Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular complications, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Cellular defense systems must work constantly to control ROS levels and to prevent their accumulation. We report here that the Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) has a critical role as a cofactor for transcription factors nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and small Maf protein family K (MafK) in the regulation of the antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) and production of ROS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation–quantitative PCR (qPCR), electrophoresis mobility shift and ARE-driven reporter assays were carried out to examine the role of JDP2 in ROS production. JDP2 bound directly to the ARE core sequence, associated with Nrf2 and MafK (Nrf2–MafK) via basic leucine zipper domains, and increased DNA-binding activity of the Nrf2–MafK complex to the ARE and the transcription of ARE-dependent genes. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Jdp2-knockout (Jdp2 KO) mice, the coordinate transcriptional activation of several ARE-containing genes and the ability of Nrf2 to activate expression of target genes were impaired. Moreover, intracellular accumulation of ROS and increased thickness of the epidermis were detected in Jdp2 KO mice in response to oxidative stress-inducing reagents. These data suggest that JDP2 is required to protect against intracellular oxidation, ROS activation and DNA oxidation. qPCR demonstrated that several Nrf2 target genes such as heme oxygenase-1, glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, the notch receptor ligand jagged 1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 are also dependent on JDP2 for full expression. Taken together, these results suggest that JDP2 is an integral component of the Nrf2–MafK complex and that it modulates antioxidant and detoxification programs by acting via the ARE.
JDP2; Nrf2–MafK; ROS regulation; antioxidant enzymes; antioxidation
Protooncogene T-cell leukemia 1 (TCL1), which is implicated in human T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), interacts with Akt and enhances its kinase activity, functioning as an Akt kinase co-activator. Two major isoforms of TCL1 Protooncogenes (TCL1 and TCL1b) are present adjacent to each other on human chromosome 14q.32. In human T-PLL, both TCL1 and TCL1b are activated by chromosomal translocation. Moreover, TCL1b-transgenic mice have never been created. Therefore, it remains unclear whether TCL1b itself, independent of TCL1, exhibits oncogenicity. In co-immunoprecipitation assays, both ectopic and endogenous TCL1b interacted with Akt. In in vitro Akt kinase assays, TCL1b enhanced Akt kinase activity in dose- and time-dependent manners. Bioinformatics approaches utilizing multiregression analysis, cluster analysis, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway mapping, Venn diagrams and Gene Ontology (GO) demonstrated that TCL1b showed highly homologous gene-induction signatures similar to Myr-Akt or TCL1. TCL1b exhibited oncogenicity in in vitro colony-transformation assay. Further, two independent lines of β-actin promoter-driven TCL1b-transgenic mice developed angiosarcoma on the intestinal tract. Angiosarcoma is a rare form of cancer in humans with poor prognosis. Using immunohistochemistry, 11 out of 13 human angiosarcoma samples were positively stained with both anti-TCL1b and anti-phospho-Akt antibodies. Consistently, in various cancer tissues, 69 out of 146 samples were positively stained with anti-TCL1b, out of which 46 were positively stained with anti-phospho-Akt antibodies. Moreover, TCL1b structure-based inhibitor ‘TCL1b-Akt-in' inhibited Akt kinase activity in in vitro kinase assays and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)-induced Akt kinase activities—in turn, ‘TCL1b-Akt-in' inhibited cellular proliferation of sarcoma. The current study disclosed TCL1b bears oncogenicity and hence serves as a novel therapeutic target for human neoplastic diseases.
