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2.  Comparative Immune Responses of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases during the 2-Year Period after Pneumococcal Vaccination▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology  2006;14(2):139-145.
Antibody responses to a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F in 84 patients with chronic pulmonary diseases over a 2-year period after vaccination were examined by using a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of these patients, 28 (31%) were low responders who had developed increases of at least twofold in the levels of serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in sera for none of the four serotypes at 1 month after vaccination. Although no specific clinical features of low responders were evident, their prevaccination levels of IgG for all serotypes were higher than those of responders. In responders, the levels of IgG specific for serotypes 14 and 23F in sera were greatly increased 1 month after vaccination and those specific for serotypes 6B and 19F were moderately increased. In contrast, no significant increases in the levels of IgG specific for serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F in the low responders during the same period were found, but the levels of IgG specific for serotype 14 did increase. Although a rapid decline in the levels of IgG for all serotypes in responders between 1 month and 6 months after vaccination was found, the levels of IgG specific for serotypes 14 and 23F in sera remained higher than the prevaccination levels for at least 2 years after vaccination. These data suggest the need for the revaccination of responders but not low responders among patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. Revaccination as early as 3 years postvaccination is recommended for responders to increase the reduced levels of IgG in sera, especially those specific for the weak vaccine antigens.
PMCID: PMC1797796  PMID: 17167035
3.  Comparative Molecular Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates from Young Children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and Meningitis in Hanoi, Vietnam 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2005;43(5):2474-2476.
Thirty-seven Haemophilus influenzae strains from nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and 44 H. influenzae strains from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated. Of the 37 H. influenzae isolates from NP, the serotypes of 30 isolates were nontypeable, 4 were type b, 2 were type c, and 1 was type a, whereas all of the 44 isolates from CSF were type b. The MICs of 16 antibiotics for the H. influenzae isolates from NP and CSF were similar, and no β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain was found. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that the 37 H. influenzae strains from NP had 22 PFGE patterns, with none predominating, and the 44 H. influenzae strains from CSF had 9 PFGE patterns, with patterns α (22 isolates) and β (12 isolates) predominating. Our results indicate that two predominant types of H. influenzae type b strains have the potential to spread among children with meningitis in Hanoi, Vietnam.
PMCID: PMC1153806  PMID: 15872287
4.  Possible High Rate of Transmission of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Including β-Lactamase-Negative Ampicillin-Resistant Strains, between Children and Their Parents 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(1):362-365.
The possible transmission of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae between children and their parents was evaluated in 18 pairs of subjects from 15 families. Of the 33 isolates, 31 were found to be β-lactamase negative, including 10 β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin (AMP)-resistant (BLNAR) strains (AMP MIC, ≥1.0 μg/ml) and 2 were β-lactamase producing. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that 10 BLNAR isolates had 6 patterns, 23 non-BLNAR isolates had 13 patterns, and these patterns were different from each other, except for 1 pattern. As a result, the PFGE patterns in 14 of 18 pairs were indistinguishable and those in 4 pairs were different. These data indicate a possible high rate of intrafamilial transmission of nontypeable H. influenzae, including BLNAR strains, between children and their parents.
PMCID: PMC321711  PMID: 14715779
5.  Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Serotype Composition of Carriage and Invasive Pneumococci among Bangladeshi Children: Implications for Treatment Policy and Vaccine Formulation 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(12):5582-5587.
The nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is thought to pose a risk for invasive pneumococcal diseases, and the evaluation of carriage strains is thus often used to inform antibiotic treatment and vaccination strategies for these diseases. In this study, the age-specific prevalences, resistance to antibiotics, and serotype distributions of 1,340 carriage strains were analyzed and compared to 71 pneumococcal strains isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of children under 5 years old with meningitis. Overall, the nasal carriage rate was 47%. One-fourth (26%) of the infants under 1 month of age and one-half (48%) of the infants under 12 months of age were colonized with S. pneumoniae. Rural children were colonized earlier than those from urban areas. Approximately one-fourth and one-half of the cases of pneumococcal meningitis occurred in the first 3 and 6 months of life, respectively. The respective rates of resistance for carriage and meningitis strains to penicillin (7 and 3%), cotrimoxazole (77 and 69%), and erythromycin (2 and 1%) were similar, whereas chloramphenicol resistance was lower among carriage strains (3%) than among meningitis strains (15.5%). The predominant serogroups of carriage and invasive isolates were variable and widely divergent. Thus, hypothetical 7-, 9-, and 11-valent vaccines, based on the predominant carriage strains of the present study, would cover only 23, 26, and 30%, respectively, of the serotypes causing meningitis. Further, currently available 7-, 9-, and 11-valent vaccines would protect against only 26, 43, and 48%, respectively, of these meningitis cases. In conclusion, while the surveillance of carriage strains for resistance to antibiotics appears useful in the design of empirical treatment guidelines for invasive pneumococcal disease, data on the serotypes of carriage strains have limited value in vaccine formulation strategies, particularly for meningitis cases.
