Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing due to lifestyle changes, particularly affecting those genetically at risk. We developed DiAlert as a targeted group-based intervention aimed to promote intrinsic motivation and action planning for lifestyle changes and weight loss in first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The main objective of the pilot of the DiAlert intervention was to assess fidelity, feasibility and acceptability prior to starting the randomized controlled trial.
Individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus were self-identified and screened for eligibility. DiAlert consists of two group sessions. Feasibility, fidelity, acceptability and self-reported perceptions and behavioral determinants were evaluated in a pre-post study using questionnaires and observations. Determinants of behavior change were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests.
DiAlert was delivered to two groups of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 9 and N = 12). Feasibility and fidelity were confirmed. Overall, the DiAlert group sessions were positively evaluated (8.0 on a scale of 1 to 10) by participants. The intervention did not impact perceived susceptibility or worry about personal diabetes risk. Action planning with regard to changing diet and physical activity increased.
DiAlert proved feasible and was well-accepted by participants. Positive trends in action planning indicate increased likelihood of actual behavior change following DiAlert. Testing the effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial is imperative.
Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR): NTR2036
South Asian migrants are at particularly high risk of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have shown that intensive lifestyle interventions may prevent the onset of diabetes. Such interventions have not been culturally adapted and evaluated among South Asians in industrialized countries. Therefore, we have set up a randomized controlled trial to study the effectiveness of a targeted lifestyle intervention for the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among 18 to 60-year-old Hindustani Surinamese (South Asians) in The Hague, the Netherlands. Here we present the study design and describe the characteristics of those recruited.
Between May 18, 2009 and October 11, 2010, we screened 2307 Hindustani Surinamese (18–60 years old) living in The Hague. We sent invitations to participate to those who had an impaired fasting glucose of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, an impaired glucose tolerance of 7.8-11.0 mmol/L, a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.0% or more and/or a value of 2.39 or more for the homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance. In total, 536 people (56.1% of those eligible) participated. People with a higher level of education and a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to participate. The control and intervention groups were similar with regard to important background characteristics. The intervention group will receive a culturally targeted intervention consisting of dietary counseling using motivational interviewing and a supervised physical activity program. The control group will receive generic lifestyle advice. To determine the effectiveness, a physical examination (anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory test, lipid profile, and measures of oral glucose tolerance, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin) and interview (physical activity, diet, quality of life, and intermediate outcomes) were carried out at baseline and will be repeated at 1 year and 2 years. The process and the costs will be evaluated.
This trial will provide insight into the feasibility and effectiveness of a targeted, intensive, lifestyle intervention for the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among 18 to 60-year-old South Asians.
Dutch Trial Register: NTR1499
Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes.
We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1) and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3), N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the participants' immediate social environments.
With this study, we will assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for lower socioeconomic groups. Furthermore, we will study how to enable these patients to optimally manage their diabetes. This trial is registered in the Dutch Trial Register: NTR1886
Type 2 diabetes; Lower socioeconomic groups; Turkish; Moroccan; Surinamese patients; Social network intervention; Diabetes self-management
The use of probiotics as a food supplement has gained tremendous interest in the last few years as beneficial effects were reported in gut homeostasis and nutrient absorption but also in immunocompromised patients, supporting protection from colonization or infection with pathogenic bacteria or fungi. As a treatment approach for inflammatory bowel diseases, a suitable probiotic strain would ideally be one with a low immunogenic potential. Insight into the immunogenicities and types of T-cell responses induced by potentially probiotic strains allows a more rational selection of a particular strain. In the present study, the bacterial strains Bifidobacterium breve (NumRes 204), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NumRes1), and Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) were compared concerning their capacity to induce inflammatory responses in terms of cytokine production by human and mouse primary immune cells. It was demonstrated that the B. breve strain induced lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) than the tested L. rhamnosus and L. casei strains. Both B. breve and lactobacilli induced cytokines in a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-dependent manner, while the lower inflammatory profile of B. breve was due to inhibitory effects of TLR2. No role for TLR4, NOD2, and C-type lectin receptors was apparent. In conclusion, TLR signaling is involved in the differentiation of inflammatory responses between probiotic strains used as food supplements.
Family history is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and more so in the presence of overweight. This study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a new lifestyle education programme 'DiAlert' targeted at 1st degree relatives of people with T2DM and overweight. In view of the high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in immigrants from Turkish origin living in Western Europe, a culturally appropriate Turkish version of DiAlert will be developed and tested.
