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1.  Metabolic complications and treatment of perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents 
The benefits of long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) are recognized all over the world with infected children maturing into adults and HIV infection becoming a chronic illness. However, the improved survival is associated with serious metabolic complications, including lipodystrophy (LD), dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, lactic acidosis and bone loss. In addition, the dyslipidemia mainly seen with protease inhibitors may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and potentially in children as they mature into adults. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly stavudine, zidovudine and didanosine are linked to development of LD and lactic acidosis. Perinatally infected children initiate ART early in life; they require lifelong therapy with multiple drug regimens leading to varying toxicities, all potentially impacting their quality of life. LD has a significant impact on the mental health of older children and adolescents leading to poor self-image, depression and subsequent poor adherence to therapy. Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is reported in both adults and children on ART with the potential for children to develop more serious bone complications than adults due to their rapid growth spurts and puberty. The role of vitamin D in HIV-associated osteopenia and osteoporosis is not clear and needs further study. Most resource-limited settings are unable to monitor lipid profiles or BMD, exposing infected children and adolescents to on-going toxicities with unclear long-term consequences. Improved interventions are urgently needed to prevent and manage these metabolic complications. Longitudinal cohort studies in this area should remain a priority, particularly in resource-limited settings where the majority of infected children reside.
doi:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18600
PMCID: PMC3691550  PMID: 23782481
children; adolescents; HIV; antiretroviral therapy; metabolic complications; cardiovascular disease
2.  High incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted with severe pneumonia in Uganda 
BMC Pediatrics  2013;13:16.
Background
A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in children presenting with severe pneumonia has previously been reported in South Africa. However, little is known about TB among children with pneumonia in Uganda and other resource limited countries. Moreover, TB is associated with high morbidity and mortality among such children. We conducted this study to establish the burden of pulmonary TB in children admitted with severe pneumonia in our setting.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Mulago, a National Referral and teaching hospital in Uganda. Hospitalised children 2 months to 12 years of age with severe pneumonia based on WHO case definition were enrolledfrom February to June 2011. Children with a previous TB diagnosis or receiving anti-TB treatment were excluded. Each child was screened for TB using Tuberculin skin test, Chest X-ray, induced sputum samples and blood culture for mycobacterium. Sputum smears were examined using fluorescent microscopy, and cultured on both Lowenstein Jensen media (LJ) and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT).
Results
Of the 270 children with severe pneumonia who were recruited over a 5-month period in 2011, the incidence ratio of pulmonary TB in children admitted with severe pneumonia was 18.9% (95% CI 14.6 – 23.9). The proportion of culture confirmed PTB was 6.3% (95% CI 3.8 – 9.7). Age group under 1 year and 1 to 5 years (OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.7 – 7.4) and OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.05 – 5.9) respectively) were more likely to be associated with pulmonary TB compared to those children over 5 years of age. A history of TB smear positive contact was associated with pulmonary TB (OR 3.0 (95% CI 1.3–6.5).
Conclusions
We found a high burden of pulmonary TB in children admitted with severe pneumonia. These data highlight the need for TB screening in children admitted with severe pneumonia so as to improve TB case finding and child survival.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-16
PMCID: PMC3584903  PMID: 23368791
3.  Considerations in Using US-Based Laboratory Toxicity Tables to Evaluate Laboratory Toxicities Among Healthy Malawian and Ugandan Infants 
Objectives
To determine normal hematologic and selected blood chemistry values among healthy, full-term, non–HIV-exposed infants in Uganda and Malawi, and to determine the proportion of healthy babies with an apparent laboratory toxicity based on Division of AIDS toxicity tables.
Design
This was a cross-sectional laboratory study of infants from birth to 6 months of age.
Methods
Blood samples were collected from a total of 561 infants and analyzed according to age categories similar to those in the 2004 Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Select chemistry and hematology parameters were determined and values compared with those in the toxicity tables.
Results
In the first 56 days of life, there were few graded toxicities except for neutropenia in 2 of 10 (20%) Ugandan and 13 of 45 (29%) Malawian infants at birth. After 7 days, about 20% of the infants in Uganda and Malawi would have been classified as having a neutropenia whereas 47% and 53% of those more than 2 months of age in Uganda and Malawi respectively, would have been reported as having an abnormal hemoglobin. Chemistry findings were not different from US norms.
