Hematopoietic cells arise from spatiotemporally restricted domains in the developing embryo. Although studies of non-mammalian animal and in vitro embryonic stem cell models suggest a close relationship among cardiac, endocardial, and hematopoietic lineages, it remains unknown whether the mammalian heart tube serves as a hemogenic organ akin to the dorsal aorta. Here we examine the hemogenic activity of the developing endocardium. Mouse heart explants generate myeloid and erythroid colonies in the absence of circulation. Hemogenic activity arises from a subset of endocardial cells in the outflow cushion and atria earlier than in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, and is transient and definitive in nature. Interestingly, key cardiac transcription factors, Nkx2-5 and Isl1, are expressed in and required for the hemogenic population of the endocardium. Together, these data suggest that a subset of endocardial/endothelial cells expressing cardiac markers serve as a de novo source for transient definitive hematopoietic progenitors.
The origin of sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity in the heart is controversial. The leading candidates are diastolic depolarization by “funny” current (If) through HCN4 channels (the “Membrane Clock“ hypothesis), depolarization by cardiac Na-Ca exchange (NCX1) in response to intracellular Ca cycling (the "Calcium Clock" hypothesis), and a combination of the two (“Coupled Clock”). To address this controversy, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate atrial-specific NCX1 KO mice. NCX1 protein was undetectable in KO atrial tissue, including the SAN. Surface ECG and intracardiac electrograms showed no atrial depolarization and a slow junctional escape rhythm in KO that responded appropriately to β-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation. Although KO atria were quiescent they could be stimulated by external pacing suggesting that electrical coupling between cells remained intact. Despite normal electrophysiological properties of If in isolated patch clamped KO SAN cells, pacemaker activity was absent. Recurring Ca sparks were present in all KO SAN cells, suggesting that Ca cycling persists but is uncoupled from the sarcolemma. We conclude that NCX1 is required for normal pacemaker activity in murine SAN.
Endothelium in embryonic hematopoietic tissues generates hematopoietic
stem/progenitor cells; however, it is unknown how its unique potential is
specified. We show that transcription factor Scl/Tal1 is essential for both
establishing the hematopoietic transcriptional program in hemogenic endothelium
and preventing its misspecification to a cardiomyogenic fate.
Scl−/− embryos activated a cardiac
transcriptional program in yolk sac endothelium, leading to the emergence of
CD31+Pdgfrα+ cardiogenic precursors that
generated spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. Ectopic cardiogenesis was also
observed in Scl−/− hearts, where the
disorganized endocardium precociously differentiated into cardiomyocytes.
Induction of mosaic deletion of Scl in
Sclfl/fl Rosa26Cre-ERT2 embryos
revealed a cell-intrinsic, temporal requirement for Scl to prevent
cardiomyogenesis from endothelium.
Scl−/− endothelium also
upregulated the expression of Wnt antagonists, which promoted rapid
cardiomyocyte differentiation of ectopic cardiogenic cells. These results reveal
unexpected plasticity in embryonic endothelium such that loss of a single master
regulator can induce ectopic cardiomyogenesis from endothelial cells.
The chemokine receptor, CCR7, directs the migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from peripheral tissue to draining lymph nodes (LNs). However, it is unknown whether all pulmonary DCs possess migratory potential. Using novel Ccr7gfp reporter mice, we found that Ccr7 is expressed in CD103+ and a CD14med/lo subset of CD11bhi classical (c) DCs but not in monocyte-derived (mo) DCs, including Ly-6ChiCD11bhi inflammatory DCs and CD14hiCD11bhi DCs. Consequently, cDCs migrated to lung-draining LNs but moDCs did not. Mice lacking the chemokine receptor, CCR2, also lacked inflammatory DCs in the lung after lipopolysaccharide inhalation but retained normal levels of migratory DCs. Conversely, the lungs of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)-deficient mice lacked cDCs but retained moDCs, which were functionally mature but did not express Ccr7 and were uniformly non-migratory. Thus, the migratory properties of pulmonary DCs are determined by their developmental lineage.
