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1.  Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage following Reduced Doses of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and a 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Booster▿ †  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2010;17(12):1970-1976.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a reduced-dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) primary series followed by a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPS) booster on nasopharyngeal (NP) pneumococcal carriage. For this purpose, Fijian infants aged 6 weeks were randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 PCV doses. Within each group, half received 23vPPS at 12 months. NP swabs were taken at 6, 9, 12, and 17 months and were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Isolates were serotyped by multiplex PCR and a reverse line blot assay. There were no significant differences in PCV vaccine type (VT) carriage between the 3- and 2-dose groups at 12 months. NP VT carriage was significantly higher (P, <0.01) in the unvaccinated group than in the 3-dose group at the age of 9 months. There appeared to be a PCV dose effect in the cumulative proportion of infants carrying the VT, with less VT carriage occurring with more doses of PCV. Non-PCV serotype (NVT) carriage rates were similar for all PCV groups. When groups were pooled by receipt or nonreceipt of 23vPPS at 12 months, there were no differences in pneumococcal, VT, or NVT carriage rates between the 2 groups at the age of 17 months. In conclusion, there appeared to be a PCV dose effect on VT carriage, with less VT carriage occurring with more doses of PCV. By the age of 17 months, NVT carriage rates were similar for all groups. 23vPPS had no impact on carriage, despite the substantial boosts in antibody levels.
PMCID: PMC3008188  PMID: 20943882
2.  Safety and Immunogenicity of the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine at 12 months of age, following One, Two, or Threes Doses of the 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Infancy 
Vaccine  2010;28(18):3086-3094.
Fijian infants aged 6 weeks were stratified by ethnicity and randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 PCV-7 doses with or without the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) at 12 months. Strong booster effects for all 7 PCV-7 serotypes were elicited, and for 4/7 serotypes these responses were highest in the single PCV-7 group. There were fourfold rises in GMC for all non-PCV-7 serotypes. By 17 months the PPV-23 group still had significantly higher GMC (each p<0.001) for all serotypes. The PPV-23 was well tolerated and induced excellent responses for all serotypes which were greatest in the single PCV-7 group.
PMCID: PMC2857918  PMID: 20199764
Pneumococcal; polysaccharide; booster
3.  As a Bacterial Culture Medium, Citrated Sheep Blood Agar Is a Practical Alternative to Citrated Human Blood Agar in Laboratories of Developing Countries 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(9):3346-3351.
Human blood agar (HuBA) is widely used in developing countries for the isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens. This study compared citrated sheep blood agar (CSBA) and HuBA with defibrinated horse blood agar and defibrinated sheep blood agar (DSBA) for the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of reference and clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Reference and clinical strains of all organisms were diluted in brain heart infusion and a clinical specimen of cerebrospinal fluid and cultured on all agars. Viable counts, colony morphology, and colony size were recorded. Susceptibility testing for S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes was performed on defibrinated sheep blood Mueller-Hinton agar, citrated sheep blood Mueller-Hinton agar (CSB MHA), and human blood Mueller-Hinton agar plates. For all organisms, the colony numbers were similar on all agars. Substantially smaller colony sizes and absent or minimal hemolysis were noted on HuBA for all organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility results for S. pneumoniae were similar for the two sheep blood agars; however, larger zone sizes were displayed on HuBA, and quality control for the reference strain failed on HuBA. For S. pyogenes, larger zone sizes were demonstrated on HuBA and CSBA than on DSBA. Poor hemolysis made interpretation of the zone sizes difficult on HuBA. CSBA is an acceptable alternative for the isolation of these organisms. The characteristic morphology is not evident, and hemolysis is poor on HuBA; and so HuBA is not recommended for use for the isolation or the susceptibility testing of any of these organisms. CSB MHA may be suitable for use for the susceptibility testing of S. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC1594681  PMID: 16954271
4.  Seroprevalence of antibodies to group B streptococcal polysaccharides in Gambian mothers and their newborns. 
In developing countries, little is known about the relationship between group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization in pregnant women and serum antibody levels to capsular polysaccharide antigens of these organisms. This study examined the prevalence of antibodies to two polysaccharides of GBS, Ia and III, in 124 Gambian women with known GBS colonization at delivery and their newborns. Mean antibody levels in maternal-cord serum pairs were 4.06 +/- 0.25 micrograms/mL and 2.64 +/- 0.20 micrograms/mL for type Ia GBS, and 1.1 +/- 0.52 microgram/mL and 0.78 +/- 0.43 microgram/mL for type III GBS. Women colonized with type V GBS had significantly higher antibody levels to type III GBS than did noncolonized women, but no difference was found when these groups were compared for antibody levels to type Ia GBS. Women > or = 20 years had significantly higher antibody levels to type III GBS compared with younger women and those colonized by other GBS serotypes. Maternal antibodies to types la and III GBS were transferred across the placenta to newborns. The rarity of GBS disease in Gambia and other developing countries may be due to the prevalence of maternally derived GBS antibodies, the low prevalence of colonization with serotype III strains, or other undefined factors.
PMCID: PMC2608311  PMID: 9510625
5.  Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to respiratory syncytial virus in sera from mothers and newborns residing in the Gambia and in The United States. 
The prevalence of maternal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-neutralizing antibodies has been documented in developed countries, but there is little information from developing countries. We assessed the prevalence of RSV-neutralizing antibody in sera from Gambian women and their newborns and compared them with their American counterparts during a similar period. The geometric mean titers of maternal antibodies to RSV subgroup A in the two populations were similar, while titers of antibodies to RSV subgroup B in Gambian mothers were significantly higher (8.7 +/- 1.4 versus 7.9 +/- 1.3 [mean +/- standard deviation], P < 0.001). The titers of neutralizing antibody in newborns in both populations correlated with the neutralizing-antibody titers of their mothers. Thus, the status of neutralizing antibody to both major RSV subgroups was comparable among infants and mothers in a developing country, The Gambia, and those in a developed country, the United States.
PMCID: PMC170373  PMID: 8807217

Results 1-5 (5)