Conclusions
These findings underscore the importance of establishing relevant local laboratory norms for infants.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181db059d
PMCID: PMC3033212  PMID: 20588184
Division of AIDS; normal laboratory reference values; non–HIV-exposed; toxicity tables; Ugandan; Malawian; infants
4.  Growth, immune and viral responses in HIV infected African children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study 
BMC Pediatrics  2010;10:56.
Background
Scale up of paediatric antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings continues despite limited access to routine laboratory monitoring. We documented the weight and height responses in HIV infected Ugandan children on highly active antiretroviral therapy and determined clinical factors associated with successful treatment outcomes.
Methods
A prospective cohort of HIV infected children were initiated on HAART and followed for 48 weeks. Body mass index for age z scores(BAZ), weight and height-for-age z scores (WAZ & HAZ) were calculated: CD4 cell % and HIV-1 RNA were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks. Treatment outcomes were classified according to; both virological and immunological success (VS/IS), virological failure and immunological success (VF/IS). virological success and immunological failure (VS/IF) and both virological and immunological failure (VF/IF).
Results
From March 2004 until May 2006, 124 HIV infected children were initiated on HAART. The median age (IQR) was 5.0 years (2.1 - 7.0) and 49% (61/124) were female. The median [95% confidence interval (CI)] BAZ, WAZ and HAZ at baseline were 0.29 (-2.9, -1.2), -1.2 (-2.1, -0.5) and -2.06 (-2.9, -1.2) respectively. Baseline median CD4 cell % and log10 HIV-1 RNA were; 11.8% (7.5-18.0) and 5.6 (5.2-5.8) copies/ml. By 48 weeks, mean WAZ and HAZ in the VF/IS group, which was younger, increased from - 0.98 (SD 1.7) to + 1.22 (SD 1.2) and from -1.99 (1.7) to + 0.76 (2.4) respectively. Mean increase in WAZ and HAZ in the VS/IF group, an older group was modest, from -1.84 (1.3) to - 0.41 (1.2) and -2.25 (1.2) to -1.16 (1.3) respectively. Baseline CD4 cell % [OR 6.97 95% CI (2.6 -18.6)], age [OR 4.6 95% CI (1.14 -19.1)] and WHO clinical stage [OR 3.5 95%CI (1.05 -12.7)] were associated with successful treatment outcome.
Conclusions
HIV infected Ugandan children demonstrated a robust increase in height and weight z scores during the first 48 weeks of HAART, including those who failed to completely suppress virus. Older children initiating HAART with severe immune suppression were less likely to achieve a successful treatment outcome. These data emphasize the importance of initiating HAART early to ensure adequate immune and growth responses.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-10-56
PMCID: PMC2923128  PMID: 20691045
5.  Predictors of Early and Late Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in a Breastfeeding Population: HIV Network for Prevention Trials 012 Experience, Kampala, Uganda 
Objective:
To determine the predictors for early versus later (breastfeeding) transmission of HIV-1.
Methods:
Secondary data analysis was performed on HIV Network for Prevention Trials 012, a completed randomized clinical trial assessing the relative efficacy of nevirapine (NVP) versus zidovudine in reducing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. We used Cox regression analysis to assess risk factors for MTCT. The ViroSeq HIV genotyping and a sensitive point mutation assay were used to detect NVP resistance mutations.
Results:
In this subset analyses, 122 of 610 infants were HIV infected, of whom 99 (81.1%) were infected early (first positive polymerase chain reaction ≤56 days). Incidence of MTCT after 56 days was low [0.7% per month (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.4 to 1.0)], but continued through 18 months. In multivariate analyses, early MTCT “factors” included NVP versus zidovudine (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.86), pre-entry maternal viral load (VL, HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.41), and CD4 cell count (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.28). Maternal VL (6–8 weeks) was associated with late MTCT (HR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.78 to 7.50), whereas maternal NVP resistance (6–8 weeks) was not.