In this RCT, 268 (134 Dutch and 134 Turkish) overweight 1st degree relatives of patients with T2DM will be allocated to either the intervention or control group (leaflet). The intervention DiAlert aims to promote intrinsic motivation to change lifestyle, and sustain achieved behaviour changes during follow-up. Primary outcome is weight loss. Secondary outcomes include biological, behavioural and psychological indices, along with process indicators. Measurements will take place at baseline and after 3 and 9 months. Changes in outcomes are tested between intervention and control group at 3 months; effects over time are tested within and between both ethnic groups at 3 and 9 months.
The DiAlert intervention is expected to be more effective than the control condition in achieving significant weight loss at 3 months, in both Dutch and Turkish Dutch participants.
Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR): NTR2036
Tumor-cell vaccination with irradiated autologous tumor cells is a promising approach to activate tumor-specific T cell responses without the need for tumor antigen identification. However, uptake of dying cells by DC is generally a non-inflammatory or tolerizing event in order to prevent the development of autoreactive immune responses. Here we describe the mechanisms that confer the potent T cell priming capacity of a recently identified a population of DC (merocyticDC, mcDC) that potently primes both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to cell-associated antigens upon uptake of apoptotic cells.
mcDCs acquired cell-associated materials though a process of merocytosis that is defined by the uptake of small particles that are stored in non-acidic compartments for prolonged periods, sustained antigen presentation, and the induction of type I IFN. T cells primed by mcDC to cell-associated antigens exhibit increased primary expansion, enhanced effector function and increased memory formation. Using transgenic T cell transfer models and endogenous models, we show that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with mcDC that have been exposed to dying tumor cells results in tumor suppression and increased host survival through the activation of naïve tumor-specific CD8+ T cells as well as the revigoration of tumor-specific T cells that had been rendered non-responsive by the tumor in vivo.
The potent capacity of mcDCs to prime both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cell-associated antigens under immunosuppressive conditions makes this DC subset an attractive target for tumor therapies as well as interventional strategies for autoimmunity and transplantation.
Tumor microenvironments feature immune inhibitory mechanisms that prevent T cells from generating effective antitumor immune responses. Therapeutic interventions aimed at disrupting these inhibitory mechanisms have been shown to enhance antitumor immunity, but they lack direct cytotoxic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of cytotoxic cancer chemotherapeutics on immune inhibitory pathways. We observed that exposure to platinum-based chemotherapeutics markedly reduced expression of the T cell inhibitory molecule programmed death receptor-ligand 2 (PD-L2) on both human DCs and human tumor cells. Downregulation of PD-L2 resulted in enhanced antigen-specific proliferation and Th1 cytokine secretion as well as enhanced recognition of tumor cells by T cells. Further analysis revealed that STAT6 controlled downregulation of PD-L2. Consistent with these data, patients with STAT6-expressing head and neck cancer displayed enhanced recurrence-free survival upon treatment with cisplatin-based chemoradiation compared with patients with STAT6-negative tumors, demonstrating the clinical relevance of platinum-induced STAT6 modulation. We therefore conclude that platinum-based anticancer drugs can enhance the immunostimulatory potential of DCs and decrease the immunosuppressive capability of tumor cells. This dual action of platinum compounds may extend their therapeutic application in cancer patients and provides a rationale for their use in combination with immunostimulatory compounds.
Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands.
Data were obtained between 2000 and 2004 from two cross-sectional studies, the CVRFO study in Suriname (n = 702) and the SUNSET study in the Netherlands (n = 674). For analyses of determinants, we collected additional data in CVRFO study population (n = 85). Differences between the two groups were analysed by chi-square analyses and logistic regression analyses.
As was found in other studies among migrant women, more Surinamese migrant women in the Netherlands smoked (31%) than women in Suriname (16%). More Surinamese women in the Netherlands than in Suriname had a positive affective and cognitive attitude towards smoking (OR = 2.6 (95%CI 1.05;6.39) and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.31;8.41)). They perceived a positive norm within their partners and friends regarding smoking more frequently (OR = 6.5 (95%CI 2.7;15.6) and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.50;7.25)).
Migrant women are more positive towards smoking and perceived a more positive norm towards smoking when compared with women in the country of origin. Interventions targeted at the psychosocial determinants regarding smoking for newly migrated women, in particular the consequences of smoking and the norm towards smoking might help to prevent an increase in smoking in those populations.
