV7 serotypes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-255
PMCID: PMC3484024  PMID: 23057516
5.  Hidden VIM-1 Metallo-β-Lactamase Phenotypes among Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;46(1):346-349.
A total of 87 Acinetobacter baumannii nonrepetitive consecutive clinical isolates were tested for the presence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Results of phenotypic assays (MBL Etest, imipenem/imipenem-EDTA combined-disk test, and imipenem/EDTA double-disk synergy test) were negative in all cases, but molecular testing revealed the presence of two blaVIM-1-carrying isolates. One isolate had blaVIM-1 preceded by a weak P1 promoter, and both had inactivated P2 promoters and reduced blaVIM-1 expression, partially justifying the results revealing hidden MBL phenotypes.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01670-07
PMCID: PMC2224304  PMID: 18032624

Results 1-5 (5)