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1.  Novel GCH1 variant in Dopa-responsive dystonia and Parkinson's disease 
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders  2015;21(4):394-397.
Background
GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) mutations are the commonest cause of Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). Clinical phenotypes can be broad, even within a single family.
Methods
We present clinical, genetic and functional imaging data on a British kindred in which affected subjects display phenotypes ranging from DRD to Parkinson's disease (PD). Twelve family members were studied. Clinical examination, dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging, and molecular genetic analysis of GCH1 and the commonest known familial PD-related genes were performed.
Results
We have identified a novel missense variant, c.5A > G, p.(Glu2Gly), within the GCH1 gene in affected family members displaying a range of phenotypes.
Two affected subjects carrying this variant had abnormal DAT imaging. These two with abnormal DAT imaging had a PD phenotype, while the remaining three subjects with the novel GCH1 variant had normal DAT imaging and a DRD phenotype.
Conclusions
We propose that this GCH1 variant is pathogenic in this family and these findings suggest that similar mechanisms involving abnormal GTP cyclohydolase I may underlie both PD and DRD. GCH1 genetic testing should be considered in patients with PD and a family history of DRD.
Highlights
•We have identified a novel missense variant, c.5A > G, p.(Glu2Gly), within the GCH1 gene in family with Dopa responsive dystonia (DRD) and parkinsonism.•Those with parkinsonism had abnormal DaTscans, indicating nigrostriatal neurodegeneration.•These findings suggest that similar mechanisms involving abnormal GTP cyclohydolase I may underlie both Parkinson's disease and Dopa responsive dystonia.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.01.004
PMCID: PMC4379065  PMID: 25634433
Parkinson's disease; Dopa responsive dystonia; GCH1; SPECT DAT imaging
2.  Ability of a nurse specialist to diagnose simple headache disorders compared with consultant neurologists 
Methods: An experienced neurology ward sister was trained in the differential diagnosis of headache disorders. Over six months, patients with non-acute headache disorders and role players trained to present with benign or sinister headaches were seen by both the nurse and a consultant neurologist. Both reached independent diagnoses of various headache disorders.
Results: Consultants diagnosed 239 patients with tension-type headache (47%), migraine (39%), or other headache disorders (14%). The nurse agreed with the consultant in 92% of cases of tension-type headache, 91% of migraine, and 61% of other diagnoses. Where the nurse did not agree with the diagnosis, most would have been referred for a consultant opinion. Both the nurse and the doctors misdiagnosed the same three of 13 role players. The investigation rate of the consultants varied between 18% and 59%. Only one clinically relevant abnormality was found on head scans and this was strongly suspected clinically.
Conclusions: A headache nurse specialist can be trained to diagnose tension-type headache and migraine. A nationwide nurse led diagnostic headache service could lead to substantial reduction in neurology waiting times.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.057968
PMCID: PMC1739753  PMID: 16024902
3.  White matter abnormalities on MRI in neuroacanthocytosis 
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.026781
PMCID: PMC1739157  PMID: 15258233
4.  Pubcrawler: www.pubcrawler.ie 
doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.9.1271
PMCID: PMC1738678
6.  SURFING FOR MOVEMENT DISORDERS 
doi:10.1136/jnnp.72.suppl_1.i36
PMCID: PMC1765577
7.  Wilson's disease presenting in a family with an apparent dominant history of tremor 
A patient with Wilson's disease is described who presented with dystonic tremor in a family with an apparent dominant history of tremor. Subsequent investigation showed that the patient's mother had essential tremor, with molecular analysis of the ATP7B gene excluding the possibility of pseudodominant inheritance. This case highlights the importance of considering the possibility of Wilson's disease in every young patient with a movement disorder, even where the clinical picture does not suggest a recessively inherited disorder.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.70.4.514
PMCID: PMC1737296  PMID: 11254776
10.  Inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a British family associated with a novel 144 base pair insertion of the prion protein gene. 
A case of familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with a 144 base pair insertion in the open reading frame of the prion protein gene is described. Sequencing of the mutated allele showed an arrangement of six octapeptide repeats, distinct from that of a recently described British family with an insertion of similar size. Thirteen years previously the brother of the proband had died from "Huntington's disease", but re-examination of his neuropathology revealed spongiform encephalopathy and anti-prion protein immunocytochemistry gave a positive result. The independent evolution of at least two distinct pathological 144 base pair insertions in Britain is proposed. The importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion of inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in cases of familial neurodegenerative disease is stressed.
Images
PMCID: PMC1073270  PMID: 7823070
11.  Intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to amyloidosis of the colon in association with an intestinal plasmacytoma. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1991;67(794):1075-1077.
A case of large bowel pseudo-obstruction due to colonic amyloidosis associated with an intestinal plasmacytoma is described. The association of an intestinal plasmacytoma with massive local amyloid deposition has not to our knowledge been previously reported.
