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1.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
2.  Nivolumab for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial 
Purpose
Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death–1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that restores T-cell immune activity. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity, dose-response relationship, and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
Patients and Methods
Patients with clear-cell mRCC previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were randomly assigned (blinded ratio of 1:1:1) to nivolumab 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship as measured by progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety.
Results
A total of 168 patients were randomly assigned to the nivolumab 0.3- (n = 60), 2- (n = 54), and 10-mg/kg (n = 54) cohorts. One hundred eighteen patients (70%) had received more than one prior systemic regimen. Median PFS was 2.7, 4.0, and 4.2 months, respectively (P = .9). Respective ORRs were 20%, 22%, and 20%. Median OS was 18.2 months (80% CI, 16.2 to 24.0 months), 25.5 months (80% CI, 19.8 to 28.8 months), and 24.7 months (80% CI, 15.3 to 26.0 months), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) was fatigue (24%, 22%, and 35%, respectively). Nineteen patients (11%) experienced grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs.
Conclusion
Nivolumab demonstrated antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile across the three doses studied in mRCC. No dose-response relationship was detected as measured by PFS. These efficacy and safety results in mRCC support study in the phase III setting.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2014.59.0703
PMCID: PMC4806782  PMID: 25452452
3.  Quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms or Toxicity (Q-TWiST) Analysis of Pazopanib Versus Sunitinib in Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Cancer  2016;122(7):1108-1115.
BACKGROUND
In a phase 3, randomized, open-label trial (COMPARZ; NCT00720941), pazopanib was found to be non-inferior to sunitinib in terms of progression-free survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma with no prior therapy. Overall treatment differences were evaluated in a post hoc analysis using a quality-adjusted time without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) methodology.
METHODS
Each patient’s overall survival was partitioned into 3 mutually exclusive health states: grade 3 or 4 toxicity (TOX), time without symptoms of disease or grade 3/4 toxicity (TWiST), and time after progression or relapse (REL). Time spent in each state was weighted by a health-state utility associated with that state and summed to calculate the Q-TWiST. A threshold utility analysis was used, applying utilities across the range of 0 (similar to death) to 1 (perfect health).
RESULTS
A total of 1,110 patients were enrolled (557 pazopanib, 553 sunitinib). The mean time spent with TOX was 31 days (95% confidence interval, 13–49) higher for sunitinib compared with pazopanib. In the threshold utility analysis, the difference in Q-TWiST ranged from -11 days (utility TOX=1, REL=0) to 43 days (TOX=0, REL=1), in favor of pazopanib across most utility combinations. Differences were significant in less than half of the utility combinations examined, typically when the utility for TOX was lower than the utility for REL.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients randomized to pazopanib had slightly longer Q-TWiST compared with sunitinib patients, primarily due to a reduced length of time spent with grade 3/4 toxicities.
doi:10.1002/cncr.29888
PMCID: PMC4996632  PMID: 27000445
renal cell carcinomas; pazopanib; sunitinib; drug toxicity; angiogenesis inhibitors
4.  Molecular analysis of aggressive renal cell carcinoma with unclassified histology reveals distinct subsets 
Nature Communications  2016;7:13131.
Renal cell carcinomas with unclassified histology (uRCC) constitute a significant portion of aggressive non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas that have no standard therapy. The oncogenic drivers in these tumours are unknown. Here we perform a molecular analysis of 62 high-grade primary uRCC, incorporating targeted cancer gene sequencing, RNA sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays. We identify recurrent somatic mutations in 29 genes, including NF2 (18%), SETD2 (18%), BAP1 (13%), KMT2C (10%) and MTOR (8%). Integrated analysis reveals a subset of 26% uRCC characterized by NF2 loss, dysregulated Hippo–YAP pathway and worse survival, whereas 21% uRCC with mutations of MTOR, TSC1, TSC2 or PTEN and hyperactive mTORC1 signalling are associated with better clinical outcome. FH deficiency (6%), chromatin/DNA damage regulator mutations (21%) and ALK translocation (2%) distinguish additional cases. Altogether, this study reveals distinct molecular subsets for 76% of our uRCC cohort, which could have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
A subset of renal cell carcinomas have uncertain histology and are aggressive in nature. Here, the authors examine this group of unclassified renal cancers using genomics techniques and identify further subclasses of the tumours that have differing prognoses.
doi:10.1038/ncomms13131
PMCID: PMC5059781  PMID: 27713405
5.  Phase I/II Trial of Paclitaxel Plus Ifosfamide Followed by High-Dose Paclitaxel, Ifosfamide, and Carboplatin (TI-TIC) with Autologous Stem Cell Reinfusion for Salvage Treatment of Germ Cell Tumors 
Clinical genitourinary cancer  2015;13(5):453-460.