Allergic asthma stems largely from the actions of T helper 2 (Th2) cells, but the pathways that initiate Th2 responses to inhaled allergens are not fully understood. In the lung, there are two major subsets of dendritic cells (DCs), displaying CD11b or CD103. We found that after taking up inhaled ovalbumin in vivo, purified CD103+ DCs from the lung or lung-draining lymph nodes primed Th2 differentiation ex vivo. Th2 induction by CD103+ DCs was also seen when cockroach or house dust mite allergens were used. In contrast, CD11bhi DCs primed Th1 differentiation. Moreover, mice lacking CD103+ DCs displayed diminished Th2 priming to various inhaled allergens and did not develop asthma-like responses following subsequent allergen challenge. Low-level antigen presentation by CD103+ DCs was necessary, but not sufficient for Th2 priming. Together, these findings show that CD103+ DCs have a significant role in priming Th2 responses to inhaled allergens.
Multipotent Isl1+ heart progenitors give rise to three major cardiovascular cell types; cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells, and play a pivotal role in lineage diversification during cardiogenesis. A critical question is pinpointing when this cardiac-vascular lineage decision is made, and how this plasticity serves to coordinate cardiac chamber and vessel growth. The posterior domain of the Isl1-positive second heart field contributes to the SLN-positive atrial myocardium and myocardial sleeves in the cardiac inflow tract, where myocardial and vascular smooth muscle layers form anatomical and functional continuity. Herein, using a new atrial specific SLN-Cre knockin mouse line, we report that an Isl1+/SLN+ transient cell population contributes to cardiac as well as smooth muscle cells at the heart-vessel junction in cardiac inflow tract. The Isl1+/SLN+ cells are capable of giving rise to cardiac and smooth muscle cells until late gestational stages. These data suggest that the cardiac and smooth muscle cells in the cardiac inflow tract share a common developmental origin.
cardiogenesis; myogenic progenitor; smooth muscle; great vessel; plasticity
Recent evidence suggests that IL-17 contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR); however, the mechanisms that suppress the production of this cytokine remain poorly defined.
We sought to understand the cellular and molecular basis for suppression of established, IL-17-dependent allergic airways disease.
Mice were sensitized by airway instillations of ovalbumin (OVA) together with low levels of lipopolysaccharide. Leukocyte recruitment to the lung and AHR were assessed following daily challenges with aerosolized OVA. Flow cytometry and gene targeted mice were used to identify naturally-arising subsets of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their cytokines required for the suppression of established allergic airway disease.
Allergic sensitization through the airway primed both effector and regulatory responses. Effector responses were initially dominant and led to airway inflammation and IL-17-dependent AHR. However, after multiple daily allergen challenges, IL-17 production and AHR declined, even though pulmonary levels of Th17 cells remained high. This loss of AHR was reversible and required the expansion of a Treg subset expressing both Foxp3 and inducible co-stimulator (ICOS). These Tregs also expressed the regulatory cytokines, IL-10, TGF-beta and IL-35. Whereas IL-10 and TGF-beta were dispensable for suppression of airway hyperresponsiveness, IL-35 was required. Analysis of human ICOS+ Tregs revealed that they also selectively expressed IL-35.
IL-35 production by ICOS+ Tregs can suppress IL-17 production and thereby reverse established, IL-17-dependent AHR in mice. The production of IL-35 by human ICOS+ Tregs suggests that targeting this pathway might be of therapeutic value for treating allergic asthma in humans.
Asthma; airway hyperresponsiveness; AHR; IL-17; Th17; Th2; IL-35; ICOS; ovalbumin
Eye tracking has been used to investigate gaze behaviours in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, traditional analysis has yet to find behavioural characteristics shared by both children and adults with ASD. To distinguish core ASD gaze behaviours from those that change with development, we examined temporo-spatial gaze patterns in children and adults with and without ASD while they viewed video clips. We summarized the gaze patterns of 104 participants using multidimensional scaling so that participants with similar gaze patterns would cluster together in a two-dimensional plane. Control participants clustered in the centre, reflecting a standard gaze behaviour, whereas participants with ASD were distributed around the periphery. Moreover, children and adults were separated on the plane, thereby showing a clear effect of development on gaze behaviours. Post hoc frame-by-frame analyses revealed the following findings: (i) both ASD groups shifted their gaze away from a speaker earlier than the control groups; (ii) both ASD groups showed a particular preference for letters; and (iii) typical infants preferred to watch the mouth rather than the eyes during speech, a preference that reversed with development. These results highlight the importance of taking the effect of development into account when addressing gaze behaviours characteristic of ASD.
