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1.  Establishing proof of concept: Platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate may improve cartilage repair following surgical treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2012;3(7):101-108.
Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries in the athletic patient. They present a challenging clinical problem as cartilage has a poor potential for healing. Current surgical treatments consist of reparative (microfracture) or replacement (autologous osteochondral graft) strategies and demonstrate good clinical outcomes at the short and medium term follow-up. Radiological findings and second-look arthroscopy however, indicate possible poor cartilage repair with evidence of fibrous infill and fissuring of the regenerative tissue following microfracture. Longer-term follow-up echoes these findings as it demonstrates a decline in clinical outcome. The nature of the cartilage repair that occurs for an osteochondral graft to become integrated with the native surround tissue is also of concern. Studies have shown evidence of poor cartilage integration, with chondrocyte death at the periphery of the graft, possibly causing cyst formation due to synovial fluid ingress. Biological adjuncts, in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), have been investigated with regard to their potential in improving cartilage repair in both in vitro and in vitro settings. The in vitro literature indicates that these biological adjuncts may increase chondrocyte proliferation as well as synthetic capability, while limiting the catabolic effects of an inflammatory joint environment. These findings have been extrapolated to in vitro animal models, with results showing that both PRP and BMAC improve cartilage repair. The basic science literature therefore establishes the proof of concept that biological adjuncts may improve cartilage repair when used in conjunction with reparative and replacement treatment strategies for osteochondral lesions of the talus.
doi:10.5312/wjo.v3.i7.101
PMCID: PMC3399015  PMID: 22816065
Osteochondral lesion; Cartilage repair; Platelet-rich plasma; Bone marrow aspirate concentrate
2.  The Biology of Ewing Sarcoma 
ISRN Oncology  2013;2013:759725.
Objective. The goal of this study was to review the current literature on the biology of Ewing's sarcoma, including current treatments and the means by which an understanding of biological mechanisms could impact future treatments. Methods. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration was performed. Both preclinical and clinical evidence was considered, but specific case reports were not. Primary research articles and reviews were analyzed with an emphasis on recent publications. Results. Ewing sarcoma is associated with specific chromosomal translocations and the resulting transcripts/proteins. Knowledge of the biology of Ewing sarcoma has been growing but has yet to significantly impact or produce new treatments. Localized cases have seen improvements in survival rates, but the same cannot be said of metastatic and recurrent cases. Standard surgical, radiation, and chemotherapy treatments are reaching their efficacy limits. Conclusion. Improving prognosis likely lies in advancing biomarkers and early diagnosis, determining a cell(s) of origin, and developing effective molecular therapeutics and antiangiogenic agents. Preclinical evidence suggests the utility of molecular therapies for Ewing sarcoma. Early clinical results also reveal potential for novel treatments but require further development and evaluation before widespread use can be advocated.
doi:10.1155/2013/759725
PMCID: PMC3549336  PMID: 23346417
3.  A Rotational Scarf Osteotomy Decreases Troughing When Treating Hallux Valgus 
Background
The traditional scarf osteotomy has been associated with complication rates between 1.1% and 45%. We have modified the traditional technique with a rotational osteotomy to reduce these complications.
Questions/purposes
We determined whether a modified rotational scarf osteotomy improves functional outcome scores, allows correction of a wide degree of an intermetatarsal (IM) angle deformity, has a low incidence of troughing, and maintains normal ROM postoperatively in the treatment of symptomatic hallux valgus (HV).
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 140 patients: 38 men and 102 women with a mean age of 54 years (range, 35–66 years) who underwent surgery for HV and had a minimum followup of 24 months (mean, 41 months; range, 24–68 months). All patients had preoperative and postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot and Short Form (SF)-36 V2 outcome scores recorded.
Results
The mean AOFAS score improved from 52 points preoperatively to 92 points (range, 71–96 points) at followup. The mean SF-36 V2 score improved from 69 points preoperatively to 94 points (range, 67–98 points) at followup. The IM angle improved from a preoperative mean of 18° (range, 9°–23°) to a mean of 8° (range, 6°–12°). Eleven patients experienced a complication.
Conclusions
The modified rotational scarf osteotomy has a low complication rate (9%) and apparently reduces the risk of troughing. This procedure can reduce a high degree of IM angle deformity while restoring function to the forefoot.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1647-3
PMCID: PMC3032838  PMID: 20976578

Results 1-3 (3)