Purpose
Salvage high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), consisting of 2–3 sequential cycles of high-dose (HD) carboplatin and etoposide (CE) can achieve durable remissions in approximately one-half of relapsed germ cell tumor patients. To improve upon these results and based on success with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP) as salvage conventional-dose chemotherapy, we conducted a phase I/II trial of HD paclitaxel plus ifosfamide (TI), substituting carboplatin for cisplatin to allow dose escalation.
Patients and Methods
Treatment consisted of 1–2 cycles of TI and granulocyte colony stimulating factor for stem cell mobilization followed by three cycles of HD TI plus carboplatin (TIC) with ASCT every 21–28 days. Twenty-six patients were enrolled. For phase I, a standard 3+3 dose-escalation design was used.
Results
With no dose-limiting toxicities observed, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not reached and the highest prespecified dose level (paclitaxel 250 mg/m2, ifosfamide 9990 mg/m2, carboplatin area under the curve = 24) was considered the MTD. Phase II employed a Simon two-stage design to estimate the complete response (CR) rate at the MTD. With 7/11 phase II patients achieving CR, efficacy was demonstrated. However, three patients developed delayed chronic kidney disease, resulting in premature trial closure.
Conclusion
TI-TIC was active in relapsed GCT but emergent chronic renal impairment, possibly from overlapping ifosfamide and carboplatin, preclude its further use. TI-CE, consisting of two cycles of TI plus three cycles of HD CE remains the standard-of-care HD chemotherapy regimen at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
doi:10.1016/j.clgc.2015.05.003
PMCID: PMC5012646  PMID: 26072101
high-dose chemotherapy; autologous stem cell support; nephrotoxicity; testicular cancer
6.  Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Who Develop Everolimus-Related Hyperglycemia and Hypercholesterolemia: Combined Subgroup Analyses of the RECORD-1 and REACT Trials 
Clinical Genitourinary Cancer  2016;14(5):406-414.
Micro-Abstract
In this study we examined the outcome of metastatic renal cell cancer patients with everolimus treatment-related hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. All patients were treated in 2 large, international prospective trials, RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) and REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC). Patients who experienced these events might have experienced an improved response to everolimus.
Background
Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia are class effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safety and efficacy of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with everolimus in RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) and REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC) who developed these events.
Patients and Methods
Adults with vascular endothelial growth factor–refractory mRCC received everolimus 10 mg/d in the randomized RECORD-1 (n = 277) and open-label REACT (n = 1367) studies. Outcomes included safety, treatment duration, overall response, and progression-free survival for patients who developed hypercholesterolemia or hyperglycemia.
Results
In RECORD-1, 12% (33 of 277) and 20% (55 of 277) of patients developed any grade hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, respectively, with only 6% (78 of 1367) and 1% (14 of 1367) of the same events, respectively, in REACT. Median everolimus treatment duration was similar for patients with hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia (RECORD-1, 6.2 and 6.2 months, respectively; REACT, 4.4 and 4.5 months, respectively), but longer than the overall populations (RECORD-1, 4.6 months; REACT, 3.2 months). In RECORD-1/REACT, 82%/68% of patients with hyperglycemia and 75%/71% of patients with hypercholesterolemia achieved partial response or stable disease. The incidence of clinically notable Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, other than anemia and lymphopenia, appeared to be similar across trials and subgroups. Although there was a trend for improved progression-free survival with development of hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, the association was not statistically significant.
Conclusion
Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were observed in low numbers of patients, and although these events might be associated with improved response to everolimus, the differences were not significant. These findings should be validated with prospective biomarker studies.
doi:10.1016/j.clgc.2016.04.011
PMCID: PMC5063024  PMID: 27287020
Class effects of mTOR inhibition; Association of AEs and clinical efficacy; Targeted therapy; mTOR inhibitor
7.  Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma 
The New England journal of medicine  2015;373(19):1814-1823.
Background
Cabozantinib is an oral small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) as well as MET and AXL; each has been implicated in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) pathobiology or development of resistance to antiangiogenic drugs. This randomized open-label phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy of cabozantinib compared to everolimus in RCC patients who progressed after VEGFR-targeted therapy.
Methods
The trial randomized 658 patients to receive cabozantinib at a dose of 60 mg daily, or everolimus at a dose of 10 mg daily. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Secondary efficacy endpoints were overall survival and objective response rate.
