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1.  Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Japanese version of the patient-rated elbow evaluation 
Background
The patient-rated elbow evaluation (PREE) is a joint-specific, self-administered questionnaire consisting of a pain scale (PREE-P) and a functional scale (PREE-F), the latter consisting of specific function (PREE-SF) and usual function (PREE-UF). The purpose of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the PREE into Japanese (PREE-J) and to test its reliability, validity, and responsiveness.
Methods
A consecutive series of 74 patients with elbow disorder completed the PREE-J, the Japanese version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH–JSSH) questionnaire, and the official Japanese version of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Of the 74 patients, 53 were reassessed for test–retest reliability 1 or 2 weeks later. Reliability was investigated in terms of reproducibility and internal consistency. The validity of the PREE-J was examined by factor analysis, and correlation coefficients were obtained using the PREE-J, DASH-JSSH, and SF-36. Responsiveness was examined by calculating the standardized response mean (SRM) and effect size after elbow surgery in 53 patients.
Results
Cronbach’s α coefficients for PREE-P, PREE-F, and PREE were 0.92, 0.97, and 0.97, respectively, and the corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively. Unidimensionality of PREE-P and PREE-F was confirmed by factor analysis. The coefficients of correlation between PREE-P and PREE-F or DASH–JSSH were 0.81 and 0.74, respectively; that between PREE-F and DASH–JSSH was 0.86, and those between DASH–JSSH and PREE-SF or PREE-UF were 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. Moderate correlation was observed in “physical functioning” for SF-36 and PREE-F (r = −0.69) or PREE (r = −0.68). The SRMs/effect sizes of PREE-P (1.31/1.32) or PREE (1.28/1.12) were more responsive than the DASH–JSSH (0.99/0.85), “bodily pain” (−1.15/−1.43), and “physical functioning” (−0.70/−0.44) in SF-36.
Conclusion
The PREE-J represents a reliable, valid, and responsive instrument and has evaluation capacities equivalent to those of the original PREE.
doi:10.1007/s00776-013-0408-z
PMCID: PMC3778217  PMID: 23749174
2.  Increased activity and expression of histone deacetylase 1 in relation to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(4):R133.
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to investigate the profile of histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression in the synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with that of normal control and osteoarthritis (OA), and to examine whether there is a link between HDAC activity and synovial inflammation.
Methods
HDAC activity and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity were determined in nuclear extracts of total synovial tissue surgically obtained from normal, OA and RA joints. The level of cytoplasmic tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα) fraction was measured by ELISA. Total RNA of synovial tissue was used for RT-PCR of HDAC1-8. In synovial fibroblasts from RA (RASFs), the effects of TNFα on nuclear HDAC activity and class I HDACs (1, 2, 3, 8) mRNA expressions were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression and distribution of class I HDACs were examined by Western blotting.
Results
Nuclear HDAC activity was significantly higher in RA than in OA and normal controls and correlated with the amount of cytoplasmic TNFα. The mRNA expression of HDAC1 in RA synovial tissue was higher than in OA and normal controls, and showed positive correlation with TNFα mRNA expression. The protein level of nuclear HDAC1 was higher in RA synovial tissue compared with OA synovial tissue. Stimulation with TNFα significantly increased the nuclear HDAC activity and HDAC1 mRNA expression at 24 hours and HDAC1 protein expression at 48 hours in RASFs.
Conclusions
Our results showed nuclear HDAC activity and expression of HDAC1 were significantly higher in RA than in OA synovial tissues, and they were upregulated by TNFα stimulation in RASFs. These data might provide important clues for the development of specific small molecule HDAC inhibitors.
doi:10.1186/ar3071
PMCID: PMC2945023  PMID: 20609223
3.  Expression of MicroRNA-146 in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Tissue 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2008;58(5):1284-1292.
Objective
Several microRNA, which are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, exhibit tissue-specific or developmental stage–specific expression patterns and are associated with human diseases. The objective of this study was to identify the expression pattern of microRNA-146 (miR-146) in synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods
The expression of miR-146 in synovial tissue from 5 patients with RA, 5 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and 1 normal subject was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of tissue sections. Induction of miR-146 following stimulation with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) of cultures of human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) was examined by quantitative PCR and RT-PCR.
Results
Mature miR-146a and primary miR-146a/b were highly expressed in RA synovial tissue, which also expressed TNFα, but the 2 microRNA were less highly expressed in OA and normal synovial tissue. In situ hybridization showed primary miR-146a expression in cells of the superficial and sublining layers in synovial tissue from RA patients. Cells positive for miR-146a were primarily CD68+ macrophages, but included several CD3+ T cell subsets and CD79a+ B cells. Expression of miR-146a/b was markedly up-regulated in RASFs after stimulation with TNFα and IL-1β.
Conclusion
This study shows that miR-146 is expressed in RA synovial tissue and that its expression is induced by stimulation with TNFα and IL-1β. Further studies are required to elucidate the function of miR-146 in these tissues.
doi:10.1002/art.23429
PMCID: PMC2749927  PMID: 18438844

Results 1-3 (3)