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author:("nazi, Aydin")
1.  Seasonality of infant feeding practices in three Brazilian birth cohorts 
Background We assessed the influence of season of birth on duration of breastfeeding and other feeding patterns in three population-based birth cohort studies in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil.
Methods In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all hospital-born children in the city were enrolled in three cohort studies (n = 5914, 5249 and 4287, respectively). Children and their mothers were periodically visited in the first 2 years of life, to collect information on the duration of breastfeeding and the ages at which different types of foods were introduced on a regular basis. Two independent variables were studied: month of birth and mean environmental temperature in the first month of life. Survival analyses and chi-squared tests were used to evaluate the associations. Temperature-based slope indices of inequality were also calculated.
Results Duration of breastfeeding was lower among children born from April to June (months preceding winter) and spending their first month of life in colder temperatures. The influence of season of birth on breastfeeding patterns and the introduction of cow's milk differed according to maternal education, with the strongest effects among children belonging to less educated mothers. Early introduction of fruits (1982 and 1993 cohorts) and vegetables (1982 cohort) were also associated with lower environmental temperature in the first month of life, but not with trimester of birth.
Conclusion Colder temperatures adversely affect duration of breastfeeding and feeding patterns in infancy, especially among the poorest. This finding should be considered in breastfeeding promotion programmes.
doi:10.1093/ije/dys002
PMCID: PMC3396312  PMID: 22354916
Breastfeeding; climate; cohort studies; temperature; supplementary feeding
2.  Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood 
Atherosclerosis  2011;219(2):815-820.
Objective
This study was aimed at assessing the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood in a Brazilian birth cohort, after controlling for possible confounding variables and health behaviors in early adulthood.
Methods
In 1982, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and all births were identified. Those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city were studied prospectively. In 2004–2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort, the subjects were interviewed, examined and blood sample was collected. The following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose and C-reactive protein. To explore the effect of maternal smoking, we adjusted the coefficients for the following possible mediators: perinatal factors (low birthweight and preterm births); adult behavioral factors (physical activity, dietary pattern, intake of fat and fiber, and tobacco smoking) and adult anthropometry (body mass index and waist circumference).
Results
In 2004–2005, we interviewed 4297 subjects, with a follow-up rate of 77.4%. The only significant finding in the unadjusted analyses was lower HDL cholesterol among females. After adjustment for lifestyle variables in early adulthood, birthweight and waist circumference, the difference in HDL levels between offspring of smokers and non-smokers reduced from −2.10 mg/dL (95% confidence interval: −3.39; −0.80) to −1.03 mg/dL (−2.35; 0.30).
Conclusion
Evidence that maternal smoking during pregnancy programs offspring metabolic cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, and reported associations are likely due to postnatal exposure to lifestyle patterns.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.08.018
PMCID: PMC3234339  PMID: 21885051
Maternal smoking; Pregnancy; Cardiovascular; Risk factor
3.  Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighborhood characteristics with inflammatory markers: findings from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
Health & place  2010;16(6):1104-1112.
We investigated cross-sectional associations of neighborhood deprivation, problems, safety and cohesion with circulating levels of fibrinogen, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (n=5370) and longitudinal associations with changes in IL-6 over a 3–4 year period (n=946). In cross-sectional analyses, higher levels of neighborhood deprivation and problems were associated with higher levels of all three inflammatory markers, whereas higher levels of safety were associated with lower levels. Fibrinogen remained associated with all neighborhood characteristics except cohesion and IL-6 remained associated with safety after adjustment for race and SES. In longitudinal analyses, higher levels of neighborhood deprivation and problems, and lower levels of safety were associated with greater longitudinal increases in IL-6 after adjustment for age, sex, race and SES. These findings were not substantially modified by further risk factor adjustment. Although findings regarding different inflammatory markers were mixed, the longitudinal results which are less limited by race confounding suggest that inflammatory pathways may contribute to neighborhood differences in cardiovascular disease risk.
doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.07.001
PMCID: PMC2952703  PMID: 20667763
Inflammation; Fibrinogen; Interleukin-6; C-reactive protein; Neighborhood
4.  The influence of persistent pathogens on circulating levels of inflammatory markers: a cross-sectional analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:706.
Background
Systemic inflammation is linked to cardiovascular risk, but the influence of persistent pathogens, which are conventionally dichotomously categorized, on circulating levels of inflammatory markers is not clear. Antibody levels of pathogens have not been examined in relation to inflammation.
Methods
Using data from a subsample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen in relation to five common persistent pathogens: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, Hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. We tested the hypothesis that the number of seropositive pathogens (based on conventional cut-off points) would not be as sensitive a marker of inflammation as immune response measured by antibody levels to pathogens.
Results
High antibody response to multiple pathogens showed graded and significant associations with IL-6 (p < 0.001), CRP (p = 0.04) and fibrinogen (p = 0.001), whereas seropositive pathogen burden did not. In multiple linear regression models, high antibody response to multiple pathogens maintained a positive association only with IL-6 (4.4% per pathogen exhibiting high antibody response, 95% CI 0.0-8.9).
