As part of a study into new Fentanyl-derived opioid compounds with potent analgesic activity and reduced side effects the starting material title compound, C14H21N3O (1), was synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure is monoclinic Cc with unit cell parameters a = 14.1480(3) Å, b = 14.1720(4) Å, c = 27.6701(7) Å, β = 96.956(1)°, α = γ = 90°. The compound has crystallized with four crystallographically unique molecules in the asymmetric unit; each molecule has a very similar conformation and an analysis of the structure shows that although all four unique molecules overlay very well there is no evidence of pseudo-symmetry which would relate the molecules in the higher symmetry space group C2/c. The crystal packing consists of two separate hydrogen bonded chains which are linked together to form a thick 2D structure in the ab plane.
Organic compounds; Z′ > 1; Hydrogen bonding
Three compounds, each derived from Fentanyl and differing essentially only in the length of a carboxylic acid chain, were synthesized and yielded four crystal structures three of which share several structural similarities, including the length of the chain, while the fourth, with a shorter chain, is quite different. The chain length has a significant influence on the crystal structures formed. The ‘three atom’ chain compounds are all solvated zwitterions which feature a hydrogen-bonded ‘dimer’ between adjacent zwitterions. The formation of this large dimer leaves available a second carboxylate O atom to take part in hydrogen bonding interactions with solvent molecules. The shorter ‘two atom’ chain compound was difficult to crystallize and required the use of synchrotron radiation to measure X-ray diffraction data. It does not form the same dimer motif observed in the ‘three atom’ chain compounds and has not formally formed a zwitterion; although there is evidence of proton sharing or disorder X-ray data are insufficient to create a disordered model, and the compound was modeled as formally neutral based on O–H and N–H distances. Room temperature analyses showed the proton transfer behavior to be independent of crystal temperature, and nuclear magnetic resonance studies show proton transfer behavior in solution. The formation of a zwitterionic hydrogen-bonded dimer is implicated in providing some stability during crystal growth of the easily crystallized ‘three atom’ chain compounds.
Newly designed bivalent ligands—opioid agonist/NK1-antagonists have been synthesized. The synthesis of new starting materials—carboxy-derivatives of Fentanyl (1a–1c) was developed. These products have been transformed to ‘isoimidium perchlorates’ (2a–c). The new isoimidium perchlorates have been successfully implemented in nucleophilic addition reactions, with L-tryptophan 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl ester to give the target compounds—amides (3a–c). Perchlorates (2a–c) successfully undergo reactions with other nucleophiles such as alcohols, amines or hydrazines. The obtained compound 3b exhibited μ-opioid agonist activity and NK1-antagonist activity and may serve as a useful lead compound for the further design of a new series of opioid agonist/NK1-antagonist compounds.
Analgesic; Bivalent ligands; μ-Opioids; NK1 antagonist; Fentanyl
This report discloses a novel concise synthesis of a series of 3-hydroxypyrazoles 5 via a tandem Ugi/debenzylation /hydrazine-mediated cyclization sequence. Herein, n-butyl isocyanide 4b was utilized as an alternative to classical convertible isocyanides enabling high yielding hydrazine-mediated cyclization. Taken together, a novel class of 3-hydroxypyrazoles 5a–5i was synthesized with potential to be of interest in future library enrichment strategies.
Multicomponent reaction; Ugi reaction; 3-hydroxypyrazole; hydrazine-mediated cyclization
This report presents a novel three step solution phase protocol to synthesize 3-(tetrazol-5-yl)quinoxalin-2(1H)-ones. The strategy utilizes ethyl glyoxalate and mono-N-Boc-protected-o-phenylenediamine derivatives in the Ugi-Azide multi-component reaction (MCR) to generate a unique 1,5-disubstituted tetrazole. Subsequent acid treatment stimulates a simultaneous Boc deprotection and intramolecular cyclization leading to bis-3,4-dihydroquinoxalinone tetrazoles. Direct oxidation using a stable solid-phase radical catalyst (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) in catalytic fashion initiating aerobic oxidation, completes the entire procedure to generate a series of original unique bis-quinoxalinone tetrazoles. The method was also expanded to produce a bis-benzodiazepine tetrazole.
