Prenyl- and pyrano-xanthones derived from 1,3,6-trihydroxy-9H-xanthen-9-one, a basic backbone of gambogic acid (GA), were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (KB, KBvin, A549, and DU-145) and anti-inflammatory activity toward superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB. Among them, prenylxanthones 7-13 were generally less active than pyranoxanthones 14-21 in both anticancer and anti-inflammatory assays. Furthermore, two angular 3,3-dimethypyranoxanthones (16 and 20) showed the greatest and selective activity against the KBvin multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line with IC50 values of 0.9 and 0.8 μ g/mL, respectively. An angular 3-methyl-3-prenylpyranoxanthone (17) selectively inhibited elastase release with 200 times more potency than phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), the positive control.
1,3,6-Trihydroxy-9H-xanthen-9-one; Gambogic acid (GA); Prenylxanthones; Pyranoxanthones; Cytotoxicity; Anti-inflammatory activity
Novel dimethyl-4,4′-dimethoxy-5,6,5′,6′-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2′-dicarboxylate (DDB) analogs were designed and synthesized to improve their chemosensitizing action on KBvin (vincristine resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells, a multi-drug resistant cell line over-expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that aromatic and bulky aliphatic side chains at the 2,2′-positions effectively and significantly sensitized P-gp overexpressing multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (TAX), vincristine (VCR), and doxorubicin (DOX). DDB derivatives 16 and 23 showed 5–10 times more effective reversal ability than verapamil (VRP) for TAX and VCR. Analog 6 also exhibited five times greater chemosensitizing effect against DOX than VRP. Importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed by the active DDB analogs against both non-MDR and MDR cells, suggesting that DDB analogs serve as the novel lead compounds for the development of chemosensitizers to overcome MDR phenotype. The mechanism of action studies demonstrated that effective inhibition of P-glycoprotein by DDB analogs dramatically elevated cellular concentration of anticancer drugs.
Previously, we reported that 4-amino-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (ABO) and 4-amino-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (ATBO) analogues, which were developed from the lead natural produce neo-tanshinlactone, are potent cytotoxic agents. In order to improve on their water solubility, the diamino analogues and related salts were designed. All synthesized compounds were assayed for cytotoxicity, and selected compounds were evaluated for in vivo anti-mammary epithelial proliferation activity in wild-type mice and mice predisposed for mammary tumors due to Brca1/p53 mutations. The new derivatives 10, 16 (ABO), 22, and 27 (ATBO) were the most active analogues with IC50 values of 0.038–0.085 μM in the cytotoxicity assay. Analogue 10 showed around 50-fold improved water solubility compared with the prior lead ABO compound 4-[(4'-methoxyphenyl)amino]-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (3). Compounds 3, 4, 10, and 22 significantly reduced overall numbers of mammary cells as indicated by the reduction of mammary gland branching in mutant mice. A one-week treatment with 10 resulted in 80% reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the cancer prone mammary gland. These four compounds had differential effects on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in wild-type mouse and mouse model of human breast cancers. Compound 10 merits further development as a promising anticancer clinical trial candidate.
Drug usefulnessis frequently obstructed by the incidence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype and severe adverse effects. Exploiting collateral sensitive(CS)agents (in this case also called MDR-selective agents), which selectively target only MDR cells, is an emerging and novel approach to overcome MDR in cancer treatment. In prior studies, we found that 4′-methyl-6,6,8-triethyldesmosdumotin B (4′-Me-TEDB, 2) is an MDR-selective synthetic flavonoid with significant in vitro anticancer activity against a MDR cell line (KB-Vin) but without activity against the parent cells (KB) as well as other non-MDR tumor cells. Our recent results suggest the absolute MDR-selectivity varies depending on the cell-line system. In order to explore this further and to better understand the critical pharmacophores, we have synthesized nine novel analogues of 2, which contain heteroaromatic as well ascycloalkyl B-rings. The new compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity to explore the effect of B-ring modifications on MDR-selectivity. All analogues, except 7, 9 and 10, were identified as significant MDR-selective compounds. This observation solidifies the importance of the 5-hydroxy-6,8,8-trialkyl-4H-chromene-4,7(8H)-dione skeleton (AC-ring system) for the pharmacological activity and establishes the B-ring as less critical for the broader spectrum MDR-selectivity. Notably, 3-furanyl (3)and 2-thiophenyl (6)analogues displayed substantial MDR–selectivity with KB/KB-Vin ratios of >12 and 16, respectively. Furthermore, 3 and 6 also exhibited MDR–selectivity in a second set of paired cell lines, the MDR/non-MDR hepatoma-cell system. Interestingly, a cyclohexyl analogue (11) showed moderate inhibition of A549, DU145, and PC-3 cell growth, while the other compounds were inactive. These new findings are discussed in terms of current understanding of mechanism and structure–activity relationship (SAR) of our novel MDR-selective flavonoids.