Images
PMCID: PMC2399189  PMID: 1800969
13.  Pharmacokinetics of intravenous amodiaquine. 
Amodiaquine hydrochloride (3 mg base kg-1) was given by constant rate intravenous injection over 10 min to seven healthy adult male volunteers, and by constant rate infusion (10 mg base kg-1) over 4 h to 10 adult patients admitted to hospital with falciparum malaria. After intravenous injection in volunteers there was considerable variation in plasma concentration profiles between subjects; peak plasma concentrations ranged between 65 and 1921 ng ml-1. A biexponential equation was fitted to the plasma concentration time data and the following estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (geometric mean; range) were derived; lambda 1 = 24.4 (7.6-95.0) h-1, lambda 2 = 0.33 (0.12-0.79) h-1, V1:1.1 (0.3-3.6) 1 kg-1, Vss: 17.4 (2.3-95.9) 1 kg-1 and systemic clearance 13.0 (4.7-56.6) 1 kg-1 h-1. After intravenous infusion there was also considerable variability between patients with post-infusion plasma concentrations ranging between 82 and 836 ng ml-1. The plasma concentration-time profiles were biphasic with the following estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (geometric mean; range) alpha = 1.87 (0.60-8.52) h-1, beta = 0.069 (0.021-0.265) h-1, V1: 4.6 (0.5-29.3) 1 kg-1, Vss: 38.3 (3.7-127.9) 1 kg-1 and systemic clearance CL (1.6-17.3) 1 kg-1 h-1. There was no measurable long terminal elimination phase, and the principal metabolite desethyl amodiaquine was not detected in the plasma samples. There was no serious toxicity in either group. During intravenous injection there was a significant fall in systolic blood pressure in four subjects (mean fall 16 mm Hg) but there was no significant change in heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1386059  PMID: 3828191
14.  Cardiovascular toxicity and distribution kinetics of intravenous chloroquine. 
Chloroquine diphosphate (3 mg base kg-1) was given by constant rate intravenous injection over 10 min to 12 healthy adult male volunteers. Plasma concentrations of chloroquine and the principal metabolite desethylchloroquine, electrocardiograph intervals, and arterial blood pressure were measured at frequent intervals to determine the relationship between cardiovascular effects and plasma concentrations. Peak plasma concentrations ranged between 784 and 6649 (mean 2913) ng ml-1. The decline in plasma concentrations was multiexponential with an initial rapid distribution phase; mean (+/- s.d.) first order rate constant 0.65 +/- 0.14 min-1, and an estimated apparent volume of the central compartment of 0.18 +/- 0.15 l kg-1. There was no serious toxicity, but subjective side effects were reported in all patients and there was a significant fall in systolic blood pressure (110 +/- 9.5 to 101 +/- 12.5 mm Hg; P = 0.03) and rise in heart rate which paralleled the change in plasma chloroquine concentrations. Coincident with changes in blood pressure, there was a significant prolongation of the electrocardiograph QRS interval; 81 +/- 15 to 92 +/- 13 ms (P less than 0.01) but no change in the QTc interval. These findings suggest that the cardiovascular toxicity of parenteral chloroquine is related to transiently high plasma concentrations occurring early in the distribution phase. This results from incomplete distribution from a central compartment that is approximately one thousand times smaller than the eventual total apparent volume of distribution at steady state. Rate of administration is therefore a major determinant of toxicity.
PMCID: PMC1401074  PMID: 3741724
15.  Pharmacokinetics of primaquine in man. I. Studies of the absolute bioavailability and effects of dose size. 
The pharmacokinetics of primaquine have been examined in five healthy volunteers who received single oral doses of 15, 30 and 45 mg of the drug, on separate occasions. Each subject received an i.v. tracer dose of [14C]-primaquine (7.5 microCi), simultaneously with the 45 mg oral dose. Absorption of primaquine was virtually complete with a mean absolute bioavailability of 0.96 +/- 0.08. Elimination half-life, oral clearance and apparent volume of distribution for both primaquine and the carboxylic acid metabolite were unaffected by either dose size, or route of administration. The relationships between area under the curve and dose size were linear for both primaquine (r = 0.99, P less than or equal to 0.01) and its carboxylic acid metabolite (r = 0.99, p less than or equal to 0.01). The mean whole blood to plasma concentration ratios were determined for primaquine (0.81), and for the carboxylic acid metabolite of primaquine (0.84). Primaquine is a low clearance compound (CL = 24.2 +/- 7.4 l h-1), is extensively distributed into body tissues (V = 242.9 +/- 69.5 l) and is not subject to extensive first pass metabolism.
PMCID: PMC1463857  PMID: 4027117

Results 1-15 (15)