1,4,7-Tris(tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane is widely used as an intermediate in the preparation of medically important DO3A and DOTA metal chelators. Despite its commercial availability and importance, the literature describing the preparation and properties of the free base is limited and sometimes unclear. We present herein an efficient synthesis of the hydrobromide salt of 1,4,7-tris(tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane, characterize this compound spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallographic analysis, describe its simple conversion to the corresponding free base, characterize this compound spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and make observations on the reactivity of this interesting and useful compound.
Synthesis; DOTA; DO3A; Contrast Agent; MRI; X-ray crystallography
Three scaffolds of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines were synthesized via Ugi/de-protection/cyclization methodology. Benzimidazole forming ring closure was enabled under microwave irradiation in the presence of 10% TFA/DCE. The methodology demonstrates the utility of 2-(N-Boc-amino)-phenyl-isocyanide for the generation of new molecular diversity.
UDC; Multi-component reactions (MCRs); Benzimidazoles; Bis-benzimidazoles; Bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines
In the title compound, [IrCl(C8H12)(C17H25N3)], the IrI ion has a distorted square-planar coordination geometry. The N-heterocyclic carbene ligand has an extended S-shaped conformation. The butyl group was refined using a two-part 1:1 disorder model. In the crystal, three unique weak C—H⋯Cl contacts are present. Two of these form a motif described as R
1(6) in graph-set notation, while a third forms an R
2(8) motif about a crystallographic inversion center. The result is a chain structure which extends parallel to the crystallographic a axis.
In the title compound, [Rh(C8H12)(C7H12N2)2]BF4, the square-planar Rh complex cation and the BF4
− anion are both bisected by a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. The Rh and B atoms lie on this axis and all others are in general positions. In the crystal, two unique C—H⋯F hydrogen-bonding interactions are present, which involve both imidazolin-2-ylidene H atoms. They form two separate C(5) motifs, the combination of which is a rippled hydrogen-bonded sheet structure in the ab plane.
In the title compound, C22H24N4O, the aromatic moiety is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation of a least-squares plane fitted through all non-H atoms = 0.0386 Å) and is rotated by 89.98 (4)° from the piperazine ring, which adopts the expected chair conformation. The propanol chain is not fully extended away from the piperazine ring. In the crystal, there are two unique hydrogen-bonding interactions. One is an O—H⋯N interaction which, together with an inversion-related symmetry equivalent, forms a ring motif. The second is an N—H⋯N interaction which links adjacent molecules by means of a chain motif which propagates in the c-axis direction. Overall, a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structure is formed.
The design and synthesis of three 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A) derivatives bearing linkers with terminal thiol groups and a preliminary evaluation of their potential for use in assembling redox-sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents are reported. The linkers were selected based on computational docking with a crystal structure of human serum albumin (HSA). Gd(III)-DO3A and Eu(III)-DO3A complexes were synthesized, and the structure of one complex was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The binding to HSA of a Gd(III)-DO3A complex bearing a thiol-terminated 3,6-dioxanonyl chain was competitively inhibited by homocysteine and by the corresponding Eu chelate. Binding to HSA was abolished when the terminal thiol group of this complex was absent. The longitudinal water-proton relaxivities (r1) of the three Gd(III)-DO3A complexes and of two Gd(III)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexes were measured in saline at 7 Tesla. The DO3A complexes exhibited smaller r1 values, in both bound and free states, than the DOTA complexes.
The following article describes a concise synthesis of a collection of 4,5-dihydro-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepines fused to a hydantoin ring. Molecular complexity and biological relevance is high and structures are generated in a mere three steps, employing the Ugi reaction to assemble diversity reagents. The protocol represents a novel UDC (Ugi-deprotect-cyclize) strategy employed in the Ugi-5-component CO2 mediated condensation, followed by further cyclization under basic conditions, to afford the fused hydantoin. Mechanistic caveats, dependent on aldehydes of choice will be revealed and a facile oxidation of final products to imidazolidenetriones briefly discussed.