Triethyldesmosdumotin B; Multi-drug resistance; MDR-selectivity (collateral sensitivity); Heteroaromatic ring; Cycloalkyl ring
Three novel 1-alkyldaphnane-type diterpenes, stelleralides A–C (4–6), and five known compounds were isolated from the roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. The structures of 4–6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Several isolated compounds showed potent anti-HIV activity. Compound 4 showed extremely potent anti-HIV activity (EC90 0.40 nM) with the lowest cytotoxicity (IC50 4.3 μM), and appears to be a promising compound for development into anti-AIDS clinical trial candidates.
(ATBO) analogs were found to be significant in vitro anticancer agents in our
previous research. Our continuing study has now discovered a new simplified
(monocyclic rather than tricyclic) class of cytotoxic agents,
4-amino-2H-pyran-2-one (APO) analogs. By incorporating
various substituents on the pyranone ring, we have established preliminary
structure-activity relationships (SAR). Analogs 19, 20,
23, and 26–30 displayed significant tumor
cell growth inhibitory activity in vitro. The most active compound
27 exhibited ED50 values of 0.059–0.090
4-Amino-2H-pyran-2-one (APO) analogs; Neo-tanshinlactone; Cytotoxicity
We previously reported that the biological activity of analogues of desmosdumotin B (1) was dramatically changed depending on the B-ring system. A naphthalene B-ring analogue 3 exerted potent in vitro activity against a diverse panel of human tumor cell lines with GI50 values of 0.8–2.1 μM. In contrast, 1-analogues with a phenyl B-ring showed unique selective activity against P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing multidrug resistance cell line. We have now prepared and evaluated 1-analogues with bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic B-ring systems as in vitro inhibitors of human cancer cell line proliferation. Among all synthesized derivatives, 21 with a benzo[b]thiophenyl B-ring was highly active, with GI50 values of 0.06–0.16 μM, and this activity was not influenced by overexpression of P-gp. Furthermore, 21 inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro with an IC 50 value of 2.0 μM and colchicine binding by 78% as well as cellular microtubule polymerization and spindle formation.
In our ongoing study of the desmosdumotin C (1) series, twelve new analogues, 21–32, mainly with structural modifications in ring-A, were prepared and evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative activity against several human tumor cell lines. Among them, the 4′-iodo-3,3,5-tripropyl-4-methoxy analogue (31) showed significant antiproliferative activity against multiple human tumor cell lines with ED50 values of 1.1–2.8 μM. Elongation of the C-3 and C-5 carbon chains reduced activity relative to propyl substituted analogues; however, activity was still better than that of natural compound 1. Among analogues with various ether groups on C-4, compounds with methyl (2) and propyl (26) ethers inhibited cell growth of multiple tumor cells lines, while 28 with an isobutyl ether showed selective antiproliferative activity against lung cancer A549 cells (ED50 1.7 μM). The gene expression profiles showed that 3 may modulate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and chromosome separation, and thus, arrest cells at the G2/M-phase.
Desmosdumotin C; Antiproliferative activity; Human tumor cell lines; Microarray
In our ongoing modification study of neo-tanshinlactone (1), we discovered 2-(furan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-ol (FNO) derivatives 3 and 4 as a new class of anti-tumor agents. To explore structure-activity relationships (SAR) of this scaffold, 18 new analogs, 6–12 and 14–24, were designed and synthesized. The C11-esters 7 and 12 displayed broad anti-tumor activity (ED50 1.1–4.3 µg/mL against seven cancer cell lines), while C11-hydroxymethyl 14 showed unique selectivity against the SKBR-3 breast cancer cell line (ED50 0.73 µg/mL). Compounds 15 and 22 displayed potent and selective anti-breast tumor activity (ED50 1.7 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively, against MDA-MB-231). The SAR results demonstrated that the substitutions from the ring-opened lactone ring C of 1 are critical to the anti-tumor potency as well as the apparent tumor-tissue type selectivity. Treatment with 3 in Brca1f11/f11p53f5&6/f5&6Crec mice models significantly inhibited the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells and branching of mammary glands.