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. The immune suppressive effects of Tregs should however be limited in case effective immunity is required against pathogens or cancer cells. We previously found that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist, Pam3CysSK4, directly stimulated Tregs to expand and temporarily abrogate their suppressive capabilities. In this study, we evaluate the effect of Pam3CysSK4 and Legionella pneumophila, a natural TLR2 containing infectious agent, on effector T (Teff) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) individually and in co-cultures with Tregs.
TLR2 agonists can directly provide a co-stimulatory signal inducing enhanced proliferation and cytokine production of naive CD4+ Teff cells. With respect to cytokine production, DCs appear to be most sensitive to low amounts of TLR agonists. Using wild type and TLR2-deficient cells in Treg suppression assays, we accordingly show that all cells (e.g. Treg, Teff cells and DCs) contributed to overcome Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cell proliferation. Furthermore, while TLR2-stimulated Tregs readily lost their ability to suppress Teff cell proliferation, cytokine production by Teff cells was still suppressed. Similar results were obtained upon stimulation with TLR2 ligand containing bacteria, Legionella pneumophila.
These findings indicate that both synthetic and natural TLR2 agonists affect DCs, Teff cells and Treg directly, resulting in multi-modal modulation of Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cells. Moreover, Treg-mediated suppression of Teff cell proliferation is functionally distinct from suppression of cytokine secretion.
Although evidence indicates a strong association between depressive symptoms and smoking among host and migrant adults, less is known about this relationship among young ethnic minority groups in Europe. This paper aims to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands.
Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to analyze cross-sectional data from a sample of 364 Turkish and Moroccan migrants aged 15 to 24 years. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure the presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions.
Of the respondents, 22% were smokers and 33% had depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in smokers (42.9%) than in nonsmokers (29.5%). Respondents with depressive symptoms had increased odds of smoking even after adjusting for socioeconomic and cultural factors (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.45-4.97).
Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with smoking behavior in young Turkish and Moroccan migrants. In addition to other acknowledged factors, depressive symptoms should also be considered in relation to the smoking behavior of this group. Intervention programs for smoking behavior should take depressive symptoms into account for young Turkish and Moroccan migrants.
The prevalence of overweight appears to vary in people of first and second generation ethnic minority groups. Insight into the factors that underlie these weight differences might help in understanding the health transition that is taking place across generations following migration. We studied the role of social and cultural factors associated with generational differences in overweight among young Turkish and Moroccan men and women in the Netherlands.
Cross-sectional data were derived from the LASER-study in which information on health-related behaviour and socio-demographic factors, level of education, occupational status, acculturation (cultural orientation and social contacts), religious and migration-related factors was gathered among Turkish and Moroccan men (n = 334) and women (n = 339) aged 15-30 years. Participants were interviewed during a home visit. Overweight was defined as a Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analyses, we tested whether the measured social and cultural factors could explain differences in overweight between first and second generation ethnic groups.
Second generation women were less often overweight than first generation women (21.8% and 45.0% respectively), but this association was no longer significant when adjusting for the socioeconomic position (i.e. higher level of education) of second generation women (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI) 0.40-1.46). In men, we observed a reversed pattern: second generation men were more often overweight than first generation men (32.7% and 27.8%). This association (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.09-3.24) could not be explained by the social and cultural factors because none of these factors were associated with overweight among men.
The higher socio-economic position of second generation Turkish and Moroccan women may partly account for the lower prevalence of overweight in this group compared to first generation women. Further research is necessary to elucidate whether any postulated socio-biological or other processes are relevant to the opposite pattern of overweight among men.
The brain is a specialized immune site representing a unique tumor microenvironment. The availability of fresh brain tumor material for ex vivo analysis is often limited because large parts of many brain tumors are resected using ultrasonic aspiration. We analyzed ultrasonic tumor aspirates as a biosource to study immune suppressive mechanisms in 83 human brain tumors. Lymphocyte infiltrates in brain tumor tissues and ultrasonic aspirates were comparable with respect to lymphocyte content and viability. Applying ultrasonic aspirates, we detected massive infiltration of CD4+FoxP3+CD25high CD127low regulatory T cells (Tregs) in glioblastomas (n = 29) and metastatic brain tumors (n = 20). No Treg accumulation was observed in benign tumors such as meningiomas (n = 10) and pituitary adenomas (n = 5). A significant Treg increase in blood was seen only in patients with metastatic brain tumors. Tregs in high-grade tumors exhibited an activated phenotype as indicated by decreased proliferation and elevated CTLA-4 and FoxP3 expression relative to blood Tregs. Functional analysis showed that the tumor-derived Tregs efficiently suppressed cytokine secretion and proliferation of autologous intratumoral lymphocytes. Most tumor-infiltrating Tregs were localized in close proximity to effector T cells, as visualized by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, 61% of the malignant brain tumors expressed programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), while the inhibitory PD-1 receptor was expressed on CD4+ effector cells present in 26% of tumors. In conclusion, using ultrasonic tumor aspirates as a biosource we identified Tregs and the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway as immune suppressive mechanisms in malignant but not benign human brain tumors.
