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1.  Role of promoter hypermethylation in Cisplatin treatment response of male germ cell tumors 
Molecular Cancer  2004;3:16.
Background
Male germ cell tumor (GCT) is a highly curable malignancy, which exhibits exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin treatment. The genetic pathway(s) that determine the chemotherapy sensitivity in GCT remain largely unknown.
Results
We studied epigenetic changes in relation to cisplatin response by examining promoter hypermethylation in a cohort of resistant and sensitive GCTs. Here, we show that promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A and HIC1 genes is associated with resistance. The promoter hypermethylation and/or the down-regulated expression of MGMT is seen in the majority of tumors. We hypothesize that these epigenetic alterations affecting MGMT play a major role in the exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin, characteristic of GCTs. We also demonstrate that cisplatin treatment induce de novo promoter hypermethylation in vivo. In addition, we show that the acquired cisplatin resistance in vitro alters the expression of specific genes and the highly resistant cells fail to reactivate gene expression after treatment to demethylating and histone deacetylase inhibiting agents.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A and HIC1 genes play a role in resistance of GCT, while the transcriptional inactivation of MGMT by epigenetic alterations confer exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin. These results also implicate defects in epigenetic pathways that regulate gene transcription in cisplatin resistant GCT.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-3-16
PMCID: PMC420487  PMID: 15149548
2.  Chromosomal amplifications, 3q gain and deletions of 2q33-q37 are the frequent genetic changes in cervical carcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2004;4:5.
Background
Carcinoma of uterine cervix is the second most common cancers among women worldwide. Combined radiation and chemotherapy is the choice of treatment for advanced stages of the disease. The prognosis is poor, with a five-year survival rate ranging from about 20–65%, depending on stage of the disease. Therefore, genetic characterization is essential for understanding the biology and clinical heterogeneity in cervical cancer (CC).
Methods
We used a genome-wide screening method – comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify DNA copy number changes in 77 patients with cervical cancer. We applied categorical and survival analyses to analyze whether chromosomal changes were related to clinico-pathologic characteristics and patients survival.
Results
The CGH analysis revealed a loss of 2q33-q37 (57.1%), gain of 3q (54.5%) and chromosomal amplifications (20.77%) as frequent genetic changes. A total of 15 amplified chromosomal sites were detected in 16 cases that include 1p31, 2q32, 7q22, 8q21.2-q24, 9p22, 10q21, 10q24, 11q13, 11q21, 12q15, 14q12, 17p11.2, 17q22, 18p11.2, and 19q13.1. Recurrent amplified sites were noted at 11q13, 11q21, and 19q13.1. The genomic alterations were further evaluated for prognostic significance in CC patients, and we did not find any correlation with a number of clinical or histological parameters. The tumors harboring HPV18 exhibited higher genomic instability compared to tumors with HPV 16.
Conclusions
This study demonstrated that 2q33-q37 deletions, 3q gains and chromosomal amplifications as characteristic changes in invasive CC. These genetic alterations will aid in the identification of novel tumor suppressor gene(s) at 2q33-q37 and oncogenes at amplified chromosomal sites. Molecular characterization of these chromosomal changes utilizing the current genomic technologies will provide new insights into the biology and clinical behavior of CC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-4-5
PMCID: PMC356916  PMID: 15018632
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH); Chromosomal amplifications; DNA copy number changes; Clinical correlations; Cervical carcinoma
3.  Mapping common deleted regions on 5p15 in cervical carcinoma and their occurrence in precancerous lesions 
Molecular Cancer  2002;1:3.
Background
Previous studies have shown that the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p) exhibit frequent genetic changes in invasive cervical carcinoma (CC), and that these changes arise early during the carcinogenesis, in precancerous lesions. These data therefore suggest that loss of candidate tumor suppressor genes located on 5p is associated with the development of CC. However, the precise location of 5p deletions is not known.
Results
We performed a detailed deletion mapping of 5p in 60 cases of invasive CC. We found that 60% of the tumors exhibit a 5p loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The patterns of LOH allowed us to identify two minimal regions of deletions, one at 5p15.3 spanning a 5.5 cM genetic distance and a second site of 7 cM at 5p15.2-15.3. In addition, we also identified 5p deletions in 16% lesions of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). 5p LOH was found in 63% of HPV 16 positive tumors, while only 33% tumors with other HPV-types had 5p LOH. The differences in frequency of 5p LOH between tumors harboring HPV16 in combination with other HPV types and tumors harboring HPV16 DNA alone were significantly higher, suggesting a synergistic effect of high-risk types in causing genomic instability.
Conclusion
These findings implicate the presence of tumor suppressor gene(s) on 5p relevant to CC tumorigenesis.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-1-3
PMCID: PMC140145  PMID: 12392596
Cervical carcinoma; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; chromosome 5p; loss of heterozygosity; deletion mapping; human papilloma virus

Results 1-3 (3)