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1.  Posological Considerations of Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi) as per Ayurvedic Science and Pharmaceutical Sciences 
A study in 2010 reported that administration of 2 g of O. sanctum leaves for 30 days to laboratory male albino rabbits showed adverse effect on sperm count and male hormones. The dose and duration at which this testing was reported was commented upon as being high. It is learnt that basis this publication a few European regulators have imposed restrictions on usage of O. sanctum. Recognizing the need for evaluation, a review has been made of the posological considerations related to decision on dose of a drug in pharmaceuticals (drug development stages) and in Ayurvedic science as part of history of use and current usage. Specifically, we report the dose range as per documented tradition, marketed products containing O. sanctum as an ingredient and current clinical practice. Greater consultation is suggested before deciding the studies on Ayurvedic herbs. Regulatory action of banning use of O. sanctum needs a review and may need to be replaced with an advisory.
PMCID: PMC4090833  PMID: 25035537
Ayurveda; male hormones; Ocimum sanctum; posology; Tulasi
2.  Approaches to pre-formulation R and D for phytopharmaceuticals emanating from herb based traditional Ayurvedic processes 
Botanicals constitute a large part of the drugs from the traditional medicine (TM) and ethno medicine (EM) known for their history of safe use (HOSU). Phytopharmaceuticals having a base of such origin offer high advantages as they come with safety profiles, and often allow extrapolation of the HOSU data, under certain circumstances. However, while current pharmaceutical technologies are being adopted by the industry to make phytopharmaceuticals with such origin, there is a need for preformulation research and development (R and D) during formulation. Some suggestions for R and D studies in case of aqueous extracts known in Ayurveda, converted on an industrial scale to obtain a phytopharmaceutical, and formulated as a solid dosage form (granules, tablets, or capsules) are discussed.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.109542
PMCID: PMC3667432  PMID: 23741154
Ayurveda; integrative; phytopharmaceuticals; preformulation
5.  Pharmacognosy and technology 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2010;6(23):145-146.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.66925
PMCID: PMC2950372  PMID: 20931069
6.  Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:149.
Background
In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs), are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation.
Methods/design
We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA). We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender) using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area) in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit) to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums.
Preliminary findings
Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free.
Conclusion
The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-149
PMCID: PMC2848202  PMID: 20307290
7.  Women's health in a rural community in Kerala, India: do caste and socioeconomic position matter? 
Objectives
To examine the social patterning of women's self‐reported health status in India and the validity of the two hypotheses: (1) low caste and lower socioeconomic position is associated with worse reported health status, and (2) associations between socioeconomic position and reported health status vary across castes.
Design
Cross‐sectional household survey, age‐adjusted percentages and odds ratios, and multilevel multinomial logistic regression models were used for analysis.
Setting
A panchayat (territorial decentralised unit) in Kerala, India, in 2003.
Participants
4196 non‐elderly women.
Outcome measures
Self‐perceived health status and reported limitations in activities in daily living.
Results
Women from lower castes (scheduled castes/scheduled tribes (SC/ST) and other backward castes (OBC) reported a higher prevalence of poor health than women from forward castes. Socioeconomic inequalities were observed in health regardless of the indicators, education, women's employment status or household landholdings. The multilevel multinomial models indicate that the associations between socioeconomic indicators and health vary across caste. Among SC/ST and OBC women, the influence of socioeconomic variables led to a “magnifying” effect, whereas among forward caste women, a “buffering” effect was found. Among lower caste women, the associations between socioeconomic factors and self‐assessed health are graded; the associations are strongest when comparing the lowest and highest ratings of health.
Conclusions
Even in a relatively egalitarian state in India, there are caste and socioeconomic inequalities in women's health. Implementing interventions that concomitantly deal with caste and socioeconomic disparities will likely produce more equitable results than targeting either type of inequality in isolation.
doi:10.1136/jech.2006.047647
PMCID: PMC2465509  PMID: 17108296
8.  A Comparative Evaluation of Medicated Oils Prepared Using Ayurvedic and Modified Processes 
Medicated oils prepared using process as mentioned in Ayurveda are used for external and internal administrations to treat various disorders. Taila pak vidhi provides detailed description of such processes. Medicated oils are prepared by prolonged cooking of sesame oil with pasty mass of herbs and decoction of herbs in presence of large quantity of water. We report preliminary findings of physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of changes brought out by such processes and the role of each component. Changes observed when the processes were altered to deviate from those prescribed in Ayurveda are also reported.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.59548
PMCID: PMC2846471  PMID: 20376219
Ayurveda; herbalised oil process changes; medicated oils; oil soluble extractives
9.  Development of a RP-HPLC Method for Analysis of Triphala Curna and its Applicability to Test Variations in Triphala Curna Preparations 
A sensitive, rapid, reverse phase HPLC method is reported for analysis of Triphala Curna using gallic acid, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid as markers. Validation data for the method has been provided. Unlike methods of recovery testing adopted for synthetic chemicals, a modified approach has been presented here for a formulation like Triphala Curna having three myrobalans in its composition. Data has been provided to demonstrate applicability of the method developed to assess the variation in the Triphala Curna preparations.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.57286
PMCID: PMC2865809  PMID: 20502543
Triphala Curna (TC); gallic acid; chebulagic acid; chebulinic acid; myrobalans
10.  Can microcredit help improve the health of poor women? Some findings from a cross-sectional study in Kerala, India 
Background
This study examines associations between female participation in a microcredit program in India, known as self help groups (SHGs), and women's health in the south Indian state of Kerala. Because SHGs do not have a formal health program, this provides a unique opportunity to assess whether SHG participation influences women's health via the social determinants of health.