Results
Median progression-free survival was 7.4 months with cabozantinib and 3.8 months with everolimus. The risk of progression or death was 42% lower with cabozantinib compared to everolimus (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 0.75; P < 0.001). Objective response rates were 21% with cabozantinib and 5% with everolimus (P < 0.001). A planned interim analysis showed that overall survival was improved with cabozantinib (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P = 0.005) but did not cross the significance boundary. Adverse events (grade 3 or 4, regardless of causality) were reported in 74% of cabozantinib patients and 65% of everolimus patients. Discontinuation of study treatment for adverse events occurred in 9.1% of cabozantinib patients and 10% of everolimus patients.
Conclusions
Cabozantinib improved progression-free survival compared to everolimus in RCC patients who progressed after VEGFR-targeted therapy.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1510016
PMCID: PMC5024539  PMID: 26406150
8.  A Phase Ib Study of BEZ235, a Dual Inhibitor of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma 
The Oncologist  2016;21(7):787-788.
Lessons Learned
Our results highlight additional toxicities of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition in the clinical setting that were unforeseen from preclinical models.
Because of toxicity and lack of efficacy, BEZ235 should not be further developed in the current formulation for patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Background.
Allosteric inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are approved for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Preclinical models have suggested that dual inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mTOR kinase may establish superior anticancer effect. We aimed to establish safety for BEZ235, a potent inhibitor of both PI3K and mTOR, in advanced RCC.
Methods.
Patients with advanced RCC who had previously failed standard therapy received escalating doses of BEZ235 in sachet formulation twice daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoints were to identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and to determine the recommended dose for the phase II study.
Results.
The study was terminated early because of high incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) across all dose levels tested. Ten patients were treated with BEZ235—six with clear cell and four with non-clear cell subtypes. Five of these patients suffered DLTs: 2 of 2 patients in the original 400 mg b.i.d. cohort, 1 of 6 in the 200 mg b.i.d. cohort, and 2 of 2 in the 300 mg b.i.d. cohort. DLTs included fatigue, rash, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, anorexia, and dysgeusia. Five patients were evaluable for response: Two had stable disease as best response, and three had progressive disease.
Conclusion.
BEZ235 twice daily resulted in significant toxicity without objective responses; further development of this compound will not be pursued in this disease.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2016-0145
PMCID: PMC4943396  PMID: 27286790
9.  Circulating biomarkers and outcome from a randomised phase II trial of sunitinib vs everolimus for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma 
British Journal of Cancer  2016;114(6):642-649.
Background:
RECORD-3 assessed non-inferiority of progression-free survival (PFS) with everolimus vs sunitinib in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Baseline plasma sample collection and randomised design enabled correlation of circulating biomarkers with efficacy.
Methods:
Samples were analysed for 121 cancer-related biomarkers. Analyses of biomarkers categorised patients as high or low (vs median) to assess association with first-line PFS (PFS1L) for each treatment arm. A composite biomarker score (CBS) incorporated biomarkers potentially predictive of PFS1L with everolimus.
Results:
Plasma samples from 442 of the 471 randomised patients were analysed. Biomarkers were associated with PFS1L for everolimus alone (29), sunitinib alone (9) or both (12). Everolimus-specific biomarkers (CSF1, ICAM1, IL-18BP, KIM1, TNFRII) with hazard ratio ⩾1.8 were integrated into a CBS (range 0–5). For CBS low (0–3, n=291) vs high (4–5, n=151), PFS1L differed significantly for everolimus but not for sunitinib. There was no significant difference in PFS1L between everolimus and sunitinib in the high CBS patient cohort.
Conclusions:
Baseline levels of multiple soluble biomarkers correlated with benefit from everolimus and/or sunitinib, independent of clinical risk factors. A similar PFS1L was observed for both treatments among patients with high CBS score.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.21
PMCID: PMC4800293  PMID: 26908330
renal cell cancer; targeted therapy; biomarker; sunitinib; everolimus
10.  Rates of Teratoma and Viable Cancer at Post-Chemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection after Induction Chemotherapy for Good Risk Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumors 
The Journal of urology  2014;193(2):513-518.
Purpose
Patients with good risk nonseminomatous germ cell tumors receive induction chemotherapy with either 4 cycles of etoposide and platinum (EPx4) or three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and platinum (BEPx3). We report the histologic results at post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) after induction chemotherapy in patients treated either with EP or BEP for good risk NSGCT.
