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1.  The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis 
Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1), vina-ginsenoside R4 (2) and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3), were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 µM. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds.
PMCID: PMC4307327  PMID: 25590297
Panax ginseng; melanogenesis; NMR; vina-ginsenoside
2.  Effects of Natural Bioactive Products on the Growth and Ginsenoside Contents of Panax ginseng Cultured in an Aeroponic System 
Journal of Ginseng Research  2012;36(4):430-441.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23℃ to 26℃) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25℃ to 28℃). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath.
PMCID: PMC3659602  PMID: 23717147
Panax ginseng; Aeroponic system; Ginsenoside; Natural bioactive products
3.  Mycotic Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm as an Unusual Complication of Thoracic Actinomycosis 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(1):68-71.
Although pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare vascular anomaly, they are seen in a wide variety of conditions, such as congenital heart disease, infection, trauma, pulmonary hypertension, cystic medial necrosis and generalized vasculitis. To our knowledge, mycotic aneurysms caused by pulmonary actinomycosis have not been reported in the radiologic literature. Herein, a case of pulmonary actinomycosis complicated by mycotic aneurysm is presented. On CT scans, this case showed focal aneurysmal dilatation of a peripheral pulmonary artery within necrotizing pneumonia of the right lower lobe, which was successfully treated with transcatheter embolization using wire coils.
PMCID: PMC2698115  PMID: 15064561
Lung, Infection; Aneurysm, Mycotic; Aneurysm, Pulmonary; Pulmonary arteries, Abnormalities
4.  Epidemiological study of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis along the Geum-gang (River) in Okcheon-gun (County), Korea 
The endemic status of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis along the Geum-gang (River) in Okcheon-gun (County) in Korea was examined. From February to December 2000, stools of total 1,081 inhabitants living in 5 villages were examined. Each stool specimen was examined by both the cellophane thick smear method and the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Egg-positive cases were further analyzed by Stoll's egg-counting technique, and praziquantel was administered to positive cases. The egg-positive rates for Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus species were 9.3% and 5.5%, respectively, and the double infection rate was 3.5%. The numbers of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces of C. sinensis and Metagonimus sp. were 918±1,463 and 711±947, respectively. The egg-positive rates for C. sinensis and Metagonimus sp. in the riverside area were 14.2% and 8.4%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the inland area (3.2% and 1.7%, respectively). The egg-positive rates of C. sinensis and Metagonimus sp. in males (16.7% and 10.0%) were significantly higher than those of females (3.5% and 1.8%). However, there were no significant differences of EPG values between localities and sexes. The prevalence of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis in this survey was significantly lower than that in the previous reports. However, there is still a high prevalence of infection with C. sinensis and Metagonimus sp. in this region, especially in the riverside area.
PMCID: PMC2721058  PMID: 11949215
Clonorchis sinensis; Metagonimus sp.; epidemiology; Okcheon-gun
5.  Effects of specific monoclonal antibodies to dense granular proteins on the invasion of Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo 
Although some reports have been published on the protective effect of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii surface membrane proteins, few address the inhibitory activity of antibodies to dense granular proteins (GRA proteins). Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to evaluate the inhibitory effects of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to GRA proteins (GRA2, 28 kDa; GRA6, 32 kDa) and surface membrane protein (SAG1, 30 kDa) on the invasion of T. gondii tachyzoites. Passive immunization of mice with one of three mAbs following challenge with a lethal dose of tachyzoites significantly increased survival compared with results for mice treated with control ascites. The survival times of mice challenged with tachyzoites pretreated with anti-GRA6 or anti-SAG1 mAb were significantly increased. Mice that received tachyzoites pretreated with both mAb and complement had longer survival times than those that received tachyzoites pretreated with mAb alone. Invasion of tachyzoites into fibroblasts and macrophages was significantly inhibited in the anti-GRA2, anti-GRA6 or anti-SAG1 mAb pretreated group. Pretreatment with mAb and complement inhibited invasion of tachyzoites in both fibroblasts and macrophages. These results suggest that specific antibodies to dense-granule molecules may be useful for controlling infection with T. gondii.
PMCID: PMC2721072  PMID: 11590913
Toxoplasma gondii; monoclonal antibody; dense-granule molecules; complement; major surface protein; host cell invasion
6.  Seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the rural area Okcheon-gun, Korea 
There have been some reports about the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody among Koreans, and most of all data were taken from patients visiting hospitals. However, the epidemiological data of the community-based study in Korea are rare. This study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the inhabitants of the rural area Okcheon-gun, Korea. A total of 1,109 serum samples (499 males, 610 females) were examined for the IgG antibodies by ELISA. To set up the cut-off point for ELISA, we used a commercial latex agglutination (LA) kit. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA against LA test were 89.5%, and 98.6% respectively. Among 1,109 sera, 6.9% showed seropositivity by ELISA. The positive rates of males and females were 6.0% and 7.2%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between sexes. Comparing the age groups, the highest seropositive rate showed in the seventies or higher, and their rates had a tendency to increase with age (0.05 < p < 0.3). These results revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in rural inhabitants is similar to previous reports in Korea; however we need further investigation to clarify the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the general population.
PMCID: PMC2721207  PMID: 11138318
Toxoplasma gondii; toxoplasmosis; seroepidemiology; latex agglutination; ELISA; Korea

Results 1-6 (6)