eye tracking; eye movements; autism; development; mouth viewing; turn taking
The ResD-ResE signal transduction system is essential for aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Bacillus subtilis. ResDE-dependent gene expression is induced by oxygen limitation, but full induction under anaerobic conditions requires nitrite or nitric oxide (NO). Here we report that NsrR (formerly YhdE) is responsible for the NO-dependent up-regulation of the ResDE regulon. The null mutation of nsrR led to aerobic derepression of hmp (flavohemoglobin gene) partly in a ResDE-independent manner. In addition to its negative role in aerobic hmp expression, NsrR plays an important role under anaerobic conditions for regulation of ResDE-controlled genes, including hmp. ResDE-dependent gene expression was increased by the nsrR mutation in the absence of NO, but the expression was decreased by the mutation when NO was present. Consequently, B. subtilis cells lacking NsrR no longer sense and respond to NO (and nitrite) to up-regulate the ResDE regulon. Exposure to NO did not significantly change the cellular concentration of NsrR, suggesting that NO likely modulates the activity of NsrR. NsrR is similar to the recently described nitrite- or NO-sensitive transcription repressors present in various bacteria. NsrR likely has an Fe-S cluster, and interaction of NO with the Fe-S center is proposed to modulate NsrR activity.
Background: 5-Nitro-o-toluidine is an aromatic nitro amino compound. While other aromatic compounds are known to damage the human liver and are registered as toxic substances, toxicity information concerning 5-nitro-o-toluidine is lacking.
Aims: To investigate the hepatotoxicity of 5-nitro-o-toluidine.
Patients and methods: Of 15 workers in the same factory who handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine, three were hospitalised with symptoms of acute liver dysfunction. Suspecting a link between liver dysfunction and working conditions, we correlated workplace factors with clinical findings in all 15 workers.
Results: Blood biochemistry tests indicated liver damage in seven of 15 study subjects. Workers who handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine and nitrosyl sulphuric acid often loosened their respiratory protective equipment shortly after 5-nitro-o-toluidine powder had been dispersed into the air of the room. No potential hepatotoxins were present except for 5-nitro-o-toluidine. Six of the affected workers had handled 5-nitro-o-toluidine 12 to 20 times; the seventh worker had handled the powder three times; and the other eight workers without liver dysfunction had handled the material once or twice. No other significant differences in background were evident between the affected and unaffected workers, such as age, sex, or protective measures. Histological findings during recovery from liver damage were similar to those of acute viral hepatitis. None of the 15 subjects has demonstrated liver damage since the factory was closed.
Conclusions: A link between liver dysfunction and 5-nitro-o-toluidine exposure is suggested by greater severity of liver dysfunction associated with more episodes of handling.
5-nitro-o-toluidine; liver toxicity; liver function; toxicity
BACKGROUND—Genotype 1b of hepatitis C virus (HCV) comprises mainly three subtypes, each named for its geographic prevalence (worldwide, W; Japan, J; and not in Japan, NJ).
AIM—To characterise the newly identified subtypes of genotype 1b and to review factors associated with response to interferon (IFN) for each subtype.
PATIENTS—Chronic hepatitis patients (80 men and 41 women; mean age 48.5 years, range 20.7-69.3) with HCV genotype 1b (W type, n=41; J type, n=38) or genotype 2a (n=42) were treated according to the same IFN protocol. Forty four patients (36.4%) negative for serum HCV RNA six months after cessation of treatment were considered complete responders.
METHODS—Factors associated with complete response were investigated.
RESULTS—Genotype 2a patients had lower viral loads (odds ratio 0.11 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.049-0.256)) and a better IFN response (odds ratio 0.25 (95% CI 0.117-0.552)) than genotype 1b patients whereas W type and J type patients had similar viral loads and responses to IFN. IFN response in W type patients was associated with female sex (odds ratio 0.23 (95% CI 0.055-0.983)) and low viral load (odds ratio 84.00 (95% CI 14.04-502.6)) whereas response in J type patients was related to transfusion history (odds ratio 7.20 (95% CI 1.443-35.91)), low viral load (odds ratio 117.0 (95% CI 17.82-768.3)), and genetic mutation in the interferon sensitivity determining region of the virus (odds ratio 0.08 (95% CI 0.013-0.553)). Multivariate analysis found low viral load (odds ratio 64.19 (95% CI 14.66-281.06)) to be the only significant independent factor associated with IFN response.