The structure of the organic cation in the title compound, C15H16N3
−, contains two essentially planar rings. Mean planes fitted through all non-H atoms of each ring system have an r.m.s. deviation of 0.019 Å for the imidazole-based ring and 0.016 Å for the 2,6-dimethylphenyl ring. The angle between the two planes is 86.76 (2)°. In the crystal structure, N—H⋯O interactions form a one-dimensional chain, which propagates in the b-axis direction. C—H⋯O interactions are also found in the crystal packing.
The V-shaped title compound, C11H10Br2N4, lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis which passes through the central C atom. In the crystal, an infinite tape motif, which propagates in the a-axis direction, is formed by inversion-related N—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding interactions. The structure confirmed the identity of the compound as a reaction side product.
The asymmetric organocatalytic α-sulfenylation of substituted piperazine-2,5-diones is reported, with cinchona alkaloids as chiral Lewis bases and electrophilic sulfur transfer reagents. Catalyst loadings, the type of sulfur transfer reagent, temperature and solvent were investigated in order to optimize the reaction conditions. The effects of ring substitution and the type of catalyst on the yield and enantioselectivity of the reaction are reported.
There are two crystallographically unique molecules present in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H16N6O; in both molecules, the seven-membered diazepinone ring adopts a boat-like conformation and the chair conformation piperidine ring is an axial substituent on the diazepinone ring. In the crystal, each molecule forms hydrogen bonds with its respective symmetry equivalents. Hydrogen bonding between molecule A and symmetry equivalents forms two ring motifs, the first formed by inversion-related N—H⋯O interactions and the second formed by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N interactions. The combination of both ring motifs results in the formation of an infinite double tape, which propagates in the a-axis direction. Hydrogen bonding between molecule B and symmetry equivalents forms one ring motif by inversion-related N—H⋯O interactions and a second ring motif by C—H⋯O interactions, which propagate as a single tape parallel with the c axis.
The title compound, C24H30N2O6, a Schiff base, adopts an extended conformation in which the methoxy groups are essentially coplanar with the aromatic ring to which they are bonded (mean planes fitted through the non-H atoms of each methoxyphenyl group have r.m.s. deviations of 0.078 and 0.044 Å) and the angle between mean planes fitted through the aromatic rings is 87.57 (10)°. An intramolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond keeps the imine and amide groups essentially coplanar. A mean plane fitted through these groups has an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0545 Å. Additional O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding parallel with the a axis links the molecules into a hydrogen-bonded chain in the crystal. C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π interactions are found within the crystal packing. The compound has been assigned the S,S configuration on the basis of the chemical synthesis, which used pure homotopic l-amino acids, and we have no reason to believe that the compound has epimerized.
In the title compound, [Ir(C8H12)(C7H12N2)(C18H15P)]BF4·CH2Cl2, the Ir(I) atom has a square-planar conformation with normal bond lengths. One of the phenyl rings, and the solvent dichloromethane molecule, were refined using separate two part disorder models, each in an approximately 1:1 ratio.
A crystallographic investigation of the title compound, C22H28Cl2N4O4, using crystals obtained under different crystallization conditions, revealed the presence of two distinct polymorphic forms. The molecular conformation in the two polymorphs is very different: one adopts a ‘C’ shape, whereas the other adopts an ‘S’ shape. In the latter, the molecule lies across a crystallographic twofold axis. The ‘S’-shaped polymorph undergoes a reversible orthorhombic-to-monoclinic phase transition on cooling, whereas the structure of the ‘C’-shaped polymorph is temperature insensitive.
Organocatalytic α-sulfenylation of substituted piperazine-2,5-diones is reported through the use of cinchona alkaloids as Lewis bases and electrophilic sulfur transfer reagents. 1-Phenylsulfanyl[1,2,4]triazole, a novel sulfur transfer reagent, gave excellent product yields with a number of substituted piperazine-2,5-diones under mild conditions. Catalyst loading, stoichiometry of sulfur electrophile, temperature and solvent were optimized to achieve high product yields.
