Serotype-specific protective immunity of pediatric patients with invasive
pneumococcal disease (IPD) has not been fully investigated. To determine the
protective immunity to the infecting serotype, the serotype-specific
immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) titers were
examined in twenty-four pediatric patients whose serum was collected within one
month of IPD episode in between May 2008 and June 2011 in Japan. The median age
(range) of IPD patients was 17 (10–108) months and 63% were boys. The
levels of serotype-specific IgG to the infecting serotype were higher than 0.2
μg/ml in all of 17 patients tested. By contrast, the OPA titers were
< 8 to the infecting serotype in all of 17 patients tested. The avidities
of 19F or 6B-specific IgG level higher than 5.0 μg/ml, but undetectable
OPA titers, were confirmed to be lower than those with high OPA titers. Our data
demonstrated that although the levels of serotype-specific IgG to the infecting
serotype were higher than 0.2 μg/ml in sera of pediatric patients with
IPD, the OPA titers were low during one month after the IPD episode. Impaired
opsonic activities in these patients may be, in part, explained by the low
avidities of serotype-specific IgG. Impaired serum opsonic activity in children
immediately after the episode of IPD suggests their susceptibility to the
infecting serotype of pneumococci.
invasive pneumococcal diseases; serotype-specific IgG; opsonophagocytic activity; pneumococcal vaccine; children
This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ), which has been covered by the national health insurance in Japanese patients with glioblastoma since September 2006. Between September 2006 and December 2011, 47 patients with newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma received radiotherapy for 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Among them, 45 patients (TMZ group) received concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m2/day, every day) and adjuvant TMZ (200 mg/m2/day, 5 days during each 28-days). All 36 of the glioblastoma patients receiving radiotherapy between January 1988 and August 2006 were analyzed as historical controls (control group). All patients were followed for at least 1 year or until they died. The median survival was 15.8 months in the TMZ group and 12.0 months in the control group after a median follow-up of 14.0 months. The hazard ratio for death in the TMZ group relative to the control group was 0.52 (P<0.01); the 2-year survival rate was 27.7% in the TMZ group and 14.6% in the control group. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 and higher was observed in 20.4% in the TMZ group. Multivariate analysis showed that extent of surgery had the strongest impact on survival (P<0.01), while the use of TMZ had the second largest impact on survival (P = 0.035). The results indicate that combined treatment with radiotherapy and TMZ has a significant survival benefit for Japanese patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma with slightly higher toxicities than previously reported.
The importance of macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae has become much more apparent in the past decade. We investigated differences in the therapeutic efficacies of macrolides, minocycline, and tosufloxacin against MR M. pneumoniae. A total of 188 children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia confirmed by culture and PCR were analyzed. Of these, 150 patients had a strain with an MR gene and 134 had one with an A-to-G mutation at position 2063 of M. pneumoniae 23S rRNA domain V. Azithromycin (n = 27), clarithromycin (n = 23), tosufloxacin (n = 62), or minocycline (n = 38) was used for definitive treatment of patients with MR M. pneumoniae. Defervescence within 48 h after the initiation of antibiotic therapy was observed in 41% of the patients in the azithromycin group, 48% of those in the clarithromycin group, 69% of those in the tosufloxacin group, and 87% of those in the minocycline group. The average number of days of fever after the administration of antibiotic treatment was lower in the minocycline and tosufloxacin groups than in the macrolide groups. The decrease in the M. pneumoniae burden, as estimated by the number of DNA copies, after 48 to 96 h of treatment was more rapid in patients receiving minocycline (P = 0.016) than in those receiving tosufloxacin (P = 0.049), azithromycin (P = 0.273), or clarithromycin (P = 0.107). We found that the clinical and bacteriological efficacies of macrolides against MR M. pneumoniae pneumonia was low. Our results indicated that minocycline rather than tosufloxacin can be considered the first-choice drug for the treatment of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children aged ≥8 years.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), in combination with X-rays or carbon-ion beams on cell killing in human oral squamous cell carcinoma LMF4 cells. Cell survival was measured by colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression of DNA repair-related proteins was investigated by western blotting. The results showed 17-AAG to have synergistic effects on cell lethality with X-rays, but not with carbon-ion beams. The 17-AAG decreased G2/M arrest induced by X-rays, but not by carbon-ion beams. Both X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation up-regulated expression of non-homologous end-joining-associated proteins, Ku70 and Ku80, but 17-AAG inhibited only X-ray-induced up-regulation of these proteins. These results show that 17-AAG with X-rays releases G2/M phase arrest; cells carrying misrepaired DNA damage then move on to the G1 phase. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the radiosensitization effect of 17-AAG is not seen with carbon-ion beams because 17-AAG does not affect these changes.