CONCLUSIONS—Factors associated with IFN responsiveness in HCV infection differ with viral subtype.
Keywords: hepatitis C virus; genotype 1b; chronic hepatitis; interferon therapy; interferon sensitivity determining region
A clinical isolate of Escherichia coli from a patient in Japan, isolate KU6400, was found to produce a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase that conferred resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins. Resistance arising from production of a β-lactamase could be transferred by either conjugation or transformation with plasmid pKU601 into E. coli ML4947. The substrate and inhibition profiles of this enzyme resembled those of the AmpC β-lactamase. The resistance gene of pKU601, which was cloned and expressed in E. coli, proved to contain an open reading frame showing 99.8% DNA sequence identity with the ampC gene of Citrobacter freundii GC3. DNA sequence analysis also identified a gene upstream of ampC whose sequence was 99.0% identical to the ampR gene from C. freundii GC3. In addition, a fumarate operon (frdABCD) and an outer membrane lipoprotein (blc) surrounding the ampR-ampC genes in C. freundii were identified, and insertion sequence (IS26) elements were observed on both sides of the sequences identified (forming an IS26 composite transposon); these results confirm the evidence of the translocation of a β-lactamase-associated gene region from the chromosome to a plasmid. Finally, we describe a novel plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamase, CFE-1, with an ampR gene derived from C. freundii.
The expression of genes involved in nitrate respiration in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by the ResD-ResE two-component signal transduction system. The membrane-bound ResE sensor kinase perceives a redox-related signal(s) and phosphorylates the cognate response regulator ResD, which enables interaction of ResD with ResD-dependent promoters to activate transcription. Hydroxyl radical footprinting analysis revealed that ResD tandemly binds to the −41 to −83 region of hmp and the −46 to −92 region of nasD. In vitro runoff transcription experiments showed that ResD is necessary and sufficient to activate transcription of the ResDE regulon. Although phosphorylation of ResD by ResE kinase greatly stimulated transcription, unphosphorylated ResD, as well as ResD with a phosphorylation site (Asp57) mutation, was able to activate transcription at a low level. The D57A mutant was shown to retain the activity in vivo to induce transcription of the ResDE regulon in response to oxygen limitation, suggesting that ResD itself, in addition to its activation through phosphorylation-mediated conformation change, senses oxygen limitation via an unknown mechanism leading to anaerobic gene activation.
ATP-dependent proteases degrade denatured or misfolded proteins and are recruited for the controlled removal of proteins that block activation of regulatory pathways. Among the ATP-dependent proteases, those of the Clp family are particularly important for the growth and development of Bacillus subtilis. Proteolytic subunit ClpP, together with regulatory ATPase subunit ClpC or ClpX, is required for the normal response to stress, for development of genetic competence, and for sporulation. The spx (formally yjbD) gene was previously identified as a site of mutations that suppress defects in competence conferred by clpP and clpX. The level of Spx in wild-type cells grown in competence medium is low, and that in clpP mutants is high. This suggests that the Spx protein is a substrate for ClpP-containing proteases and that accumulation of Spx might be partly responsible for the observed pleiotropic phenotype resulting from the clpP mutation. In this study we examined, both in vivo and in vitro, which ClpP protease is responsible for degradation of Spx. Western blot analysis showed that Spx accumulated in clpX mutant to the same level as that observed in the clpP mutant. In contrast, a very low concentration of Spx was detected in a clpC mutant. An in vitro proteolysis experiment using purified proteins demonstrated that Spx was degraded by ClpCP but only in the presence of one of the ClpC adapter proteins, MecA or YpbH. However, ClpXP, either in the presence or in the absence of MecA and YpbH, was unable to degrade Spx. Transcription of spx, as measured by expression of spx-lacZ, was slightly increased by the clpX mutation. To exclude a possible effect of clpX and clpP on spx transcription, the spx gene was placed under the control of the IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside)-inducible Pspac promoter. In this strain, Spx accumulated when ClpX or ClpP was absent, suggesting that ClpX and ClpP are required for degradation of Spx. Taken together, these results suggest that Spx is degraded by both ClpCP and ClpXP. The putative proteolysis by ClpXP might require another adapter protein. Spx probably is degraded by ClpCP under as yet unidentified conditions. This study suggests that the level of Spx is tightly controlled by two different ClpP proteases.