protooncogene TCL1b; Akt; transgenic mice; angiosarcoma
The identification of peptide vaccine candidates to date has been focused on human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 and -A24 alleles. In this study, we attempted to identify cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-directed Lck-derived peptides applicable to HLA-A11+, -A31+, or -A33+ cancer patients, because these HLA-A alleles share binding motifs, designated HLA-A3 supertype alleles, and because the Lck is preferentially expressed in metastatic cancer. Twenty-one Lck-derived peptides were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A3 supertype alleles. They were first screened for their recognisability by immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the plasma of prostate cancer patients, and the selected candidates were subsequently tested for their potential to induce peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A3 supertype+ cancer patients. As a result, four Lck peptides were frequently recognised by IgGs, and three of them – Lck90−99, Lck449−458, and Lck450−458 – efficiently induced peptide-specific and cancer-reactive CTLs. Their cytotoxicity towards cancer cells was mainly ascribed to HLA class I-restricted and peptide-specific CD8+ T cells. These results indicate that these three Lck peptides are applicable to HLA-A3 supertype+ cancer patients, especially those with metastasis. This information could facilitate the development of peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine for patients with alleles other than HLA-A2 and -A24.
Lck; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; peptide; HLA-A3 supertype
prostate cancer; parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP); cytotoxic T lymphocyte; peptide; HLA-A24
prostate cancer; bone metastasis; bone scan
Background—Tumour necrosis factor
(TNF) α and TNF-β are soluble ligands binding to TNF receptors with
similar activities; soluble TNF receptors neutralise TNF activity by
acting as inhibitors. Little is known about the cytokine/soluble
receptor role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Aims—To test the hypothesis that an
imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitors plays a role in
gut inflammation in patients with IBD.
Methods—The secretion of TNF-α,
TNF-β, and soluble TNF receptors was compared in the culture
supernatants of colonic biopsy specimens and isolated lamina propria
mononuclear cells from patients with active colonic IBD.
Results—Spontaneous secretion of
TNF-α in involved IBD mucosa was higher than in normal control and
self limited colitis mucosa. Secretion of TNF-β was higher in
patients with Crohn's disease than in those with ulcerative colitis.
Soluble TNF receptor in IBD mucosa inhibited TNF activity. Type 2 soluble receptor release from IBD mucosa was increased in active
inflammation; release from lamina propria cells was not increased.
Mucosal TNF-α production correlated with severity of disease.
Conclusions—Results showed enhanced
secretion of TNF-α but failure to release enhanced amounts of soluble
TNF receptor in lamina propria mononuclear cells of patients with IBD.
An imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitor may be
implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD.
Crohn's disease; inflammation; mucosal immunology; soluble TNF receptor; tumour necrosis factor; ulcerative colitis
A 26 year old woman with lithium induced thyrotoxicosis is reported. The thyrotoxicosis was associated with a non-tender diffuse goitre and a low radioiodine uptake by the gland. The thyrotoxicosis was reversible and remitted on withdrawal of the drug. The histopathological alterations of the thyroid glad were characterised by extensive follicular cell disruption with no lymphocytic infiltration. It is postulated that lithium might directly damage thyroid follicular cells and that subsequent release of thyroglobulin into the circulation might be a cause of transient thyrotoxicosis.
HuD, one of the Hu antigens (HuD and HuC), was recognized in the sera of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with antibody-associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/peripheral sensory neuropathy (PEM/PSN). Three forms of HuD mRNA, 197, 156, 110 nucleotides are made by alternative splicing at 868-909 residues and an additional 3'-splice site. To determine the diagnostic value of the HuD expression for small cell lung cancer, we examined 4 SCLC cell lines, 9 surgically resected SCLCs, and 12 surgically resected non-SCLCs using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with the HuD-specific primer pairs that spanned the putative alternative 3'-splicing site and direct DNA sequencing. None of the patients were associated with PEM/PSN. A single RNA transcript (156 nucleotides) among three forms (110, 156, 197 nucleotides) of the HuD gene was an alternatively spliced at 868-909 residues in SCLC cell lines. Expression of the HuD gene was stronger in three classic cell lines, but not in a variant cell line. Two of 9 SCLCs (22%) and 3 of 12 non-SCLCs (25%) expressed only the major RNA transcript (156 nucleotides) of the HuD gene, which was alternatively spliced in the same fashion as the cell line. These results revealed that no aberrant alternative splicing occurred in SCLC not associated with PEM/PSN and the expression of HuD gene was not specific for a particular histologic subtype of human lung cancer.