heat shock protein 90; 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG); carbon-ion beam irradiation; radiosensitization
The purpose of this study was to evaluate interfractional changes of the minimum dose delivered to 90% of the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV D90) and D2cc of the bladder and rectum during brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer patients. A total of 52 patients received external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). For each of four ICBT applications, a pelvic CT scan was performed and the HR-CTV was delineated. Retrospectively, these patients were divided into two groups: (i) the standard dose group with 6 Gy to point A in each ICBT, and (ii) the adaptive dose group with a modified dose to point A to cover the HR-CTV with the 6-Gy isodose line as much as possible. The HR-CTV D90 was assessed in every session, and analyzed as interfractional changes. In the standard dose group, the interfractional changes of the HR-CTV D90 showed a linear increase from the first to the third of the four ICBT (average 6.1, 6.6, 7.0 and 7.1 Gy, respectively). In contrast, those of the adaptive dose group remained almost constant (average 7.2, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4 Gy, respectively). Especially, in the case of a large HR-CTV volume (≥35 cm3) at first ICBT, the total HR-CTV D90 of the adaptive dose group with brachytherapy was significantly higher than that of the standard dose group. There were no significant differences in total D2cc in bladder and rectum between the two groups. Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy based on interfractional tumor volume change improves the dose to the HR-CTV while keeping rectal and bladder doses within acceptable levels.
uterine cervical cancer; radiotherapy; high-dose-rate brachytherapy; 3D image-based planning; dose-volume histogram analysis
The supinator muscle originates from the annular ligament of the radius, and the muscle fibers and ligament take a similar winding course. Likewise, the coccygeus muscle and the sacrospinous ligament are attached together, and show a similar fiber orientation. During dissection of adult cadavers for our educational curriculum, we had the impression that these ligaments grow in combination with degeneration of parts of the muscles. In histological sections of 25 human fetuses at 10-32 weeks of gestation, we found that the proximal parts of the supinator muscle were embedded in collagenous tissue when the developing annular ligament of the radius joined the thick intermuscular connecting band extending between the extensor carpi radialis and anconeus muscles at 18-22 weeks of gestation, and the anterior parts of the coccygeus muscle were surrounded by collagenous tissue when the intramuscular tendon became the sacrospinous ligament at 28-32 weeks. Parts of these two muscles each seemed to provide a mold for the ligament, and finally became involved with it. This may be the first report to indicate that a growing ligament has potential to injure parts of the "mother muscle," and that this process may be involved in the initial development of the ligament.
Supinator muscle; Coccygeus muscle; Sacrospinous ligament; Annular ligament of the radius; Human fetus
In Japan, both incidence and mortality rates of cancers have continuously increased and medical costs are growing more rapidly than the overall economy of Japan. However, there is no consensus threshold for cost-effectiveness in medical care, and few studies have investigated cost-effectiveness of medical care in Japan. The present study was to determine the direct costs of molecular-targeting drugs that were recently approved in Japan through simple and quantitative calculations. Thus, we calculated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and the cost per life-year gained (LYG) by using reported data from randomized clinical trials for various cancers.
Between 2008 and 2011, we reviewed seven molecular-targeting drugs that were approved for treatment of five cancers in Japan. These drugs included Bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, temsirolimus, Lapatinib, and panitumumab. Direct cost, ICER, and LYG of the drugs were estimated from the randomized phase III clinical trial data referred to in package leaflets. Effectiveness was defined as the prolongation of both median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Costs were calculated as those of molecular-targeting drugs. Subsequently, ICER was based on 1-month increases in both OS and PFS periods and 1% increases in OS, and LYG was determined.