Cell surface protein antigen (PAc) and water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing enzyme (GTF-I) produced by cariogenic Streptococcus mutans are two major factors implicated in the colonization of the human oral cavity by this bacterium. We examined the effect of bovine milk, produced after immunization with a fusion protein of functional domains of these proteins, on the recolonization of S. mutans. To prepare immune milk, a pregnant Holstein cow was immunized with the fusion protein PAcA-GB, a fusion of the saliva-binding alanine-rich region (PAcA) of PAc and the glucan-binding (GB) domain of GTF-I. After eight adult subjects received cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) treatment, one subgroup (n = 4) rinsed their mouths with immune milk and a control group (n = 4) rinsed with nonimmune milk. S. mutans levels in saliva and dental plaque decreased after CPC treatment in both groups. Mouth rinsing with immune milk significantly inhibited recolonization of S. mutans in saliva and plaque. On the other hand, the numbers of S. mutans cells in saliva and plaque in the control group increased immediately after the CPC treatment and surpassed the baseline level 42 and 28 days, respectively, after the CPC treatment. The ratios of S. mutans to total streptococci in saliva and plaque in the group that received immune milk were lower than those in the control group. These results suggest that milk produced from immunized cow may be useful for controlling S. mutans in the human oral cavity.
Chemotactic factors regulate the recruitment of neutrophils, lymphocytes, or monocytes-macrophages to infectious and inflammatory sites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether monocyte-chemotactic and -activating factor (MCAF [MCP-1], a JE gene product) also influences the host defense mechanism against microbial infection. We evaluated the effect of recombinant human MCAF on the survival rate of mice systemically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella typhimurium. The administration of 2.5 micrograms of MCAF 6 h before infection completely protected the mice from lethal infection. Mice with cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia exhibiting increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa were also endowed with resistance by the same dose of MCAF. Administration of MCAF at -6 h was critical, since MCAF given either earlier or later than -6 h failed to rescue mice from lethal infection. The in vivo effect on the survival of mice paralleled the reduced recovery of viable P. aeruginosa or S. typhimurium from the peritoneal cavity, i.e., the number of recovered bacteria from the MCAF (2.5 micrograms per mouse)-treated mice was reduced to less than 2% of control mice for P. aeruginosa and 4% of control mice for S. typhimurium at 24 h. Since MCAF exhibited chemotaxis on murine macrophages as well as enhanced phagocytosis and killing of bacteria in vitro, the activation of macrophages, followed by the recruitment into the peritoneal cavity, is responsible for eliminating bacteria and thus enhancing the survival rate.
Microcystis aeruginosa is a common cyanobacterium in water blooms that appear widely in nutrient-rich, fresh, and brackish waters, and its toxic blooms cause the death of domestic animals. The administration of a crude toxic cell extract of M. aeruginosa K-139 to mice can produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and prompt severe physiological disturbances, especially liver damage, which can lead to death. The in vitro production of TNF-alpha by peritoneal macrophages was observed after stimulation with the cell extract or the purified toxin from K-139 cells. The expression of a TNF-alpha mRNA was also detected in spleen cells and peritoneal macrophages after stimulation with the cell extract. However, a previous injection of rabbit anti-murine TNF-alpha serum could prevent the liver damage to some extent and protect the mice from death. These findings indicate the involvement of TNF in microcystin shock.
Slt2p kinase activity controls cortical ER inheritance by regulating the association of the ER with the actin-based cytoskeleton. The polarisome complex affects ER inheritance through its effects on Slt2p, with different components playing distinct roles: some are required for Slt2p retention at the bud tip, whereas others affect Slt2p activation.
Ptc1p, a type 2C protein phosphatase, is required for a late step in cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In ptc1Δ cells, ER tubules migrate from the mother cell and contact the bud tip, yet fail to spread around the bud cortex. This defect results from the failure to inactivate a bud tip–associated pool of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase, Slt2p. Here we report that the polarisome complex affects cER inheritance through its effects on Slt2p, with different components playing distinct roles: Spa2p and Pea2p are required for Slt2p retention at the bud tip, whereas Bni1p, Bud6p, and Sph1p affect the level of Slt2p activation. Depolymerization of actin relieves the ptc1Δ cER inheritance defect, suggesting that in this mutant the ER becomes trapped on the cytoskeleton. Loss of Sec3p also blocks ER inheritance, and, as in ptc1Δ cells, this block is accompanied by activation of Slt2p and is reversed by depolymerization of actin. Our results point to a common mechanism for the regulation of ER inheritance in which Slt2p activity at the bud tip controls the association of the ER with the actin-based cytoskeleton.
Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the important virulence factors produced by H. pylori. VacA induces apoptotic cell death, which is potentiated by ammonia. VacA also causes cell death by mitochondrial damage, via signaling pathways that are not fully defined. Our aim was to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with VacA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We found that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key signaling protein of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was transcriptionally up-regulated following incubation of gastric epithelial cells with VacA. The effect of VacA on CHOP induction was significantly enhanced by co-incubation with ammonium chloride. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-alpha, which is known to occur downstream of the ER stress sensor PKR-like ER-localized eIF2-alpha kinase (PERK) and to regulate CHOP expression, was also observed following incubation with VacA in the presence of ammonium chloride. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA resulted in inhibition of VacA-induced apoptosis. Further studies showed that silencing of the PERK gene with siRNA attenuated VacA-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2-alpha, CHOP induction, expression of BH3-only protein Bim and Bax activation, and cell death induced by VacA with ammonium chloride, indicating that ER stress may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction during VacA-induced toxicity. Activation of ER stress and up-regulation of BH3-only proteins were also observed in human H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Collectively, this study reveals a possible association between VacA-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and activation of ER stress in H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a known risk factor for cardiovascular death in Western countries. Because Japan has a low cardiovascular death rate, the association between a lower level of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and mortality in Japan’s general population is unknown. To clarify this, we conducted a community-based longitudinal study. This study included 3253 subjects, who received spirometry from 2004 to 2006 in Takahata, with a 7-year follow-up. The causes of death were assessed on the basis of the death certificate. In 338 subjects, airflow obstruction was observed by spirometry. A total of 127 subjects died. Cardiovascular death was the second highest cause of death in this population. The pulmonary functions of the deceased subjects were significantly lower than those of the subjects who were alive at the end of follow-up. The relative risk of death by all causes, respiratory failure, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease was significantly increased with airflow obstruction. The Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that all-cause and cardiovascular mortality significantly increased with a worsening severity of airflow obstruction. After adjusting for possible factors that could influence prognosis, a Cox proportional hazard model analysis revealed that a lower level of FEV1 was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (per 10% increase; hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–0.98; and HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61–0.86, respectively). In conclusion, airflow obstruction is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular death in the Japanese general population. Spirometry might be a useful test to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular death and detect the risk of respiratory death by lung cancer or respiratory failure in healthy Japanese individuals.
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that combination therapy with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors plus calcium channel blockers (CCBs) elicits beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal events in hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risks. In the present study, we hypothesized that CCB enhances the protective effects of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) against diabetic cerebrovascular-renal injury. Saline-drinking type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice developed hypertension and exhibited impaired cognitive function, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, albuminuria, glomerular sclerosis and podocyte injury. These brain and renal injuries were associated with increased gene expression of NADPH oxidase components, NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress in brain and kidney tissues as well as systemic oxidative stress. Treatment with the ARB, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) reduced blood pressure in saline-drinking KK-Ay mice and attenuated cognitive decline, BBB disruption, glomerular injury and albuminuria, which were associated with a reduction of NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress in brain and kidney tissues as well as systemic oxidative stress. Furthermore, a suppressive dose of azelnidipine (3 mg/kg/day) exaggerated these beneficial effects of olmesartan. These data support the hypothesis that a CCB enhances ARB-associated cerebrovascular-renal protective effects through suppression of NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.
The electronic structure and geometry of redox-active metal cofactors in proteins are tuned by the pattern of hydrogen bonding with the backbone peptide matrix. In this study we developed a method for selective amino acid labeling of a hyper-thermophilic archaeal metalloprotein with engineered Escherichia coli auxotroph strains, and applied this to resolve the hydrogen bond interactions with the reduced Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster by two-dimensional pulsed electron spin resonance (EPR) technique. Because deep electron spin-echo envelope modulation of two histidine 14Nδ ligands of the cluster decreased non-coordinating 15N signal intensities via the cross-suppression effect, an inverse labeling strategy was employed in which 14N amino acid-labeled archaeal Rieske-type ferredoxin samples were examined in an 15N-protein background. This has directly identified Lys45 Nα as providing the major pathway for the transfer of unpaired electron spin density from the reduced cluster by a “through-bond” mechanism. All other backbone peptide nitrogens interact more weakly with the reduced cluster. The extension of this approach will allow visualizing the three-dimensional landscape of preferred pathways for the transfer of unpaired spin density from a paramagnetic metal center onto the protein frame, and will discriminate specific interactions by a “through-bond” mechanism from interactions which are “through-space” in various metalloproteins.