We investigated the effects of low-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the incidence and growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinoma in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. We also examined the effects of these treatments on the fatty acid composition of tumour and serum. Tumour incidence was significantly decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and DHA, whereas their inhibitory effects on tumour growth did not reach significance. Serum arachidonic acid (AA) level was decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and tended to be decreased by the administration of low-dose DHA, whereas tumour AA levels were not changed. The administration of low-dose EPA and DHA may be useful for inhibiting the incidence of breast cancer.
AIM--To investigate the association between proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining and various clinicopathological variables, and its prognostic value in breast carcinoma. METHODS--A monoclonal antibody PC10 was applied to formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue in 144 cases of primary breast cancer. PCNA immunostaining was scored by counting 1000 cells; the percentage of positive stained cells was recorded as the PCNA labelling index (PCNA-LI). RESULTS--The PCNA-LI varied from 0-77% with a mean of 18%. When tumours were separated on the basis of the mean value, 93 had a low PCNA-LI of less or equal than 18% and 47 a high PCNA-LI of more than 18%. There was no significant correlation between PCNA-LI and all prognostic factors included in this study. Moreover, PCNA-LI failed to show any prognostic value for overall and disease free survival. CONCLUSION--PCNA immunostaining is not correlated with clinicopathological variables and patient survival in breast cancer.
The incidence of nodal metastasis in early gastric carcinoma (EGC) is 10-20%. However, the optimal nodal dissection for early gastric carcinoma has not been established. A retrospective study was conducted in 392 consecutive patients who underwent potentially curative distal gastrectomy for EGC between 1962 and 1990. Of these 295 patients treated after September 1972 were prospectively entered into an extensive lymphadenectomy protocol. These patients were compared with 97 patients with simple gastrectomy in respect of the causes of death after surgery and the 10 year disease-specific survival rate. The incidence of nodal metastasis in early gastric carcinoma patients was 13.0%. Operative mortality from extensive lymphadenectomy was almost the same as from simple gastrectomy (2.0% and 2.1% respectively). Extensive lymphadenectomy provided a significantly higher 10 year survival rate than limited lymph node dissection (97.9% vs 88.1% respectively; P < 0.005). Among patients with nodal metastasis, the survival rate following extensive lymphadenectomy was significantly higher than that after simple gastrectomy (87.5% vs 55.6%; P = 0.018). Among patients without nodal metastasis, there was no difference between the two groups in the survival rate (99.4% and 96.7% respectively; P = 0.12). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model disclosed two significant independent prognostic factors on disease-specific survival, the nodal involvement (risk ratio: 8.4; P < 0.0001) and the extent of lymph node dissection (risk ratio: 5.8; P < 0.005). Extensive nodel dissection appears to prevent recurrence and to improve the cancer-specific survival in EGC patients with nodal metastasis.
Antibodies to lymphocytes in serum samples from 88 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 normal control subjects were examined by a cell enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with four human T and B cell lines as antigens. The antibodies reacted with the Wa B cell line and the T cell lines P12 (CD4-, CD8+), Jurkat (CD4-, CD8-), and Hut78 (CD4+, CD8-). Antibody titres in serum samples from patients with SLE were higher than in those from normal control subjects. Titres of antibodies to P12 were correlated with titres of antibodies to Wa, Jurkat, and Hut78 in serum samples from patients with SLE. IgG antibodies to P12 were associated with lymphopenia and reduced haemolytic complement. By thin layer chromatography immunostaining, the antibodies in serum samples from two of 10 patients with SLE with high titres of IgG antibodies to P12 and lymphopenia were shown to react with three monosialoglycosphingolipids and two neutral glycosphingolipids from P12 cells. Antibodies to lymphocytes in serum samples from patients with SLE react with T and B cell lines, recognise a series of cell membrane glycosphingolipids and are associated with the lymphopenia and hypocomplementaemia typical of active disease.