Direct costs ranged from ¥724,804 ($9,060) to ¥1,506,628 ($18,833). ICERs of the drugs ranged from ¥724,804 ($9,060) to ¥1,506,628 ($18,833) for a 1-month increase in OS. For each month of PFS, ICERs ranged from ¥372,243 ($4,653) to ¥7,399,877 ($92,498). The costs of Bevacizumab and sorafenib for treatment of HCC per 1% increase in OS were ¥376,657 ($4,708) and ¥313,733 ($3,922), respectively. LYG ranged from ¥8,697,650 ($108,721) to ¥18,079,530 ($225,994).
Some molecular-targeting drugs are not cost-effective. Considering ethical and moral issues, we should establish economic endpoints to approve new drugs in Japan.
Cost-effectiveness analysis; Molecular-targeting drugs; Simple quantitative calculation; Japan
We propose a strategy of individualized image acquisitions and treatment planning for respiratory-gated carbon-ion therapy. We implemented it in clinical treatments for diseases of mobile organs such as lung cancers at the Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center in June 2010. Gated computed tomography (CT) scans were used for treatment planning, and four-dimensional (4D) CT scans were used to evaluate motion errors within the gating window to help define the internal margins (IMs) and planning target volume for each patient. The smearing technique or internal gross tumor volume (IGTV = GTV + IM), where the stopping power ratio was replaced with the tumor value, was used for range compensation of moving targets. Dose distributions were obtained using the gated CT images for the treatment plans. The influence of respiratory motion on the dose distribution was verified with the planned beam settings using 4D CT images at some phases within the gating window before the adoption of the plan. A total of 14 lung cancer patients were treated in the first year. The planned margins with the proposed method were verified with clinical X-ray set-up images by deriving setup and internal motion errors. The planned margins were considered to be reasonable compared with the errors, except for large errors observed in some cases.
Carbon-ion therapy; Respiratory motion; Respiratory gating; Treatment planning; 4D CT; Errors
Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon-ion radiotherapy and its superior dose distribution may provide more effective tumor control in treatment for re-irradiation of the marginal recurrences in radiation resistant tumors other than cervical cancer.
Carbon-ion radiotherapy; Marginal recurrences; Cervical cancers
The efficacy and toxicity of three-fraction CyberKnife radiotherapy were evaluated in patients with brain metastases in critical areas. One hundred and fifty-nine metastases in 145 patients including tumors >10 cm3 were treated with three-fraction CyberKnife radiotherapy with a median marginal dose of 27 Gy at a median prescribed isodose of 60%. Changes in the neurological manifestations, local tumor control and adverse effects were investigated after treatment. The surrounding brain volumes circumscribed with 23.1 Gy (single dose equivalence of 14 Gy: V14) were measured to evaluate the risk of adverse effects. Neurological manifestations, such as motor weakness, visual disturbances and aphasia improved in 26 of 97 patients (26.8%). Local tumor control was obtained in 137 of 143 metastases (95.8%) during a median follow-up of 7 months. Nine patients had symptomatic edema and three of them (2.1%) required surgical resection because of radiation necrosis. The V14 of these patients was 4.6–31.5 cm3. There were 35 lesions with a V14 of 7 cm3 or more and three of them developed extensive brain edema due to radiation necrosis. None of the patients with a V14 of <7 cm3 exhibited edema requiring an operation. We therefore conclude that a high rate of local tumor control and low rates of complications are obtained after three-fraction CyberKnife radiotherapy for metastases in critical areas. The V14 of the surrounding brain therefore seems to be a useful indicator for the risk evaluation of radiation necrosis in patients with larger metastases.
brain metastases; hypofractionated radiotherapy; three-session radiosurgery; radiation necrosis; V14
Esophageal cancer patients are often associated with multiple primary cancers (MPC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of MPC on prognosis in esophageal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. Between 2001 and 2008, esophageal cancer patients treated by definitive radiotherapy at Gunma Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Exclusion criteria were preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy, palliative radiotherapy, follow-up of <6 months, radiation dose of <50 Gy and no information on MPC. We analyzed 167 esophageal cancer patients and 56 (33.5%) were associated with MPC. Gastric cancer was the most frequent tumor (38.2%), followed by head and neck cancer (26.5%). Median follow-up time was 31.5 months (range 6.1–87.3 months). Patients with MPC included more stage I/II esophageal cancer than those without MPC (66.1% vs. 36.9%, P < 0.01). The 5-year overall survival rate for esophageal cancer with MPC was relatively better than those without MPC (46.1% vs. 26.7%), although the difference did not reach statistical significance in univariate analysis (P = 0.09). Stage I/II esophageal cancer patients had a significantly better overall survival than stage III/IV patients (P < 0.01). Among esophageal cancer patients with MPC, there was no difference in overall survival between antecedent and synchronous cancer (P = 0.59). Our study indicated that the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy was primarily determined by the clinical stage itself, but not the presence of MPC.