Glioma malignancy greatly depends on its aggressive invasion. The establishment of cell polarity is an important initial step for cell migration, which is essential for cell-directional translocation. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell polarity formation in glioma cell invasion remains limited. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has a critical role in the formation of cell polarity. We therefore investigated whether localized GSK-3β, a subtype of GSK-3, is important for glioma cell invasion. We reported here that the localized phosphorylation of GSK-3β at the Ser9 (pSer9-GSK-3β) was critical for glioma cell invasion. Scratching glioma cell monolayer up-regulated pSer9-GSK-3β specifically at the wound edge. Inhibition of GSK-3 impaired the cell polarity and reduced the directional persistence of cell migration. Consistently, down-regulation of GSK-3α and 3β by specific small interfering RNAs inhibited glioma cell invasion. Over-expressing wild-type or constitutively active forms of GSK-3β also inhibited the cell invasion. These results indicated the polarized localization of GSK-3 regulation in cell migration might be also important for glioma cell migration. Further, EGF regulated both GSK-3α and 3β, but only pSer9-GSK-3β was enriched at the leading edge of scratched glioma cells. Up- or down-regulation of GSK-3β inhibited EGF-stimulated cell invasion. Moreover, EGF specifically regulated GSK-3β, but not GSK-3α, through atypical PKC pathways. Our results indicated that GSK-3 was important for glioma cell invasion and localized inhibition of GSK-3β was critical for cell polarity formation.
Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of respiratory dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pulmonary function and serum antibodies to several connective tissue disease autoantigens (ACTDA) levels, which has not been investigated in a general population.
Blood sampling and spirometry were performed for subjects (n = 3,257) aged ≥40 years who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 to 2006. ACTDA was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and subjects with ACTDA values ≥20 were defined as positive.
In males, there were significant inverse relationships between logarithmically transformed ACTDA values and spirometric parameters, including % predicted values for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMF) as well as FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that except for the relationship between ACTDA and FEV1/FVC, these relationships were still significant after adjustment for Brinkman index (a measure of inhaled cigarette consumption). The prevalence of positive ACTDA was greater in male never-smokers with mixed ventilation disorders and relatively severe airflow obstruction (% predicted FEV1 below the median value).
Autoimmunity may be involved in the mechanism of impaired pulmonary function in the general population.
Acute lung injury secondary to smoke inhalation is a major source of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. We tested the hypothesis that nebulized epinephrine would ameliorate pulmonary dysfunction secondary to acute lung injury by reducing airway hyperemia and edema formation and mediating bronchodilatation in an established, large animal model of inhalation injury.
Prospective, controlled, randomized trial.
University research laboratory.
Twenty-four chronically instrumented, adult, female sheep.
Following baseline measurements, the animals were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 5), an injured and saline-treated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with 4 mg of nebulized epinephrine every 4 hrs (n = 6). Inhalation injury was induced by 48 breaths of cotton smoke. The dose of epinephrine was derived from dose finding experiments (n = 7 sheep).
Measurements and Main Results
The injury induced significant increases in airway blood flows, bronchial wet/dry weight ratio, airway obstruction scores, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content, and contributed to severe pulmonary dysfunction as evidenced by a significant decline in Pao2/Fio2 ratio and increase in pulmonary shunt fraction. Nebulization of epinephrine significantly reduced tracheal and main bronchial blood flows, ventilatory pressures, and lung malondialdehyde content. The treatment was further associated with significant improvements of Pao2/Fio2 ratio and pulmonary shunting.
Nebulization of epinephrine reduces airway blood flow and attenuates pulmonary dysfunction in sheep subjected to severe smoke inhalation injury. Future studies will have to improve the understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms and identify the optimal dosing for the treatment of patients with this injury.
acute lung injury; adrenaline; aerosolization; airway blood flow; bronchodilatation; sheep