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1.  Effect of Processing Route on the Surface Properties of Amorphous Indomethacin Measured by Inverse Gas Chromatography 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2012;13(4):1511-1517.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing route (i.e., quench cooling and ball milling) on the surface energy heterogeneity and surface chemistry of indomethacin (IMC). Recently developed inverse gas chromatography (IGC) methodology at finite concentrations was employed to determine the surface energy distributions of crystalline, quench cooled and milled IMC samples. Surface properties of crystalline and processed IMC were measurably different as determined by the IGC and other conventional characterization techniques: differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Quench cooled IMC was in fully amorphous form. Milled IMC showed no amorphous character by calorimetric or X-ray diffraction studies. It was demonstrated that both processed IMC samples were energetically more active than the crystalline IMC. In particular, milled IMC exhibited a relatively higher dispersive surface energy and higher surface basicity (electron donor capability). This may be attributed to the creation of surface defect sites or exposure of higher energy crystal facets during the milling process. This study confirms that processing route has notable influence on the surface energy distribution and surface acid–base character. IGC was demonstrated as a powerful technique for investigating surface properties of real-world, heterogeneous pharmaceutical materials.
PMCID: PMC3513430  PMID: 23135965
heterogeneity; indomethacin; inverse gas chromatography; surface disorder; surface energy
2.  Evaluation of Cardiac Function in Patients with Thalassemia Intermedia 
Thalassemia intermedia is a variety of beta thalassemia which shows clinical symptoms somewhere between asymptomatic carriers and thalassemia major. Cardiac dysfunctions due to chronic anemia and hemosiderosis are the major causes of death in these patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate cardiac function in these patients by echocardiography.
Materials and Methods
This case-control study was conducted on 22 thalassemic patients (mean: 16.5±5.8 years) and 66 healthy individuals (mean:16.07± 2.9years) as a control group from January 2007 to July 2008. There was no sign of cardiac involvement by physical examination, chest x-ray and ECG in patients. Echocardiographic parameters were measured in groups, and finally data was analyzed by SPSS software.
The mean of left ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI) (P-value=0.0001) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (P-value=0.0001) have statistically significant difference. Mean of interventricular septal dimension in diastole (IVSD), left ventricular posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWD), interventricular septal dimension in systole (IVSS) and left ventricular posterior wall dimension in systole (LVPWS) were also statistically significant with a P-value of, 0.002, 0.001, 0.01, 0.003, respectively. Aortic Pre-ejection period/Ejection time (PEP/ET) (P-value=0.009), ejection fraction (EF) (P-value=0.019), fractional shortening (SF) (P-value=0.041), left ventricular isovolumetric contraction time (ICT) (P-value=0.0001) and left ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT) (P-value=0.0001) were statistically significant. Mean of right ventricular MPI (P-value=0.0001) and IRT (P-value=0.0001) were also significantly different between two groups. Others echocardiographic parameters were not statistically significant (P-value>0.05).
Heart failures are earlier affected thalassemia intermedia patients compared with control group.
PMCID: PMC3915442  PMID: 24575263
Heart failure; Anemia; beta-Thalassemia
3.  Current understanding in diagnosis and management of factor XIII deficiency 
Factor XIII or "fibrin-stabilizing factor," is a transglutaminase circulates in the blood circulation as a hetero tetramer with two catalytic A subunits and two carrier B subunits. This important coagulation factor has a crucial role in clotting cascade and produces strong covalent bonds between soluble formed fibrin monomers during coagulation. This stable cross linked fibrin strands are resistanttodegradationby thefibrinolyticsystem that enablesthe bodyto stoppotential bleeding episodes. In the absence or severe decrease of factor XIII, although the clot is formed, but is rapidly degraded by the fibrinolytic system, and delayed bleedingoccurs.Factor XIII deficiency is an extremely rare bleeding disorder with estimated incidence of 1/2-3000, 000 in the general population. Presumptive diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was by clot solubility test in 5M urea or 1% monochloroacetic acid environments. In patients with abnormal screening clot solubility test, the disease can be confirmedbymore specifictestssuch as quantitative factor XIII activity assay andFXIIIAgassay.After diagnosis of disease all patients with severe factor XIII deficiency(<1 U/dl) shouldreceive prophylactic substitution therapywith fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate as traditional choices or purified concentrateof blood coagulation factor XIII (Fibrogammin P) inorder to control severe and life-threatening clinical complications of factor XIII deficiency.