Conclusions:
Maternal VL was the best predictor of both early and late transmission. Maternal NVP resistance at 6–8 weeks did not predict late transmission.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181afd352
PMCID: PMC2767188  PMID: 19617849
early/late postnatal; MTCT; HIV-1
6.  Total Lymphocyte Count: not a surrogate marker for risk of death in HIV infected Ugandan children 
Objectives
To determine the utility of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) in predicting the 12 month mortality in HIV infected Ugandan children; to correlate TLC and CD4 cell %.
Design
This is a retrospective data analysis of clinical and laboratory data collected prospectively on 128 HIV infected children in the HIVNET 012 trial.
Methods
TLC and CD4 cell % measurements were obtained at birth, 14 weeks and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of age and assessed with respect to risk of death within 12 months.
Results
Median TLC/ul (CD4 cell %) were 4150 (41%) at birth, 4900 (24%) at 12 months, 4300 (19%) at 24 months, 4150 (19 %) at 36 months, 4100 (18%) at 48 months and 3800 (20%) at 60 months. The highest risk of mortality within 12 months was 34–37% at birth and declined to 13–15% at 24 months regardless of TLC measurement. The correlation between CD4 cell % and TLC was extremely low overall (r = 0.01).
Conclusion
The TLC did not predict a risk of progression to death within 12 months and therefore TLC alone may not be a useful surrogate marker for determining those children in greatest need for antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected Ugandan children.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318183a92a
PMCID: PMC2721476  PMID: 18769352
Total Lymphocyte Count; HIV; Africa; children
7.  Species and genotypic diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Uganda 
Background
Smear microscopy, a mainstay of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in developing countries, cannot differentiate M. tuberculosis complex from NTM infection, while pulmonary TB shares clinical signs with NTM disease, causing clinical and diagnostic dilemmas. This study used molecular assays to identify species and assess genotypic diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates from children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis at a demographic surveillance site in rural eastern Uganda.
Methods
Children were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis as part of a TB vaccine surveillance program (2009–2011). Two cohorts of 2500 BCG vaccinated infants and 7000 adolescents (12–18 years) were recruited and followed up for one to two years to determine incidence of tuberculosis. Induced sputum and gastric aspirates were processed by the standard N-acetyl L-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH method. Sediments were cultured in the automated MGIT (Becton Dickson) liquid culture system and incubated at 37°C for at least six weeks. Capilia TB assay was used to classify mycobacteria into MTC and NTM. The GenoType CM/AS assays were performed to identify species while Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) PCR genotyping was used to assess genetic diversity of the strains within each species.
Results
Among 2859 infants and 2988 adolescents screened, the numbers of TB suspects were 710 and 1490 infants and adolescents respectively. The prevalence of NTM in infant suspects was 3.7% (26/710) (95% CI 2.5–5.2) while that in adolescent suspects was 4.6% (69/1490) (95% CI 3.6–5.8). On culture, 127 isolates were obtained, 103 of which were confirmed as mycobacteria comprising of 95 NTM and eight M. tuberculosis complex. The Genotype CM/AS assay identified 63 of the 95 NTM isolates while 32 remained un-identified. The identified NTM species were M. fortuitum (40 isolates, 63.5%), M. szulgai (9 isolates, 14.3%), M. gordonae (6 isolates, 9.5%), M. intracellulare (3 isolates, 4.7%), M. scrofulaceum (2 isolates, 3.2%), M. lentiflavum (2 isolates, 3.2%), and M. peregrinum (1 isolate, 1.6%). Genotyping did not reveal any clustering in M. intracellulare, M. gordonae and M. szulgai species. M. fortuitum, on the other hand, had two clusters, one with three isolates of M. fortuitum 1 and the other with two isolates of M. fortuitum 2 subspecies. The remaining 35 of the 40 isolates of M. fortuitum had unique fingerprint patterns.
Conclusion
M. fortuitum is the most common cause of infection by NTM among Infants and adolescents in rural Uganda. There is a varied number of species and genotypes, with minimal clustering within species, suggesting ubiquitous sources of infection to individuals in this community.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-88
PMCID: PMC3599115  PMID: 23413873

Results 1-7 (7)