esophageal cancer; radiotherapy; multiple primary cancers; synchronous cancer;
The dopamine-dependent plasticity of the cortico-striatal synapses is considered as the cellular mechanism crucial for reinforcement learning. The dopaminergic inputs and the calcium responses affect the synaptic plasticity by way of the signaling cascades within the synaptic spines. The calcium concentration within synaptic spines, however, is dependent on multiple factors including the calcium influx through ionotropic glutamate receptors, the intracellular calcium release by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, and the opening of calcium channels by EPSPs and back-propagating action potentials. Furthermore, dopamine is known to modulate the efficacies of NMDA receptors, some of the calcium channels, and sodium and potassium channels that affect the back propagation of action potentials. Here we construct an electric compartment model of the striatal medium spiny neuron with a realistic morphology and predict the calcium responses in the synaptic spines with variable timings of the glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs and the postsynaptic action potentials. The model was validated by reproducing the responses to current inputs and could predict the electric and calcium responses to glutamatergic inputs and back-propagating action potential in the proximal and distal synaptic spines during up- and down-states. We investigated the calcium responses by systematically varying the timings of the glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs relative to the action potential and found that the calcium response and the subsequent synaptic potentiation is maximal when the dopamine input precedes glutamate input and action potential. The prediction is not consistent with the hypothesis that the dopamine input provides the reward prediction error for reinforcement learning. The finding suggests that there is an unknown learning mechanisms at the network level or an unknown cellular mechanism for calcium dynamics and signaling cascades.
striatal medium spiny neuron; calcium signaling; spike-timing-dependent plasticity; dopamine modulation; multi-compartment model
Malignant pleural mesothelioma was once a rare finding but its incidence is increasing worldwide, most likely because of widespread exposure to asbestos. Although complete surgical resection is considered the only curative treatment, the results of surgery have shown a median survival time of only one year. In inoperable cases, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and a combination of both have been considered as palliative therapy. Therefore, outcomes for inoperable cases have been poor. Here, we report the case of a long-term survivor treated with hyperthermia and chemotherapy.
A 61-year-old Japanese man with a performance status of 1 due to chest pain was referred to our hospital. He had a history of asbestos exposure for approximately five years. A computed tomography scan showed diffuse extensive right pleural thickening with small nodular lesions, and video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed tumor invasion of the ipsilateral chest wall muscles. The histopathologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (sarcomatoid type). The tumor was diagnosed as being stage cT3N0M0. Our patient refused any invasive therapies including surgery and radiotherapy, and was therefore treated with hyperthermia and systemic chemotherapy with agents such as cisplatin and irinotecan. He underwent three hyperthermia sessions and a single course of chemotherapy without any severe complications. One month after treatment, a follow-up computed tomography scan showed no definitive abnormality in the thoracic space. Our patient has subsequently survived without any evident disease for more than seven years.
The combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapy may be a novel and safe therapeutic option for malignant pleural mesothelioma, and can be considered for patients ineligible for radical treatment. Further clinical studies of the combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapy are needed to confirm the effects of this treatment on malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Chemotherapy; Hyperthermia; Long-term survivor; Malignant pleural mesothelioma
To compare the incidence and degree of hematological toxicity between innovator and generic cisplatin formulations, decreases in white blood cell (WBC) count (leukopenia) and platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) were retrospectively examined, using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.0, in patients with uterine cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy using innovator (innovator group, n = 22) or generic (generic group, n = 22) cisplatin formulations. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics except in the technique of external irradiation; larger numbers of patients in the innovator and generic groups were irradiated using the parallel-opposed two-field technique and the four-field box technique, respectively (P = 0.00012), which is in line with the historical progress of external beam radiation therapy. The numbers of patients showing Grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 leukopenia were 1 (4.5%), 14 (64%), 7 (32%) and 0 (0.0%) in the innovator group, and 1 (4.5%), 6 (27%), 13 (59%) and 2 (9.0%) in the generic group, respectively. The number of patients showing Grade 3–4 leukopenia was significantly greater in the generic group than in the innovator group (P = 0.034). There was no significant relationship between the incidence of Grade 3–4 leukopenia and the technique of external irradiation. There were no significant differences in the incidence and degree of thrombocytopenia between the two groups. These results indicate the possibility that the generic cisplatin formulation may have a different toxicity profile compared to the innovator formulation in terms of the incidence of leukopenia.