Acids 9 a–f as possible bivalent ligands designed as a structural combination of opioid μ-agonist (Fentanyl) and NSAID (Indomethacin) activities and produced compounds which were tested as analgesics. The obtained series of compounds exhibits low affinity and activity both at opioid receptors and as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. One explanation of the weak opioid activity could be stereochemical peculiarities of these bivalent compounds which differ significantly from the fentanyl skeleton. The absence of significant COX inhibitory properties could be explained by the required substitution of an acyl fragment in the indomethacin structure for 4-piperidyl.
The syntheses of 3-[1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-5-p-tolyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]propanoic acid, C19H19N3O4S, (I), and 3-[5-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]propanoic acid–dichloromethane–diethyl ether–water (2/0.72/1/1), 2C18H16BrN3O4S·0.72CH2Cl2·C4H10O·H2O, (II), are regiospecific. However, correct identification by spectroscopic techniques of the regioisomer formed is not trivial and single-crystal X-ray analysis provided the only means of unambiguous structure determination. Both structures make extensive use of hydrogen bonding and while compound (I) forms a straightforward unsolvated Z′ = 1 structure, compound (II) crystallizes as an unusual mixed solvate, with two crystallographically unique molecules of the pyrazole derivative present in the asymmetric unit. The structure of (II) also features Br⋯Br interactions.
The synthesis of 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]propionic acid, C19H17ClN2O3, (I), and its corresponding methyl ester, methyl 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]propionate, C20H19ClN2O3, (II), is regiospecific. However, correct identification of the regioisomer formed by spectroscopic techniques is not trivial and single-crystal X-ray analysis provided the only means of unambiguous structure determination. Compound (I) crystallizes with Z′ = 2. The propionic acid groups of the two crystallographically unique molecules form a hydrogen-bonded dimer, as is typical of carboxylic acid groups in the solid state. Conformational differences between the methoxybenzene and pyrazole rings give rise to two unique molecules. The structure of (II) features just one molecule in the asymmetric unit and the crystal packing makes greater use than (I) of weak C—H⋯A interactions, despite the lack of any functional groups for classical hydrogen bonding.
The design, synthesis and solid state structures of a new class of xylylene-linked bis(1,4- piperazine-2,5-diones) are reported in an effort to extend the molecular framework of piperazine-2,5-diones. These compounds were derived from piperazine-2,5-dione as the core structure, synthesized via a new efficient route, and their crystal structures were determined. We examined the effects of side chain substitution on conformations of the linked bis-DKPs. Crystallization of 3,3'-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]-bis[6-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4-dimethylpiperazine-2,5-dione] yielded molecular solids with an unusual network of “C”-shaped monomers held together by four intermolecular hydrogen bonds per asymmetric unit. Similarly, intermolecular interactions between the iodomethyl groups in 3,3'-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]-bis[6-(iodomethyl)-1,4-dimethyl-piperazine-2,5-dione] result in the monomers adopting a “C”-shape in the solid state. Assembly of the monomers with side chains converted to methyl groups or tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethers, thereby lacking these stabilizing intermolecular interactions, results in an infinite array of “S”-shaped conformations. These results suggest that the interplay between the attractive intermolecular interactions and repulsive steric interactions of the substituents at the C6 and C6' positions of the diketopiperazine rings is important in determining the solid-state conformations of xylylene-linked bis(piperazine-2,5-diones).
The title compound, C21H21N3O2, was obtained following a five-step synthetic procedure yielding weakly diffracting rod and needle-shaped crystals which crystallized concomitantly. Structural analysis of a rod-shaped crystal showed that the central seven-membered heterocyclic ring adopts a conformation that is perhaps best described as a distorted boat, with the H-bearing (CH2 and NH) atoms lying well out of the least-squares mean plane fitted through the other five atoms in the ring (r.m.s. deviation 0.075 Å). In the crystal, the compound packs as a twisted chain, which propagates along the b axis by means of an R
2(6) motif formed by one of the carbonyl O atoms acting as a bifurcated acceptor in an N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O interaction. No diffraction was observed from the needle-shaped crystals.