2-(furan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-ol analogs; structure-activity relationships; anti-breast tumor agents
In our exploration of new biologically active chemical entities, we designed and synthesized a novel class of antitumor agents, substituted 4-amino-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (ATBO) analogs. We evaluated their cytotoxic activity against seven human tumor cell lines from different tissues, and established preliminary structure-activity relationships (SAR). All analogues, except 8, 9, and 25-27, displayed potent tumor cell growth inhibitory activity. Especially, compounds 15 and 33 with a 4-methoxyphenyl group at position C-4 were extremely potent with ED50 values of 0.008-0.064 μM and 0.035-0.32 μM, respectively. Compound 15 was the most potent analog compared with structurally related neo-tanshinlactone (e.g., 1) and 4-amino-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (ABO, e.g., 4) analogs, and thus merits further exploration as an anti-cancer drug candidate.
4-Amino-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-ones (ATBO); Cytotoxic activity; Neo-tanshinlactone
A new quassinoid, designated 2′-(R)-O-acetylglaucarubinone (1), and seven known quassinoids (2–8) were isolated, using bioactivity-guided separation, from the bark of Odyendyea gabonensis (Pierre) Engler [syn. Quassia gabonensis Pierre (Simaroubaceae)]. The structure of 1 was determined by spectroscopic analysis, and by semi-synthesis from glaucarubolone. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of compounds 1–8 were also established from detailed analysis of two-dimensional NMR spectra, and the reported configurations in odyendene (7) and odyendane (8) were corrected. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxicity against multiple cancer cell lines. Further investigation using various types of breast and ovarian cancer cell lines suggested that 1 does not target the estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR). When tested against mammary epithelial proliferation in vivo using a Brca1/p53-deficient mice model, 1 also caused significant reduction in mammary duct branching.
6,6,8-Triethyldesmosdumotin B (2) was discovered as a MDR–selective flavonoid with significant in vitro anticancer activity against a multi-drug resistant (MDR) cell line (KB-VIN) but without activity against the parent cells (KB). Additional 2-analogues were synthesized and evaluated to determine the effect of B-ring modifications on MDR-selectivity. Analogues with a B-ring Me (3) or Et (4) group had substantially increased MDR–selectivity. Three new disubstituted analogues, 35, 37 and 49, also had high collateral sensitivity (CS) indices of 273, 250 and 100, respectively. Furthermore, 2–4 also displayed MDR-selectivity in an MDR hepatoma-cell system. While 2–4 showed either no or very weak inhibition of cellular P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, they either activated or inhibited the actions of the first generation P-gp inhibitors verapamil or cyclosporin, respectively.
4-Amino-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one (ABO) analogs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for cytotoxic activity. Among all 4-substituted ABO analogs, cyclohexyl (12), N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (14), and various aromatic derivatives (15-25 and 27) exhibited promising cell growth inhibitory activity with ED50 values of 0.01-2.1 μM against all tested tumor cell lines. The 4′-methoxyphenyl derivative (18) and 3′-methylphenyl derivative (24) showed the most potent antitumor activity against a broad range of cancer cell lines with ED50 values of 0.01-0.17 μM. Preliminary SAR results indicated that substitutions on nitrogen are critical to the antitumor potency.
4-Amino-2H-benzo[h]chromen-2-one analogs (ABO); cytotoxic activity; structure-activity relationships
As a part of our continuing study of colchicinoids as therapeutically useful antitumor drugs, thiocolchicine derivatives, including their phosphate and other water soluble salts, were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin polymerization and for in vitro cytotoxicity. Three compounds, 7, 10, and 11, showed potent inhibition of tubulin assembly (IC50 = 0.88 – 1.1 μM). In addition, compound 7, a water soluble succinic acid salt of N-deacetylthiocolchicine (4), showed potent cytotoxicity against a panel of tumor cell lines, suggesting it might be a potential lead to be developed as a therapeutic antitumor agent. Compound 8, a water soluble succinic acid salt of N,N-dimethyl-N-deacetylthiocolchicine (5), showed selective activities against HCT-8 and SK-BR-3 cells. N,N-Diethyl-N-deacetylthiocolchicine (6) seemed not to be a substrate for the P-gp efflux pump, based on the similar ED50 values obtained against P-gp over-expressing KBvin (0.0146 μg/mL) cells and the parent KB (0.0200 μg/mL) cell line.