brain tumor; immunotherapy; PD-L1; regulatory T cell; tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte
The TLR9 agonist CpG is increasingly applied in preclinical and clinical studies as a therapeutic modality to enhance tumor immunity. The clinical application of CpG appears, however, less successful than would be predicted from animal studies. One reason might be the different administration routes applied in most mouse studies and clinical trials. We studied whether the efficacy of CpG as an adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy is dependent on the route of CpG administration, in particular when the tumor is destructed in situ.
In situ tumor destruction techniques are minimally invasive therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of (nonresectable) solid tumors. In contrast to surgical resection, tumor destruction leads to the induction of weak but tumor-specific immunity that can be enhanced by coapplication of CpG. As in situ tumor destruction by cryosurgery creates an instant local release of antigens, we applied this model to study the efficacy of CpG to enhance antitumor immunity when administrated via different routes: peritumoral, intravenous, and subcutaneous but distant from the tumor. We show that peritumoral administration is superior in the activation of dendritic cells, induction of tumor-specific CTL, and long-lasting tumor protection. Although the intravenous and subcutaneous (at distant site) exposures are commonly used in clinical trials, they only provided partial protection or even failed to enhance antitumor responses as induced by cryosurgery alone.
CpG administration greatly enhances the efficacy of in situ tumor destruction techniques, provided that CpG is administered in close proximity of the released antigens. Hence, this study helps to provide directions to fully benefit from CpG as immune stimulant in a clinical setting.
Migrant mortality does not conform to a single pattern of convergence towards prevalence rates in the host population. To understand better how migrant mortality develops, it is necessary to further investigate how the underlying behavioural determinants change following migration. We studied whether the prevalence of behavioural risk factors over two generations of Turkish and Moroccan migrants converge towards the prevalence rates in the Dutch population. From a random sample from the population register of Amsterdam, 291 Moroccan and 505 Turkish migrants, aged 15–30, participated in a structured interview that included questions on smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and weight/height. Data from the Dutch population were available from Statistics Netherlands. By calculating age-adjusted Odds Ratio’s, prevalence rates among both generations were compared with prevalence rates in the host population for men and women separately. We found indications of convergence across generations towards the prevalence rates in the host population for smoking in Turkish men, for overweight in Turkish and Moroccan women and for physical inactivity in Turkish women. Alcohol consumption, however, remained low in all subgroups and did not converge towards the higher rates in the host population. In addition, we found a reversed trend among Turkish women regarding smoking: the second generation smoked significantly more, while the first generation did not differ from ethnic Dutch. In general, behavioural risk factors in two generations of non-Western migrants in the Netherlands seem to converge towards the prevalence rates in the Dutch population. However, some subgroups and risk factors showed a different pattern.
Behavioural risk factors; Convergence; Generation; Non-Western migrants; Western-Europe
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterial microorganism that frequently causes serious infection, particularly in children and the elderly. Protection against infection with S. pneumoniae is based mainly on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (caps-PS), but the mechanisms responsible for the generation of anticapsular antibodies remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of CD1-restricted T cells in the antibody response to caps-PS. When immunized with Pneumo23, wild-type mice and CD1 knockout mice on BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds generated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody responses to soluble caps-PS that were comparable. Similar results were obtained after immunization with heat-inactivated S. pneumoniae. The IgM and IgG antibody response of wild-type mice to Pneumo23 was not affected by an antagonizing monoclonal anti-CD1 antibody treatment. In summary, our data provide evidence that the antibody response to caps-PS is generated independently of CD1 expression.
Although socioeconomic patterns of smoking across the different stages of the tobacco epidemic have been well researched, less is known about these patterns among immigrant populations. This paper aims to assess the smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic gradients among three immigrant populations.
Three cross‐sectional studies, using structured face‐to‐face interviews, were conducted in three representative (for socioeconomic status) samples of 385 Turkish, 316 Moroccan, and 1072 Surinamese first‐generation immigrants aged 35–60 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Information gathered included information about smoking behaviour, educational level and background characteristics. The associations between educational level and smoking rates were assessed using logistic regression analyses stratified by age and sex, for each ethnic group separately.