Methods
This cross-sectional study used special survey data collected in 2003 from one Panchayat (territorial decentralized unit). Information was collected on women's characteristics, health determinants (exclusion to health care, exposure to health risks, decision-making agency), and health achievements (self assessed health, markers of mental health). The study sample included 928 non elderly poor women.
Results
The primary finding is that compared to non-participants living in a household without a SHG member, the odds of facing exclusion is significantly lower among early joiners, women who were members for more than 2 years (OR = 0.58, CI = 0.41–0.80), late joiners, members for 2 years and less (OR = 0.60, CI = 0.39–0.94), and non-participants who live in a household with a SHG member (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.32–0.90). We also found that after controlling for key women's characteristics, early joiners of a SHG are less likely to report emotional stress and poor life satisfaction compared to non-members (OR = 0.52, CI = 0.30–0.93; OR = 0.32, CI = 0.14–0.71). No associations were found between SHG participation and self assessed health or exposure to health risks. The relationship between SHG participation and decision-making agency is unclear.
Conclusion
Microcredit is not a panacea, but could help to improve the health of poor women by addressing certain issues relevant to the context. In Kerala, SHG participation can help protect poor women against exclusion to health care and possibly aid in promoting their mental health.
doi:10.1186/1475-9276-7-2
PMCID: PMC2254417  PMID: 18186918
11.  Evaluation of a new five-injection, two-site,intradermal schedule for purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine: A randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India 
Background:
Human rabies is an ongoing significant public health problem inmany developing countries, with India reporting the highest incidence of rabies-related deaths (∼20,000 per year). Many people living in India cannot afford the standard IM postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with cell-culture vaccines, which are administered using a 5-dose regimen developed in Essen, Germany. A potentially less expensive intradermal (ID) regimen, based on the Essen regimen, has been developed at the Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bangalore, India.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and local and systemic tolerability of the KIMS-1D regimen with those of the standard Essen IM regimen in healthy adult volunteers in India.
Methods:
This randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial was conductedat the Antirabies Clinic, Medical College, KIMS. Healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) using the KIMS-1D regimen (0.1 mL injected ID at 2 body sites on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 [“2-2-2-2-2”]) or the Essen IM regimen (1 mL injected IM at 1 body site on the same days Subjects were followed up for 365 days by the treating physician and encouraged to voluntarily report any adverse events (AEs). Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations were measured before the first injection on day 0 (baseline) and on days 14, 28, 90, 180, and 365, using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.
Results:
Ninety-one subjects were enrolled and included in the tolerabilityand immunogenicity analyses. The ID group comprised 45 subjects (26 men, 19 women; mean [SD] age, 20.84 [1.48] years); the IM group, 46 subjects (28 men, 18 women; mean [SD] age, 21.02 [1.16] years). The most common local AEs were pain at the injection site (2/225 [0.9%] in the ID group and 10/230 [4.3%] in the IM group; P < 0.006) and itching at the injection site (5/225 [2.2%] in the ID group and none in the IM group; P = 0.026). All of the AEs were transient and resolved without the need for medication. All subjects had serum RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/mL—considered protective by the World Health Organization—at all follow-up visits. However, the mean RVNA concentrations in the IM group were significantly higher compared with those in the ID group from days 14 to 365 (all, P < 0.001).
Conclusion:
In this study in healthy volunteers, PEP with PCECV administered using the KIMS-ID regimen was well tolerated and immunologically efficacious for 365 days. Adequate RVNA levels were maintained with the KIMS-ID regimen from days 14 to 365, although these levels were significantly lower than those achieved in the group receiving the Essen IM regimen (all, P < 0.001).
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2005.08.009
PMCID: PMC3964532  PMID: 24672132
rabies; intradermal rabies vaccination; KIMS-ID regimen; randomizedcontrolled trial

Results 1-11 (11)