N-Alkylthiocolchinoids; Antitumor agents; Tubulin polymerization
Neo-tanshinlactone (1) and its previously reported analogs, such as 2, are potent and selective in vitro anti-breast cancer agents. The synthetic pathway to 2 was optimized from seven to five steps, with a better overall yield. Structure–activity relationships studies on these compounds revealed some key molecular determinants for this family of anti-breast agents. Several derivatives (19-21 and 24) exerted potent and selective anti-breast cancer activity with IC50 values of 0.3, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 μg/mL, respectively, against the ZR-75-1 cell lines. Compound 24 was two- to three-fold more potent than 1 against SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1. Importantly, 21 exhibited high selectivity; it was 23 times more active against ZR-75-1 than MCF-7. Compound 20 had an approximately 12-fold ratio of SK-BR-3/MCF-7 selectivity. In addition, analog 2 showed potent activity against a ZR-75-1 xenograft model, but not PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 xenografts, as well as high selectivity against breast cancer cell line compared with normal breast tissue-derived cell lines. Further development of lead compounds 19-21 and 24 as clinical trial candidates is warranted.
Dehydrozingerone analogs and related compounds were screened as potential antitumor promoters by using the in vitro short-term 12-O-tetradecanphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay. Among 40 synthesized compounds, the prenylated analogs 16 and 34–36 showed the most significant and promising activity (100% inhibition of activation at 1×10 3 mol ratio/TPA, and 82–80%, 37–35%, 13–11% inhibition at 5×102, 1×102, 1×10 mol ratio/TPA, respectively) in this screening. Their activity profiles were comparable to that of the reference standard curcumin. While a prenyl moiety conferred potent chemopreventive activity, an extended prenyl unit such as a farnesyl moiety did not improve activity. Because in vitro inhibitory effects in this assay generally correlate well with in vivo inhibitory effects on tumor promotion, our results strongly suggested that prenylated 16 and 34–36 are likely to be promising antitumor promoters.
dehydrozingerone; antitumor-promoting effect; Epstein-Barr virus; two-stage carcinogenesis
The first total synthesis of the naturally occurring tetracyclic homoisoflavonoid brazilein (1) and 14 new analogs (1a–n) is reported. Target compounds and intermediates were assayed for anti-inflammatory effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP/CB, and for cytotoxic activity against nasopharyngeal (KB), vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KBvin), lung (A549) and prostate (DU-145) human cancer cell lines. The most active compound 1b showed potent effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.9 µM, respectively, and was 65 times more potent than phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), the positive control, in the latter assay. Additionally, 1b exhibited broad spectrum in vitro anticancer activity with IC50 values of 6–11 µM against the four tested cancer cell lines.
homoisoflavonoid; brazilein; anti-inflammatory; cytotoxic
6-Phenyl-4H-furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one derivatives based on neo-tashinlactone (1) were synthesized and evaluated as novel anti-breast cancer agents. Compounds 10-13, 23, 25, and 27 showed potent inhibition against the SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell line. Importantly, 25 and 27 showed the highest cancer cell line selectivity, being approximately 100- to 250-fold more potent against SK-BR-3 (ED50 0.28 and 0.44 μM, respectively) compared with other cancer cell lines tested. In addition, 25 displayed low cytotoxicity against normal breast cell lines 184A1 and MCF10A. Compounds 25 and 27 merit further investigation in our continuing program to generate and develop selective anti-breast cancer agents.
Tetrahydroneotanshinlactone (TNT) and tetrahydronaphthalene-1-ol (TNO) derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for cytotoxic activity. The TNO derivatives were found to be a promising novel class of in vitro antitumor agents. The cyclohexene ring-A could dramatically affect the antitumor activity and selectivity. Compound 20 showed the highest potency with ED50 values of 0.7 and 1.7 µM against SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cell lines, respectively.