generic drug; cisplatin; leukopenia; uterine cervical cancer; chemoradiotherapy
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, for the treatment of N2–3 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in Asian countries, especially regions of South and Southeast Asian countries where NPC is endemic. Between 2005 and 2009, 121 patients with NPC (T1–4 N2–3 M0) were registered from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, The Philippines, China and Bangladesh. Patients were treated with 2D radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m 2), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 on Day 1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m2 on Days 1–5) for 3 cycles. Of the 121 patients, 56 patients (46%) required interruption of RT. The reasons for interruption of RT were acute non-hematological toxicities such as mucositis, pain and dermatitis in 35 patients, hematological toxicities in 11 patients, machine break-down in 3 patients, poor general condition in 2 patients, and others in 8 patients. Of the patients, 93% completed at least 4 cycles of weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy, and 82% completed at least 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. With a median follow-up time of 46 months for the surviving 77 patients, the 3-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 89%, 74% and 66%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3–4 toxicities of mucositis, nausea/vomiting and leukopenia were observed in 34%, 4% and 4% of the patients, respectively. In conclusion, further improvement in survival and locoregional control is necessary, although our regimen showed acceptable toxicities.
nasopharyngeal cancer; chemoradiotherapy; adjuvant chemotherapy; developing country; 2D radiotherapy
The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for rectal bleeding after prostate brachytherapy. Between April 2005 and September 2009, 89 patients with T1c-2cN0M0 prostate cancer were treated with permanent I-125 seed implantation alone. The prostate prescription dose was 145 Gy, and the grade of rectal bleeding was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Post-treatment planning was performed with fusion images of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging 4–5 weeks after brachytherapy. Patient characteristics and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine risk factors for bleeding. The calculated parameters included the rectal volume in cubic centimeters that received >50–200% of the prescribed dose (RV50–200) and the minimal doses received by 1–30% of the rectal volume (RD1–30). The median follow-up time was 42 months (ranging 18–73 months). Grade 1 rectal bleeding occurred in 24 (27.0%) patients, but no Grade 2 or severe bleeding was observed. Usage of anticoagulants had a significant correlation with the occurrence of bleeding (P = 0.007). The RV100–150 and RD1–10 were significantly higher in patients with rectal bleeding than in those without bleeding. The RV100 was identified as a possible threshold value; the 3-year rectal bleeding rate in patients with an RV100 > 1.0 cm3 was 36%, whereas that with an RV100 ≤ 1.0 cm3 was 14% (P < 0.05). Although no Grade 2 morbidity developed in this study, the RV100 should be kept below 1.0 cm3, especially in additional dose-escalated brachytherapy.
prostate cancer; brachytherapy; rectal bleeding; dose-volume-histogram; anticoagulant
The treatment strategy of central lung tumors is not established. Intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) is widely used for palliative treatment of endobronchial tumors, however, it is also a promising option for curative treatment with limited data. This study evaluates the results after ILBT for endobronchial carcinoma.
Sixteen-endobronchial carcinoma of 13 patients treated with ILBT in curative intent for 2000 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. ILBT using high dose rate 192 iridium thin wire system was performed with 5 Gy/fraction at mucosal surface. The patient age ranged from 57 to 82 years old with median 75 years old. The 16 lesions consisted of 13 central endobronchial cancers including 7 roentgenographically occult lung cancers and 3 of tracheal cancers. Of them, 10 lesions were treated with ILBT of median 20 Gy combined with external beam radiation therapy of median 45 Gy and 6 lesions were treated with ILBT alone of median 25 Gy.
Median follow-up time was 32.5 months. Two-year survival rate and local control rate were 92.3% and 86.2%, respectively. Local recurrences were observed in 2 lesions. Three patients died due to lung cancer (1 patient) and intercurrent disease (2 patients). Complications greater than grade 2 were not observed except for one grade 3 dyspnea.
