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author:("mutasa, twaa")
1.  Fetal demise and associated factors following umbilical cord prolapse in Mulago hospital, Uganda: a retrospective study 
Reproductive Health  2014;11:12.
Background
Umbilical cord prolapse is an obstetric complication associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. A few interventions may improve fetal outcome. In developed countries these have advanced to giving intrauterine fetal resuscitation. Conditions in low resource settings do not allow for some of these advanced techniques. Putting the mother in knee chest position and immediate delivery may be the only options possible.
We set out to determine the incidence of fetal demise and associated factors following umbilical cord prolapsed (UCP) in Mulago Hospital, Uganda.
Methods
In a retrospective study conducted in Mulago hospital, Uganda, file records of mothers who delivered between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009 and had pregnancies complicated by umbilical cord prolapse with live fetus were selected. We collected information on referral status, cord position, cervical dilatation, fetal heart state at the time of diagnosis of UCP, diagnosis to delivery interval, use of knee chest position, mode of delivery, birth weight and fetal outcome.
We computed incidence of fetal demise following UCP and determined factors associated with fetal demise in pregnancies complicated by UCP.
Results
Of 438 cases with prolapsed cord, 101(23%) lost their babies within 24 hours after birth or were delivered dead. This gave annual cumulative incidence of fetal death following UCP of 23/1000 live UCP cases delivered /year.
The major factors associated with fetal outcome in pregnancies complicated by UCP included; diagnosis to delivery interval <30 min, RR 0.79 (CI 0.74-0.85), mode of delivery, RR 1.14 (CI 1.02-1.28), knee chest position, RR 0.81 (CI 0.70-0.95).
Conclusions
The annual cumulative incidence of fetal death in our study was 23/1000 live UCP cases delivery per year for the period of 10 years studied. Cesarean section reduced perinatal mortality by a factor of 2. Diagnosis to delivery interval <30 minutes and putting mother in knee chest position were protective against fetal death.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-11-12
PMCID: PMC3911795  PMID: 24485199
Fetal demise; Umbilical cord prolapse; Uganda
2.  Evaluation of 'see-see and treat' strategy and role of HIV on cervical cancer prevention in Uganda 
Background
There is scant information on whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositivity has an influence on the outcome of treatment of precancerous cervical lesions using cryotherapy. We studied the prevalence of cervical abnormalities detectable by visual inspection and cervical lesions diagnosed by colposcopy according to HIV serostatus and described the outcomes of cryotherapy treatment.
Methods
Trained nurses examined women not previously screened for cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) in two family planning/post natal clinics in Kampala, Uganda, from February 2007 to August 2008. Women with abnormal visual inspection findings were referred for colposcopic evaluation and HIV testing. Women with precancerous cervical lesions detected at colposcopy were treated mainly by cryotherapy, and were evaluated for treatment outcome after 3 months by a second colposcopy.
Results
Of the 5 105 women screened, 834 presented a positive screening test and were referred for colposcopy. Of these 625 (75%) returned for the colposcopic evaluation and were tested for HIV. For the 608 (97.5%) women in the age range 20-60 years, colposcopy revealed 169 women with cervical lesions: 128 had inflammation, 19 had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), 13 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL), 9 had invasive cervical cancer and 2 had inconclusive findings. Detection rates per 1 000 women screened were higher among the older women (41-60 years) compared to women aged 20-40 years. They were accordingly 55% and 20% for inflammation, 10% and 2% for LGSIL, 5% and 2% for HGSIL, 6% and 1% for invasive cervical cancer.
Of the 608 women, 103 (16%) were HIV positive. HIV positivity was associated with higher likelihood of inflammation (RR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4).
Conclusions
Detection rates were higher among older women 41-60 years. Visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) used as a sole method for cervical cancer screening would entail significant false positive results. HIV seropositivity was associated with a higher prevalence of inflammatory cervical lesions. In view of the small numbers and the relatively short follow up time of 3 months, we could not make an emphatic conclusion about the effect of HIV serostatus on cryotherapy treatment outcome.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-7-4
PMCID: PMC2882355  PMID: 20459733
3.  Influences on uptake of reproductive health services in Nsangi community of Uganda and their implications for cervical cancer screening 
Background
Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed or referred with cervical cancer in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital have advanced disease. Plans are underway for systematic screening programmes based on visual inspection, as Pap smear screening is not feasible for this low resource country. Effectiveness of population screening programmes requires high uptake and for cervical cancer, minimal loss to follow up. Uganda has poor indicators of reproductive health (RH) services uptake; 10% postnatal care attendance, 23% contraceptive prevalence, and 38% skilled attendance at delivery. For antenatal attendance, attendance to one visit is 90%, but less than 50% for completion of care, i.e. three or more visits.
Methods
We conducted a qualitative study using eight focus group discussions with a total of 82 participants (16 men, 46 women and 20 health workers). We aimed to better understand factors that influence usage of available reproductive health care services and how they would relate to cervical cancer screening, as well as identify feasible interventions to improve cervical cancer screening uptake.
Results
Barriers identified after framework analysis included ignorance about cervical cancer, cultural constructs/beliefs about the illness, economic factors, domestic gender power relations, alternative authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge, and unfriendly health care services. We discuss how these findings may inform future planned screening programmes in the Ugandan context.
Conclusion
Knowledge about cervical cancer among Ugandan women is very low. For an effective cervical cancer-screening programme, awareness about cervical cancer needs to be increased. Health planners need to note the power of the various authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge such as paternal aunts (Sengas) and involve them in the awareness campaign. Cultural and economic issues dictate the perceived reluctance by men to participate in women's reproductive health issues; men in this community are, however, potential willing partners if appropriately informed. Health planners should address the loss of confidence in current health care units, as well as consider use of other cervical cancer screening delivery systems such as mobile clinics/camps.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-4-4
PMCID: PMC1936416  PMID: 17594474
4.  Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda 
Background
Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital.
Methods
In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques), attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening.
Results
Response rate was 92% (285). Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear.
Conclusion
Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause of these attitudes and practices and identify possible interventions to change them. Medical students leave medical school without adequate skills to be able to effectively screen women for cervical cancer wherever they go to practice. Medical students and nurses training curricula needs review to incorporate practical skills on cervical cancer screening.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-13
PMCID: PMC1413529  PMID: 16509979

Results 1-4 (4)