PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-5 (5)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Antiretroviral treatment reverses HIV-associated anemia in rural Tanzania 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:190.
Background
HIV-associated anemia is common and associated with poor prognosis. However, its response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly understood.
Methods
HIV-infected adults (≥15 years) who enrolled in HIV care at Haydom Lutheran Hospital in northern Tanzania were included in the study. The effect of ART (zidovudine/stavudine + lamivudine + efavirenz/nevirapine) on HIV-associated anemia was studied in a subset of patients who were anemic at the time they started ART and had a follow-up hemoglobin measurement 12 months later. Pregnant women were excluded from the study, as were women who had given birth within the past 6 weeks. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men. We applied paired sample T-tests to compare hemoglobin levels before and one year after ART initiation, and logistic regression models to identify predictors of persistent anemia.
Results
At enrollment, mean hemoglobin was 10.3 g/dL, and 649 of 838 patients (77.4%) were anemic. Of the anemic patients, 254 (39.1%) had microcytosis and hypochromia. Among 102 patients who were anemic at ART initiation and had a follow-up hemoglobin measurement after 12 months, the mean hemoglobin increased by 2.5 g/dL (P < 0.001); however, 39 patients (38.2%) were still anemic after 12 months of ART. Independent predictors of persistent anemia were mean cell volume in the lower quartile (<76.0 fL; Odds Ratio [OR] 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-15.5) and a zidovudine-containing initial regimen (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.03-8.19).
Conclusions
Most patients had anemia at enrollment, of whom nearly 40% had microcytosis and hypochromia suggestive of iron deficiency. The mean hemoglobin increased significantly in patients who received ART, but one third were still anemic 12 months after ART initiation indicating that additional interventions to treat HIV-associated anemia in rural Africa might be warranted, particularly in patients with microcytosis and those treated with zidovudine.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-190
PMCID: PMC3145581  PMID: 21745396
2.  HIV-1 drug resistance testing from dried blood spots collected in rural Tanzania using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System 
Objectives
To assess whether the commercial ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System (Abbott Molecular, Des Plains, IL, USA) can be used in conjunction with dried blood spots (DBS) for clinical monitoring of drug resistance in patients who fail antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Tanzania.
Patients and methods
Patients at Haydom Lutheran Hospital with confirmed treatment failure (viral load >1000 copies/mL) of a first-line ART regimen were selected for resistance testing. DBS were stored with desiccant at −20°C for a median of 126 days (range 0–203) and shipped at ambient temperature for 20 days. After manual extraction of nucleic acids, the ViroSeq kit was used for amplification and sequencing. DBS-derived genotypes were compared with those of a plasma-based assay.
Results
Seventeen of 36 (47%) DBS specimens were successfully genotyped. Only 2 of 16 (13%) DBS with a viral load <10 000 copies/mL could be amplified, compared with 15 of 20 (75%) DBS with a viral load >10 000 copies/mL (P = 0.001). In samples that yielded a sequence, all 23 clinically significant reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations in plasma were also detected in DBS. One RT mutation was found in DBS only. In the protease region, 77 polymorphisms were found in plasma, of which 70 (91%) were also detected in DBS. Sixteen of 17 (94%) patients had identical resistance profiles to antiretroviral drugs in plasma and DBS.
Conclusions
The ViroSeq kit performed well in patients with a high viral load, but failed to genotype most DBS with a viral load <10 000 copies/mL. In DBS that yielded a genotype, there was high concordance with a plasma-based assay.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkq433
PMCID: PMC3019084  PMID: 21115444
HIV infections; antiretroviral therapy; molecular diagnostic techniques; sub-Saharan Africa
3.  Drug resistance is widespread among children who receive long-term antiretroviral treatment at a rural Tanzanian hospital 
Objectives
To assess long-term virological efficacy and the emergence of drug resistance in children who receive antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Tanzania.
Patients and methods
Haydom Lutheran Hospital has provided ART to HIV-infected individuals since 2003. From February through May 2009, a cross-sectional virological efficacy survey was conducted among children (<15 years) who had completed ≥6 months of first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Genotypic resistance was determined in those with a viral load of >200 copies/mL.