The prevalence of smoking differed per group, being highest among Turkish and Surinamese men (63% and 55%, respectively), followed by Moroccan men and Turkish and Surinamese women (30%, 32% and 27%, respectively). Higher smoking rates were found among women with higher educational levels, except for Surinamese women aged 35–44 years. However, among Turkish and Moroccan men aged 35–44 years and Surinamese men, smoking rates were higher in lower socioeconomic groups.
The prevalence figures and educational associations suggest that the socioeconomic gradient changes in earlier stages of the epidemic in immigrant populations than in the Western host populations, particularly in men. This provides indications to suggest that smoking prevention measures in male immigrant groups need to be tailored to lower socioeconomic groups in particular throughout the tobacco epidemic, and to higher socioeconomic groups among women.
immigrants; smoking; prevalence; socioeconomic status
Exercise referral schemes (ERS) have become a popular way of promoting physical activity. The aim of these schemes is to encourage high risk patients to exercise. In evaluating these schemes, little attention has been paid to lower socio-economic groups in a multi-ethnic urban setting. This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics of female participants in ERS located in deprived neighbourhoods. The second aim was to determine which elements of the intervention make it appealing to participate in the scheme.
A mixed method approach was utilized, combining a cross-sectional descriptive study and a qualitative component. In the quantitative part of the study, all female participants (n = 523) filled out a registration form containing questions about socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Height and weight were also measured. In the qualitative part of the study, 38 of these 523 participants were interviewed.
The majority of the participants had a migrant background, a low level of education, no paid job and a high body mass index. Although most participants were living sedentary lives, at intake they were quite motivated to start exercising. The ERS appealed to them because of its specific elements: facilitating role of the health professional, supportive environment, financial incentive, supervision and neighbourhood setting.
This study supports the idea that ERS interventions appeal to women from lower socio-economic groups, including ethnic minorities. The ERS seems to meet their contextual, economic and cultural needs. Since the elements that enabled the women to start exercising are specific to this ERS, we should become aware of whether this population continues to exercise after the end of the scheme.
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a pivotal role in the induction of immunity. Ex vivo-generated, tumour antigen-loaded mature DC are currently exploited as cancer vaccines in clinical studies. However, antigen loading and maturation of DC directly in vivo would greatly facilitate the application of DC-based vaccines. We formerly showed in murine models that radiofrequency-mediated tumour destruction can provide an antigen source for the in vivo induction of anti-tumour immunity, and we explored the role of DC herein. In this paper we evaluate radiofrequency and cryo ablation for their ability to provide an antigen source for DC and compare this with an ex vivo-loaded DC vaccine. The data obtained with model antigens demonstrate that upon tumour destruction by radiofrequency ablation, up to 7% of the total draining lymph node (LN) DC contained antigen, whereas only few DC from the conventional vaccine reached the LN. Interestingly, following cryo ablation the amount of antigen-loaded DC is almost doubled. Analysis of surface markers revealed that both destruction methods were able to induce DC maturation. Finally, we show that in situ tumour ablation can be efficiently combined with immune modulation by anti-CTLA-4 antibodies or regulatory T-cell depletion. These combination treatments protected mice from the outgrowth of tumour challenges, and led to in vivo enhancement of tumour-specific T-cell numbers, which produced more IFN-γ upon activation. Therefore, in situ tumour destruction in combination with immune modulation creates a unique, ‘in situ DC-vaccine' that is readily applicable in the clinic without prior knowledge of tumour antigens.
vaccination; dendritic cell; CTLA-4; regulatory T cell; radiofrequency ablation; cryo ablation
Methods: Levels of eNO in a sample of 450 children aged 7–12 years out of a total sample of 2504 school children living in different urban areas near motorways were determined. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between eNO, impairment of lung function (PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and blood eosinophilia in children with and without atopy as assessed by skin prick testing.
Results: Regression analysis showed that wheezing and nasal discharge and conjunctivitis that had occurred during the previous 12 months were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.48 and 1.41, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. Similarly, BHR and the number of blood eosinophils per ml were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.55 and 2.29, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. The lung function indices PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF were not associated with eNO levels.
Conclusions: In addition to conventional lung function tests and symptom questionnaires, eNO is a suitable measure of airway inflammation and its application may reinforce the power of epidemiological surveys on respiratory health.