PMCID: PMC308982  PMID: 14662944
6.  Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Serotype Distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Serotype 19F, 6B, and 23F Pneumococci in Northern Thailand 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(9):4178-4183.
Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is widely spread worldwide. Our study was undertaken to examine the susceptibility and serotypes of S. pneumoniae in northern Thailand. Ninety-three S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from 93 patients at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand, from September 1999 to June 2000. The strains were isolated from sputum (n = 51), blood (n = 15), nasopharynges (n = 14), and other sources (e.g., pus, ears, ascites, and cerebrospinal fluid) (n = 13). Of the 93 isolates, 29 (31.2%) were susceptible, 24 (25.8%) showed intermediate resistance (MIC, 0.12 to 1.0 μg/ml), and 40 (43.0%) were fully resistant (MIC, ≥2.0 μg/ml) to penicillin G. Seven (46.7%) from blood, 5 (35.7%) from nasopharynges, 15 (29.4%) from sputum, and 2 (15.4%) from other sources were susceptible isolates. Serotyping with the use of antiserum revealed differences in the predominant types that were susceptible (6A, 11A, and 19A), intermediately resistant (6B and 23F), and fully resistant (6B, 19F, and 23F). Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of multidrug-resistant pneumococci showed four patterns (A, B, C, and D) for 16 isolates of serotype 19F, with pattern B being predominant (12 isolates). This finding was different from that with the Taiwan multidrug-resistant serotype 19F clone. Eleven isolates of serotype 6B all showed pattern E, and nine isolates of serotype 23F showed two patterns (F and G), with pattern F being predominant (seven isolates). This finding was similar to that with the Spanish multidrug-resistant serotype 23F clone. Our results indicated that the resistance of pneumococci to antibiotics in northern Thailand is progressing rapidly and that effort should be intensified to prevent any spread of pandemic multidrug-resistant serotypes 19F, 6B, and 23F.
PMCID: PMC193840  PMID: 12958244
7.  Emergence of Rifampin-Resistant Rhodococcus equi with Several Types of Mutations in the rpoB Gene among AIDS Patients in Northern Thailand 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(6):2337-2340.
The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 30 Rhodococcus equi isolates obtained from 30 patients between 1993 and 2001 in northern Thailand were investigated. The MICs showed a tendency toward resistance to various antibiotics but sensitivity to imipenem, minocycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin (MICs, ≤0.5 μg/ml) and relative sensitivity to meropenem, clarithromycin, and ciprofloxacin (MICs, ≤2 μg/ml). Of the 30 isolates, 26 were susceptible (MICs, ≤1 μg/ml), 1 showed low-level resistance (MIC, 8 μg/ml), and 3 showed high-level resistance (MICs, ≥64 μg/ml) to rifampin. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the rpoB gene and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed for eight R. equi isolates from eight AIDS patients with pneumonia or lung abscess caused by R. equi between 1998 and 2001, including one low- and three high-level rifampin-resistant isolates. As a result, two high-level rifampin-resistant strains with PFGE pattern A had a Ser531Trp (Escherichia coli numbering) mutation, and one high-level rifampin-resistant strain with PFGE pattern B had a His526Tyr mutation, whereas one low-level rifampin-resistant strain with PFGE pattern C had a Ser509Pro mutation. Four rifampin-susceptible strains with PFGE patterns D and E showed an absence of mutation in the rpoB region. Our results indicate the presence of several types of rifampin-resistant R. equi strains among AIDS patients in northern Thailand.