ILBT combined with or without EBRT might be a curative treatment option in inoperable endobronchial carcinoma patients with tolerable complication.
Lung cancer; Radiation therapy; High dose rate; Intraluminal brachytherapy; Curative intent
The purpose of this study was to compare the size and clearness of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of metastatic brain tumors on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images between a single dose contrast administration protocol and a double dose contrast administration protocol to determine the optimum dose of contrast-enhancement for clear delineation of GTV in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). A total of 28 small metastatic brain tumors were evaluated in 13 patients by intra-individual comparison of GTV measurements using single dose and double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice (1-mm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had confirmed histological types of primary tumors and had undergone hypo-fractionated SRT for metastatic brain tumors. The mean tumor diameter with single dose and double dose contrast-enhancement was 12.0 ± 1.1 mm and 13.2 ± 1.1 mm respectively (P < 0.001). The mean incremental ratio (MIR) obtained by comparing mean tumor diameters was 11.2 ± 0.02 %. The mean volume of GTV-1 (single dose contrast-enhancement) and GTV-2 (double dose contrast-enhancement) was 1.38 ± 0.41 ml and 1.59 ± 0.45 ml respectively (P < 0.01). The MIR by comparing mean tumor volumes was 32.3 ± 0.4 %. The MIR of GTV-1 with < 1ml volume and GTV-1 with > 1ml volume was 41.8 ± 0.05 % and 12.4 ± 0.03 % respectively (P < 0.001). We conclude that double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI is a more useful technique than single dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI, especially for clear delineation of GTVs of small metastatic brain tumors in treatment planning of highly precise SRT.
metastatic brain tumor; contrast enhancement; magnetic resonance imaging; gross tumor volume; stereotactic radiotherapy treatment
Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment for thoracic cancers. Accurate diagnosis is essential to correctly perform curative radiotherapy. Tumor delineation is also important to prevent geographic misses in radiotherapy planning. Currently, planning is based on computed tomography (CT) imaging when radiation oncologists manually contour the tumor, and this practice often induces interobserver variability. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been reported to enable accurate staging and detect tumor extension in several thoracic cancers, such as lung cancer and esophageal cancer. FDG-PET imaging has many potential advantages in radiotherapy planning for these cancers, because it can add biological information to conventional anatomical images and decrease the inter-observer variability. FDG-PET improves radiotherapy volume and enables dose escalation without causing severe side effects, especially in lung cancer patients. The main advantage of FDG-PET for esophageal cancer patients is the detection of unrecognized lymph node or distal metastases. However, automatic delineation by FDG-PET is still controversial in these tumors, despite the initial expectations. We will review the role of FDG-PET in radiotherapy for thoracic cancers, including lung cancer and esophageal cancer.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignant tumor of mesothelial origin associated with asbestos exposure. MPM has a limited response to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thus early diagnosis of MPM is extremely critical. CT scans have limited accuracy in the differentiation between benign and malignant pleural disease. Several studies have reported that 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) plays an important role in the assessment of thoracic malignancy such as lung cancer. Here, we investigated the clinical utility of PET in patients with MPM. The maximum SUV (SUVmax) of 18F-FDG was measured in 47 MPM patients and 29 non-MPM patients including those with pleural thickening. We demonstrated that patients with MPM had significantly higher SUVmax levels than a population with non-malignant pleural disease. The Kaplan-Meier method revealed significant differences in overall survival between groups with SUVmax levels lower and higher than the assumed cut-off. Our data suggest that SUVmax levels are useful as an aid for diagnosis and prognosis of MPM.
pleural mesothelioma; SUVmax; diagnosis; prognosis
CD44 is a major cellular receptor for hyaluronic acids. The stem structure of CD44 encoded by ten normal exons can be enlarged by ten variant exons (v1-v10) by alternative splicing. We have succeeded in preparing MV5 fully human IgM and its class-switched GV5 IgG monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognizing the extracellular domain of a CD44R1 isoform that contains the inserted region coded by variant (v8, v9 and v10) exons and is expressed on the surface of various human epithelial cancer cells.