Tetrahydronaphthalene-1-ol (TNO) analogs; Tetrahydroneotanshinlactone (TNT) analogs; Cytotoxicity; Breast cancer
C-3 Esterifications of betulinic acid (BA, 1) and its A-ring homolog, ceanothic acid (CA, 2), were carried out to provide sixteen terpenoids, 4-19, including nine new compounds (4-12). All synthesized compounds were evaluated in an in vitro antitumor-promoting assay using the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. Among them, compounds 4-6, 11-14, 16, and 17 displayed remarkable inhibitory effects of EBV-EA activation. BA analog 6, which contains a prenyl-like group, showed the most potent inhibitory effect (100, 76, 37, and 11% inhibition of EBA activation at 1000, 500, 100 and 10 mol ratio/TPA, respectively, with IC50 value of 285 mol ratio/32pmol TPA). Compound 6 merits further development as a cancer preventive agent.
Betulinic acid; Ceanothic acid; Antitumor-promoter; Cancer preventive agents; Epstein-Barr virus
Calanquinone A (1) was isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of Calanthe arisanensis through bioassay-guided fractionation. Its structure was identified by spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxicity (EC50 < 0.5 µg/mL) against lung (A549), prostate (PC-3 and DU145), colon (HCT-8), breast (MCF7), nasopharyngeal (KB), and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal (KB-VIN) cancer cell lines, and interestingly, showed an improved drug resistance profile compared to paclitaxel. The total synthesis of 1 was also achieved and reported herein.
3-O-3′(or 2′)-methylsuccinyl-betulinic acid (MSB) derivatives were separated by using recycle HPLC. The structures of four isomers were assigned by NMR and asymmetric synthesis. 3-O-3′S-Methylsuccinyl-betulinic acid (3′S-MSB, 4) exhibited potent anti-HIV activity with an EC50 value of 0.0087 μM and a TI value of 6.3×103, which is comparable to the data for bevirimat (DSB, PA-457), a current clinical trials drug that was also derived from betulinic acid. The anti-HIV potency of 4 was slightly better than that of AZT.
Protoapigenone (1), isolated from Thelypteris torresiana, previously showed significant cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines. In a continued structure-activity relationship study, the first total synthesis and modification of 1 were achieved. All synthesized compounds and related intermediates were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and A549. Among them, 24 showed 2.2-14.2 fold greater cytotoxicity than 1 and naphthyl A-ring analogs remarkably enhanced the activity.
Esterification of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) with dehydrozingerone (DZ) resulted in a novel cytotoxic GA-DZ conjugate. Based on this exciting finding, we conjugated eleven different DZ analogs with GA or other triterpenoids, including oleanoic acid (OA) or ursolic acid (UA). In an in vitro anticancer assay using nine different human tumor cell lines, most of the GA-DZ conjugates showed significant potency. Particularly, compounds 5, 29, and 30 showed significant cytotoxic effects against LN-Cap, 1A9, and KB cells with ED50 values of 0.6, 0.8, and 0.9 μM, respectively. Similar conjugates between DZ and OA or UA were inactive suggesting that the GA component is critical for activity. Notably, although GA-DZ conjugates showed potent cytotoxic activity, the individual components (GA and DZ analogs) were inactive. Thus, GA-DZ conjugates are new chemical entities and represent interesting hits for anticancer drug discovery and development.
Glycyrrhetinic acid; Dehydrozingerone; Conjugation; Cytotoxicity
Various dietary antioxidants, including vitamins, flavonoids, curcumin, and a coumarin, were conjugated with paclitaxel (1) through an ester linkage. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against several human tumor cell lines as well as the corresponding normal cell lines. Interestingly, most tested conjugates selectively inhibited the growth of 1A9 (ovarian) and KB (nasopharyngeal) tumor cells without activity against other cell lines. Particularly, conjugates 16 and 20 were highly active against 1A9 (ED50 value of 0.005 μg/mL) as well as KB (ED50 values of 0.005 and 0.14 μg/mL, respectively) cells. Compound 22b, the glycinate ester salt of vitamin E conjugated with 1, appears to be a promising lead for further development as a clinical trial candidate as it exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Panc-1 (pancreatic cancer) with less effect on the related E6E7 (normal) cell line.
Conjugation; Paclitaxel; Antioxidant; Cytotoxicity