PMCID: PMC156560  PMID: 12791846
8.  Fourteen-Member Macrolides Promote the Phosphatidylserine Receptor-Dependent Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Neutrophils by Alveolar Macrophages 
An inflammation of the airway of patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), is characterized by dense neutrophil infiltration. Resolution of the inflammation can be achieved by the removal of apoptotic neutrophils by human alveolar macrophages (AM) without liberating neutrophil proteases in the airway. To understand clinical efficacy for the treatment of DPB by 14- or 15-member macrolides, their effects on the phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by AM were examined. Treatment of AM with erythromycin (ERY) or clarithromycin at clinically achievable levels significantly increased the levels of phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. A serum factor was not essential for the enhancement by these 14-member macrolides. Of the antibiotics tested, these effects were specific for the 14-member macrolides and a 15-member macrolide, azithromycin, but not for the 16-member macrolides, clindamycin or β-lactam antibiotics. The enhanced phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by ERY had no effect on the levels of interleukin-8 or tumor necrosis factor alpha production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated AM after phagocytosis of the apoptotic neutrophils. The increased phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by ERY was also found to be phosphatidylserine receptor-dependent for AM. These data indicate a novel anti-inflammatory action of 14-member and 15-member macrolides, and suggest that such antibiotics achieve clinical efficacy for patients with DPB, in part, through enhancing the nonphlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by AM.
PMCID: PMC148990  PMID: 12499168
9.  High Rate of Transmission of Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae between Parents and Children 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(11):4357-4359.
Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae between children and their parents was evaluated in 29 pairs from 25 families. The serotypes of 35 pneumococcal isolates from 18 (62.1%) of 29 child-parent pairs were identical. Of the 35 isolates, 23 showed intermediate resistance and 10 were fully resistant to penicillin G. PCR indicated that all 35 strains had at least one alteration in penicillin-binding protein genes pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b and 33 strains had macrolide resistance genes mef(A) and/or erm(B). As a result, the PCR patterns of 16 of 18 pairs were identical. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 12 pairs were indistinguishable, 3 pairs were closely related, 2 pairs were possibly related, and only one pair was different. Our data indicate the presence of a high rate of transmission of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae between children and their parents.
PMCID: PMC139698  PMID: 12409431
10.  Fourteen-Member Macrolides Suppress Interleukin-8 Production but Do Not Promote Apoptosis of Activated Neutrophils 
A 14-member macrolide was found to inhibit interleukin-8 (IL-8) synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils but did not accelerate apoptosis in activated neutrophils. These data suggest that 14-member macrolides achieve clinical efficacy for chronic airway diseases partly by suppressing IL-8 production by activated neutrophils, but not by enhancing apoptosis in these cells.
PMCID: PMC127094  PMID: 11897597
11.  Low Concentrations of Mupirocin in the Pharynx following Intranasal Application May Contribute to Mupirocin Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(10):3775-3777.
We describe a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizing the pharynx. The MIC of mupirocin was 0.25 μg/ml before treatment and increased after treatment to 8 μg/ml. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we confirmed that the genotypes of MRSA that colonized the pharynx before and after the use of mupirocin were identical. We measured the delivery of mupirocin to the pharynx in three normal volunteers and two patients. Low concentrations of mupirocin were present in the pharynx in all cases 10 min to 3 days after intranasal application. Our data suggested that low concentrations of the drug in the pharynx after intranasal application of mupirocin ointment might explain the selection of mupirocin resistance in MRSA.
PMCID: PMC88432  PMID: 11574616
12.  Molecular Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a Causative Agent of Bronchopulmonary Infection: Relation to Colonization in the Upper Respiratory Tract 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(10):3867-3869.
Using five diagnostic markers, we compared the types of 72 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated simultaneously from the nasal cavity, pharynx, and sputum from 24 patients. Almost identical MRSA types had colonized the nasal cavity and sputum from the same patient for 21 (88%) of the patients. We speculate that most MRSA organisms isolated in sputum are derived from the nasal cavity, while a few are derived from the pharynx.
PMCID: PMC87496  PMID: 11015423
13.  Impairment of Endotoxin-Induced Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 2 Gene Expression in Alveolar Macrophages in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(5):2925-2929.
