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1.  Development of tissue-engineered models of oral dysplasia and early invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma 
British Journal of Cancer  2011;105(10):1582-1592.
Current organotypic models of dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lack the complexity that mimics in vivo tissue. Here we describe a three-dimensional in vitro model of the oral epithelium that replicates tumour progression from dysplasia to an invasive phenotype.
The OSCC cell lines were seeded as a cell suspension (D20, Cal27) or as multicellular tumour spheroids (FaDu) with oral fibroblasts on to a de-epidermised acellular dermis to generate tissue-engineered models and compared with patient biopsies.
The D20 and Cal27 cells generated a model of epithelial dysplasia. Overtime Cal27 cells traversed the basement membrane and invaded the connective tissue to reproduce features of early invasive OSCC. When seeded onto a model of the normal oral mucosa, FaDu spheroids produced a histological picture mimicking carcinoma in situ with severe cellular atypia juxtaposed to normal epithelium.
It is possible to culture in vitro models with the morphological appearance and histological characteristics of dysplasia and tumour cell invasion seen in vivo using native dermis. Such models could facilitate study of the molecular processes involved in malignant transformation, invasion and tumour growth as well as in vitro testing of new treatments, diagnostic tests and drug delivery systems for OSCC.
PMCID: PMC3242522  PMID: 21989184
squamous cell carcinoma; oral mucosa; dysplasia; invasion; tissue engineered
2.  Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children following heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in infancy 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2003;88(3):211-214.
Aims: To ascertain whether the reduction in nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes induced by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) administered to infants persists beyond the age of 2 years.
Methods: Non-randomised, unblinded controlled study of 2–5 year old children who had received three doses of heptavalent PnCV (7VPnCV) in infancy and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 13 months, and unimmunised controls. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken in summer (150 vaccinated subjects, 126 controls) and winter (143 vaccinated subjects, 188 controls). The swabs were cultured and serotyped for Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Results: Carriage rates (vaccinated subjects: 24.7% and 43.4%; controls: 27.0% and 41.0%, in summer and winter respectively) and carriage of vaccine serotypes (subjects: 10.0% and 30.0%; controls: 13.5% and 31.5%, in summer and winter respectively) were similar in the two groups.
Conclusions: Effects of vaccination in infancy on rates of nasal carriage of pneumococcus and serotype replacement in children living in a largely unvaccinated population are no longer evident by 2–5 years of age.
PMCID: PMC1719498  PMID: 12598380

Results 1-4 (4)