Methods and Principal Findings
We demonstrated the growth inhibition of human cancer xenografts by a GV5 IgG mAb reshaped from an MV5 IgM. The epitope recognized by MV5 and GV5 was identified to a v8-coding region by the analysis of mAb binding to various recombinant CD44 proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GV5 showed preferential reactivity against various malignant human cells versus normal human cells assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistological analysis. When ME180 human uterine cervix carcinoma cells were subcutaneously inoculated to athymic mice with GV5, significant inhibition of tumor formation was observed. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injections of GV5markedly inhibited the growth of visible established tumors from HSC-3 human larynx carcinoma cells that had been subcutaneously transplanted one week before the first treatment with GV5. From in vitro experiments, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and internalization of CD44R1 seemed to be possible mechanisms for in vivo anti-tumor activity by GV5.
CD44R1 is an excellent molecular target for mAb therapy of cancer, possibly superior to molecules targeted by existing therapeutic mAb, such as Trastuzumab and Cetuximab recognizing human epidermal growth factor receptor family.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignant tumor of mesothelial origin associated with asbestos exposure. MPM exhibits a limited response to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This, early diagnosis of MPM is essential. Malignant tumor progression requires the destruction of the basement membrane, which is constructed from extracellular matrix (ECM) materials. Various types of human tumor cells are reported to produce ECM-degrading proteases that are important in tumor progression. Among this group of proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to be important due to their wide degrading function. We investigated the pleural effusion MMP-3 levels of patients with MPM and compared them with those of a population with non-malignant pleuritis or lung cancer involving malignant pleural effusion. The pleural effusion MMP-3 concentrations of 52 MPM patients and 67 non-MPM patients were measured. The results showed that the MPM patients had significantly higher pleural effusion MMP-3 levels than the population with non-malignant pleuritis. The overall survival of the MPM patients with lower pleural effusion MMP-3 levels was longer than that of patients with higher pleural effusion MMP-3 levels. Our data therefore suggest a clinical role of pleural effusion MMP-3 levels in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
asbestos-related lung diseases; malignant mesothelioma; tumor marker; diagnosis; prognosis
Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated tumors compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. C-ion RT for the first patient at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center (GHMC) was initiated in March of 2010. The major specifications of the facility were determined based on the experience of clinical treatments at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), with the size and cost being reduced to one-third of those at NIRS. The currently indicated sites of cancer treatment at GHMC are lung, prostate, head and neck, liver, rectum, bone and soft tissue. Between March 2010 and July 2011, a total of 177 patients were treated at GHMC although a total of 100 patients was the design specification during the period in considering the optimal machine performance. In the present article, we introduce the facility set-up of GHMC, including the facility design, treatment planning systems, and clinical preparations.
carbon ion radiotherapy; cancer treatment; high LET; facility set-up
Recently, it has become clear that acute hypoxia affecting radioresistance exists widely in tumor tissues. Concurrently, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is recognized as an essential transcriptional factor, enabling cells to survive through hypoxia. However, it is unclear as to whether HIF-1α plays a direct role in the radioresistance caused by acute hypoxia. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the in vitro response of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, to ionizing radiation in an experimental model that imitates acute hypoxia in the presence and absence of HIF-1α expression, using the HIF-1α inhibitor 5-[1-(phenylmethyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]-2-furanmethanol (YC-1). Cells were treated with or without 10 μM YC-1 for 2 h. Cells were exposed to either 95% N2 and 5% CO2 (hypoxic condition of <0.1 mmHg) or atmospheric air (normoxic condition) for 1 h, and irradiated with 2, 5 and 10 Gy. Western blot analysis revealed that, without YC-1, cells exposed to hypoxic conditions expressed increased levels of HIF-1α compared with those exposed to normoxic conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α expression was suppressed by YC-1 to the same extent as that observed in cells exposed to normoxic conditions without YC-1. Clonogenic survival assay revealed that under hypoxic conditions there was no significant difference between the surviving fraction of cells treated with YC-1 and without YC-1 at any dose point examined. The oxygen enhancement ratio at 10% surviving fraction was calculated as 2.7 and 2.6 in the presence and the absence of YC-1, respectively. These results indicate that HIF-1α itself is not an immediate cause of acute hypoxia-induced radioresistance in A549 cells.
hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; YC-1; radiation resistance; acute hypoxia