To elucidate the mechanism of the high incidence of lower respiratory tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus, we investigated the kinetics of production of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), an important mediator of lung neutrophil recruitment, using mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Intratracheal challenge with 1 mg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin, per kg of body weight resulted in a time-dependent increase in the levels of MIP-2 protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, with the peak concentration (49.4 ± 13 ng/ml) occurring at 3 h and significant neutrophil accumulation becoming apparent by 3 h in normal mice. In diabetic mice, the peak level of MIP-2 protein in BAL fluid did not occur until 6 h and was reduced to 21.9 ± 10 ng/ml. Immunohistochemical studies using anti-MIP-2 antibody confirmed that the main cellular source of MIP-2 in the lung after LPS challenge was alveolar macrophages (AMs) in normal mice. The lungs in diabetic mice, however, showed no AMs staining for MIP-2 within 3 h after LPS challenge. PCR analysis using whole-lung RNA showed a time-dependent increase in MIP-2 mRNA levels after LPS instillation. The level of MIP-2 mRNA in diabetic mice was markedly decreased compared to that in normal mice. Our results indicate that impairment of MIP-2 mRNA expression in the AMs in diabetic mice resulted in delayed neutrophil recruitment in the lungs, and this may explain the development and progression of pulmonary infection in diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC97505  PMID: 10768990
14.  Essential Role of Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-κB in Regulation of Interleukin-8 Gene Expression by Nitrite Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Respiratory Epithelial Cells 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(8):3872-3878.
Persistent infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa increases interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels and causes dense neutrophil infiltrations in the airways of patients with chronic airway diseases. Recently, we have reported that nitrite reductase from P. aeruginosa induces the production of IL-8 in respiratory cells, including bronchial epithelial cells. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of nitrite reductase-induced IL-8 expression in respiratory cells, A549 epithelial cells were transfected with plasmids containing serial deletions of the 5′-flanking region of the IL-8 gene and then exposed to nitrite reductase. Nitrite reductase significantly enhanced IL-8 gene promoter-driven reporter activity. This increased IL-8 gene expression was inhibited by mutating the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding element. Nitrite reductase enhanced nuclear localization of the NF-κB binding complex. Furthermore, nitrite reductase induced the degradation of IκBα, the major cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB, and the expression of IκBα mRNA. These data support the critical role of the activation of NF-κB in nitrite reductase-induced IL-8 gene expression in airway epithelium.
PMCID: PMC96667  PMID: 10417151
15.  Nitrite Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Released by Antimicrobial Agents and Complement Induces Interleukin-8 Production in Bronchial Epithelial Cells 
We have recently reported that nitrite reductase, a bifunctional enzyme located in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) generation in a variety of respiratory cells, including bronchial epithelial cells (K. Oishi et al. Infect. Immun. 65:2648–2655, 1997). In this report, we examined the mode of nitrite reductase (PNR) release from a serum-sensitive strain of live P. aeruginosa cells during in vitro treatment with four different antimicrobial agents or human complement. Bacterial killing of P. aeruginosa by antimicrobial agents induced PNR release and mediated IL-8 production in human bronchial epithelial (BET-1A) cells. Among these agents, imipenem demonstrated rapid killing of P. aeruginosa as well as rapid release of PNR and resulted in the highest IL-8 production. Complement-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa was also associated with PNR release and enhanced IL-8 production. The immunoprecipitates of the aliquots of bacterial culture containing imipenem or complement with anti-PNR immunoglobulin G (IgG) induced a twofold-higher IL-8 production than did the immunoprecipitates of the aliquots of bacterial culture with a control IgG. These pieces of evidence confirmed that PNR released in the aliquots of bacterial culture was responsible for IL-8 production in the BET-1A cells. Furthermore, the culture supernatants of the BET-1A cells stimulated with aliquots of bacterial culture containing antimicrobial agents or complement similarly mediated neutrophil migration in vitro. These data support the possibility that a potent inducer of IL-8, PNR, could be released from P. aeruginosa after exposure to antimicrobial agents or complement and contributes to neutrophil migration in the airways during bronchopulmonary infections with P. aeruginosa.
PMCID: PMC89209  PMID: 10103183

Results 1-15 (15)