Clinical and immunologic features of a recently recognized X-linked combined immunodeficiency disease (XCID) suggested that XCID and X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) might arise from different genetic defects. The recent discovery of mutations in the common gamma chain (gamma c) gene, a constituent of several cytokine receptors, in XSCID provided an opportunity to test directly whether a previously unrecognized mutation in this same gene was responsible for XCID. The status of X chromosome inactivation in blood leukocytes from obligate carriers of XCID was determined from the polymorphic, short tandem repeats (CAG), in the androgen receptor gene, which also contains a methylation-sensitive HpaII site. As in XSCID, X-chromosome inactivation in obligate carriers of XCID was nonrandom in T and B lymphocytes. In addition, X chromosome inactivation in PMNs was variable. Findings from this analysis prompted sequencing of the gamma c gene in this pedigree. A missense mutation in the region coding for the cytoplasmic portion of the gamma c gene was found in three affected males but not in a normal brother. Therefore, this point mutation in the gamma c gene leads to a less severe degree of deficiency in cellular and humoral immunity than that seen in XSCID.
We investigated the prognostic significance of Helix pomatia lectin (HPA) staining on disease-free and overall survival in 120 primary breast carcinomas. HPA staining was present in 58 (48%) of these carcinomas. It was significantly associated with axillary lymph node metastases (P < 0.001) and c-erbB-2 expression (P < 0.01). A univariate study revealed that disease-free and overall survival were significantly correlated with clinical stage, tumour size, axillary lymph node metastases. HPA staining and c-erbB-2 expression. In a multivariate study, all previous prognostic indicators except HPA staining and c-erbB-2 expression were independent factors. However, stratifying the patients on the basis of HPA and c-erbB-2 status suggested that HPA +/c-erbB-2+ status was predictive of a higher incidence of axillary lymph node metastases (P = 0.000001) and a poorer overall (P < 0.0002) and a shorter disease-free (P < 0.000006) survival when compared with the other subgroups, although this combination did not provide any additional prognostic information for overall (P = 0.3544) or disease-free (P = 0.7152) survival by a multivariate analysis. For patients in whom axillary lymph node dissection has not been performed, therefore, HPA and c-erbB-2 status seems to be a powerful tool to discriminate subpopulations with a high recurrence risk and shorter survival who should undergo more aggressive therapy.
The rare association of two neurological paraneoplastic syndromes, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and limbic encephalitis occurred in a 55 year old woman with a microscopic adenocarcinoma in a colonic polyp. Complete removal of the tumour by polypectomy brought about a favourable recovery from limbic encephalitis but the cerebellar ataxia remained. High titres of antineuronal nuclear antibody resembling anti-Hu were demonstrated in serum by immunohistochemistry using rat brain as a substrate. The antibody identified a protein band of 41 kDa on a Western immunoblot.
We investigated the relation between Helix pomatia (HPA) staining of primary breast cancer and the presence of axillary (AX) or internal mammary (IM) metastases, and evaluated its predictive value for AX or IM metastases in comparison with the use of clinical variables. There was a significant association between the HPA staining and AX or IM metastases. When HPA staining was regarded as an indicator of AX metastases, a diagnostic accuracy of 72%, a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 75% were achieved. As an indicator of IM metastases, these values were 64%, 76% and 62%, respectively. In predicting the presence of AX metastases using a discriminant function with clinical AX status, location of tumour and tumour size, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 79%, 69% and 87%, respectively. In predicting the presence of IM metastases using the discriminant function with clinical AX status and tumour size, these values were 74%, 71% and 75%, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that the HPA staining may be useful, but it was equivalent with the discriminant function with clinical variables in prediction of AX or IM metastases.
The expression of the c-erbB-2 mRNA in human embryonic lung fibroblasts, a gastric cancer cell line, mature placenta, and 25 gastric cancer tissues was examined by using the polymerase chain reaction following reverse transcription. This technique can be used to examine c-erbB-2 mRNA expression in a small endoscopic biopsy specimen before surgery.