PMCID: PMC3915454  PMID: 24575291
4.  Causes of New Cases of Major Thalassemia in Sistan and Balouchistan Province in South-East of Iran 
Iranian Journal of Public Health  2012;41(11):67-71.
Thalassemia is the most common monogenic disease in South-East of Iran. Despite the 70% reduction in Iranian thalassemia cases after thalassemia control comprehensive program, 601 affected babies were born in Sistan and Balouchistan Province, Iran from 2002 to 2010, so this study aims at investigating the causes of new thalassemia cases.
Data from this retrospective cross-sectional study was collected through interviews and information in the patients’ hospital records.
Data revealed that 52.4% of fathers and 78.4% of mothers of thalassemic children had elementary education or less. In addition, 78.6% of the couples did not undergo premarital screening for thalassemia and 71.2% of the couples were not notified of their own minor thalassemia until a child was born with major thalassemia. Of the diagnosed minor couples, about 25% did PND and the others did not carry out because mothers were unaware of proper gestational age and of the importance of this issue, financial problems, and the husbands’ disagreement to take the tests. Moreover, 16 mothers, in spite of being diagnosed of having a major fetus, refused to terminate the pregnancy.
The most preventable causes for affected births include couples’ unawareness of being minor and unawares of the PND importance and process.
PMCID: PMC3521888  PMID: 23304678
Thalassemia; Prevention; Prenatal diagnosis; Premarital screening; Iran
5.  Efficacy and safety of Iranian made Deferasirox (Osveral®) in Iranian major thalassemic patients with transfusional iron overload: A one year prospective multicentric open-label non-comparative study 
Purpose of the study
to determine the efficacy, adverse effects and safety of a new Iranian generic product of deferasirox (Osveral®) in Iranian transfusion dependent major thalassemic (TD-MT) patients.
In 9 main thalassemia treatment centers, all of TD-MT patients (aged ≥2 yrs) with serum ferritin (SF) levels≥1000 ng/ml, or >100 ml/kg of RBC transfusion,who could not tolerate parental iron chelating were recruited regardless of their previous iron chelation therapy. Periodical clinical and laboratory evaluations were conducted for adverse effects (AEs). Primary efficacy end point was Mean of Relative Change of Serum Ferritin (MRC-SF) from the baseline level during one year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), t test, chi-square or Fisher exact test were used for statistic analysis appropriately (P values <0.05 were considered as statistical significant).
In 407 cases the male/female ratio was 0.98. Mean age was 11.5±7.4 (2–58) years. The mean of initiating dose of Osveral® and mean usage dose during the study was 23.5±4.9 mg/kg and 24.9±4.9 mg/kg respectively. MRC-SF was −11.44% ±38.92 and it showed significant decline in SF (P value<0.001) one hundred and forty eight patients out of 407 patients experienced at least one. AE, the most common of them were transient increase in serum creatinin (97;24.1%) and>5 time increase in transaminases (24;5.89%).The causes of discontinuation of treatment were non-satisfactory treatment ( 24; 5.8%), poor or non-compliance of patients (21;5.1%), and adverse effects (13; 3.1%)
A detailed comparison with similar studies on deferasirox (Exjade®) shows a promising efficacy and safety for its Iranian generic product (Osveral ®).
PMCID: PMC3232111  PMID: 22615664
Thalassemia; Iron Chelation,; Osveral ®; Deferasirox; Safety; Efficacy.

Results 1-5 (5)