Conclusions
High antibody response to pathogens was a more consistent marker of inflammatory outcomes compared to seropositivity alone and high antibody response to multiple pathogens was a stronger marker compared to any single pathogen.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-706
PMCID: PMC2996373  PMID: 21083905
5.  Lifecourse socioeconomic trajectories and C-reactive protein levels in young adults: Findings from a Brazilian birth cohort 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)  2010;70(8):1229-1236.
Socioeconomic factors are associated with cardiovascular disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly implicated as a candidate linking conventional risk factors and atherosclerosis. The impact of early- and later-life socioeconomic status (SES) on CRP levels has not been widely investigated and a handful of studies from high-income countries are inconsistent. We set out to examine the associations between lifecourse socioeconomic indicators (family income at birth, maternal education, family income at age 23 and own education) on CRP levels in young adults belonging to the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study (n = 5914). Early-life SES showed significant and graded associations with CRP levels at age 23 independently of later SES. For example, men with higher family income at birth showed higher CRP levels at age 23 (p = 0.001 for trend) and women with less educated mothers showed higher CRP levels (p = 0.01 for trend). Notably, differential directions of association between SES indicators and CRP levels between men and women were found. When adjusted for SES at age 23, men with the lowest family income at birth showed 42% lower CRP levels when compared to men in the highest family income group (−42; 95% CI: -60,-16). In contrast women born to the least educated mothers had the highest CRP levels (35; 95% CI -2, 86). In both sexes, adiposity accounted for the overwhelming majority of the associations between SES and CRP levels. Sex and gender roles specific to middle-income countries, socio-cultural and environmental conditions that may impact adiposity, and the level of epidemiological transition may be key factors that are linked to the associations between lifecourse SES and CRP levels. Public health strategies aimed at decreasing the burden of cardiovascular disease in middle-income settings, in addition to highlighting the risks associated with adult obesity, should not overlook the wide-ranging impacts of lifecourse social determinants.
doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.12.014
PMCID: PMC2877874  PMID: 20137842
Brazil; C-reactive protein; Inflammation; Socioeconomic factors; Cohort studies; Gender; Lifecourse studies; Cardiovascular disease
6.  Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differentials of C-reactive protein levels: a systematic review of population-based studies 
BMC Public Health  2007;7:212.
Background
Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors strongly influence cardiovascular disease outcomes and risk factors. C-reactive protein (CRP), a non-specific marker of inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular risk, and knowledge about its distribution in the population may help direct preventive efforts. A systematic review was undertaken to critically assess CRP levels according to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors.
Methods
Medline was searched through December 2006 for population-based studies examining CRP levels among adults with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) and/or race/ethnicity. Bibliographies from located studies were scanned and 26 experts in the field were contacted for unpublished work.
Results
Thirty-two relevant articles were located. Cross-sectional (n = 20) and cohort studies (n = 11) were included, as was the control group of one trial. CRP levels were examined with respect to SEP and race/ethnicity in 25 and 15 analyses, respectively. Of 20 studies that were unadjusted or adjusted for demographic variables, 19 found inverse associations between CRP levels and SEP. Of 15 similar studies, 14 found differences between racial/ethnic groups such that whites had the lowest while blacks, Hispanics and South Asians had the highest CRP levels. Most studies also included adjustment for potential mediating variables in the causal chain between SEP or race/ethnicity and CRP. Most of these studies showed attenuated but still significant associations.
Conclusion
Increasing poverty and non-white race was associated with elevated CRP levels among adults. Most analyses in the literature are underestimating the true effects of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors due to adjustment for mediating factors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-212
PMCID: PMC2018719  PMID: 17705867
7.  Life-course socio-economic factors, skin colour and abdominal obesity in adulthood in a Brazilian birth cohort 
Public Health Nutrition  2009;12(11):2225-2235.
Objective
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent nutritional disorder throughout the world. In particular, abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of skin colour and life-course socio-economic indicators on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) in young adults.
Design
Population-based birth cohort study. Individuals born in 1982 in Pelotas (southern Brazil) were visited on a number of occasions from birth to age 23–24 years. A sample of the cohort was sought in 2006 and 972 individuals were located. The analysis was restricted to individuals with complete data available (442 males, 414 females).
Results
In men, family income at birth and in 2004–5 were positively associated with WC and HC, but not with WHR. Regardless of current income, men born to wealthier families had larger WC and HC as adults. Skin colour was not associated with any of the outcomes. In women, early poverty was associated with smaller HC, and current poverty with larger WC. Poverty at any age thus led to higher WHR. Black women had larger WC and HC than white women, but there were no differences in WHR. All the associations were partially mediated by education and behavioural variables.
Conclusions
The effects of early socio-economic position on WC and HC persist even after adjustment for adult socio-economic position, highlighting the importance of interventions during the first years of life.
doi:10.1017/S1368980009990607
PMCID: PMC3778928  PMID: 19656435
Abdominal adipose tissue; Waist:hip ratio; Cohort study; Socio-economic status

Results 1-7 (7)