Results
Virological response was measured in 19 of 23 eligible children; 8 of 19 were girls and median age at ART initiation was 5 years (range 2–14 years). Median duration of ART at the time of the survey was 40 months (range 11–61 months). Only 8 children were virologically suppressed (≤40 copies/mL), whereas 11 children had clinically relevant resistance mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene. The most frequent mutations were M184V (n = 11), conferring resistance to lamivudine and emtricitabine, and Y181C (n = 4), G190A/S (n = 4) and K103N (n = 4), conferring resistance to NNRTIs. Of concern, three children had thymidine analogue mutations, associated with cross-resistance to all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Despite widespread resistance, however, only one child experienced a new WHO stage 4 event and none had a CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3.
Conclusions
Among children on long-term ART in rural Tanzania, >50% harboured drug resistance. Results for children were markedly poorer than for adults attending the same programme, underscoring the need for improved treatment strategies for children in resource-limited settings.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkq234
PMCID: PMC2920178  PMID: 20576637
HIV infections; antiretroviral therapy; sub-Saharan Africa; child
4.  Virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults on antiretroviral treatment in rural Tanzania 
Background
Virological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Africa is poorly described. We examined virological efficacy and emergence of drug resistance in adults receiving first-line ART for up to 4 years in rural Tanzania.
Methods
Haydom Lutheran Hospital has provided ART to HIV-infected patients since October 2003. A combination of stavudine or zidovudine with lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz is the standard first-line regimen. Nested in a longitudinal cohort study of patients consecutively starting ART, we carried out a cross-sectional virological efficacy survey between November 2007 and June 2008. HIV viral load was measured in all adults who had completed at least 6 months first-line ART, and genotypic resistance was determined in patients with viral load >1000 copies/mL.
Results
Virological response was measured in 212 patients, of whom 158 (74.5%) were women, and median age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 29–43). Median follow-up time was 22.3 months (IQR 14.0–29.9). Virological suppression, defined as <400 copies/mL, was observed in 187 patients (88.2%). Overall, prevalence of ≥1 clinically significant resistance mutation was 3.9, 8.4, 16.7 and 12.5% in patients receiving ART for 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Among those successfully genotyped, the most frequent mutations were M184I/V (64%), conferring resistance to lamivudine, and K103N (27%), Y181C (27%) and G190A (27%), conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), whereas 23% had thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), associated with cross-resistance to all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Dual-class resistance, i.e. resistance to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, was found in 64%.
Conclusion
Virological suppression rates were good up to 4 years after initiating ART in a rural Tanzanian hospital. However, drug resistance increased with time, and dual-class resistance was common, raising concerns about exhaustion of future antiretroviral drug options. This study might provide a useful forecast of drug resistance and demand for second-line antiretroviral drugs in rural Africa in the coming years.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-108
PMCID: PMC2713244  PMID: 19583845
5.  Predictors of mortality in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in a rural hospital in Tanzania 
Background
Studies of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in Africa have shown high initial mortality. Factors contributing to this high mortality are poorly described. The aim of the present study was to assess mortality and to identify predictors of mortality in HIV-infected patients starting ART in a rural hospital in Tanzania.
Methods
This was a cohort study of 320 treatment-naïve adults who started ART between October 2003 and November 2006. Reliable CD4 cell counts were not available, thus ART initiation was based on clinical criteria in accordance with WHO and Tanzanian guidelines. Kaplan-Meier models were used to estimate mortality and Cox proportional hazards models to identify predictors of mortality.
Results
Patients were followed for a median of 10.9 months (IQR 2.9–19.5). Overall, 95 patients died, among whom 59 died within 3 months of starting ART. Estimated mortality was 19.2, 29.0 and 40.7% at 3, 12 and 36 months, respectively. Independent predictors of mortality were severe anemia (hemoglobin <8 g/dL; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 9.20; 95% CI 2.05–41.3), moderate anemia (hemoglobin 8–9.9 g/dL; AHR 7.50; 95% CI 1.77–31.9), thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 × 109/L; AHR 2.30; 95% CI 1.33–3.99) and severe malnutrition (body mass index <16 kg/m2; AHR 2.12; 95% CI 1.06–4.24). Estimated one year mortality was 55.2% in patients with severe anemia, compared to 3.7% in patients without anemia (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Mortality was found to be high, with the majority of deaths occurring within 3 months of starting ART. Anemia, thrombocytopenia and severe malnutrition were strong independent predictors of mortality. A prognostic model based on hemoglobin level appears to be a useful tool for initial risk assessment in resource-limited settings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-52
PMCID: PMC2364629  PMID: 18430196

Results 1-5 (5)