Materials and Methods
PC-RPLND was performed in 579 patients following induction chemotherapy. Five-hundred five patients were treated with EPx4 and 74 patients were treated with BEPx3 or BEPx4. Clinical and pathologic features are reported.
Results
No difference in the frequency of viable residual cancer was observed between BEP and EP (5% vs 6%, respectively, P=NS). Teratoma was more prevalent in the BEP group vs. EP (57% vs. 34%, respectively, p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, patients that received induction BEP had a 2-fold greater risk of harboring teratoma at PC-RPLND (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0, 4.0, p=0.04). When excluding patients that received BEPx4, patients that received BEPx3 still had a 3.7 fold increased risk of having teratoma in the retroperitoneum (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5, 8.9, p=0.004). Relapse-free survival and disease-specific survivals were not different between the two regimens.
Conclusion
Viable cancer was equally uncommon after treatment with both regimens. Overall, relapse-free, and disease-specific survivals did not differ. The discrepancy between regimens in the frequency of teratoma is not explained, but may be due to an unrecognized selection bias than an effect of the regimen.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2014.08.081
PMCID: PMC4354932  PMID: 25150639
11.  Nivolumab for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2014;33(13):1430-1437.
Purpose
Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 programmed death–1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that restores T-cell immune activity. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity, dose-response relationship, and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
Patients and Methods
Patients with clear-cell mRCC previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were randomly assigned (blinded ratio of 1:1:1) to nivolumab 0.3, 2, or 10 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the dose-response relationship as measured by progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety.
Results
A total of 168 patients were randomly assigned to the nivolumab 0.3- (n = 60), 2- (n = 54), and 10-mg/kg (n = 54) cohorts. One hundred eighteen patients (70%) had received more than one prior systemic regimen. Median PFS was 2.7, 4.0, and 4.2 months, respectively (P = .9). Respective ORRs were 20%, 22%, and 20%. Median OS was 18.2 months (80% CI, 16.2 to 24.0 months), 25.5 months (80% CI, 19.8 to 28.8 months), and 24.7 months (80% CI, 15.3 to 26.0 months), respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event (AE) was fatigue (24%, 22%, and 35%, respectively). Nineteen patients (11%) experienced grade 3 to 4 treatment-related AEs.
Conclusion
Nivolumab demonstrated antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile across the three doses studied in mRCC. No dose-response relationship was detected as measured by PFS. These efficacy and safety results in mRCC support study in the phase III setting.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2014.59.0703
PMCID: PMC4806782  PMID: 25452452
12.  Sunitinib-associated hypertension and neutropenia as efficacy biomarkers in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients 
British Journal of Cancer  2015;113(11):1571-1580.
Background:
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) prognostic models may be improved by incorporating treatment-induced toxicities.
Methods:
In sunitinib-treated mRCC patients (N=770), baseline prognostic factors and treatment-induced toxicities (hypertension (systolic blood pressure ⩾140 mm Hg), neutropenia (grade ⩾2), thrombocytopenia (grade ⩾2), hand–foot syndrome (grade >0), and asthenia/fatigue (grade >0)) were analysed in multivariate analyses of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) end points.
Results:
On-treatment neutropenia and hypertension were associated with longer PFS (P=0.0276 and P<0.0001, respectively) and OS (P=0.0014 and P<0.0001, respectively), independent of baseline prognostic factors, including International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. By 12-week landmark analysis, neutropenia was significantly associated with longer PFS and OS (P=0.013 and P=0.0122, respectively) and hypertension or hand–foot syndrome with longer OS (P=0.0036 and P=0.0218, respectively). The concordance index was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.63−0.67) for IMDC classification alone and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.70−0.74) when combined with hypertension and neutropenia. Considering hypertension and neutropenia (developing both vs neither) changed IMDC-predicted median OS in each IMDC risk group (favourable: 45.3 vs 19.5 months; intermediate: 32.5 vs 8.0 months; poor: 21.1 vs 4.8 months).
Conclusions:
On-treatment neutropenia and hypertension are independent biomarkers of sunitinib efficacy and may add prognostic accuracy to the IMDC model.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.368
PMCID: PMC4705883  PMID: 26492223
sunitinib; metastatic renal cell carcinoma; biomarkers; adverse events; multivariate; neutropenia; hypertension
13.  NCCN Task Force Report: Optimizing Treatment of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma With Molecular Targeted Therapy 
The outcome of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma has been substantially improved with administration of the currently available molecularly targeted therapies. However, proper selection of therapy and management of toxicities remain challenging. NCCN convened a multidisciplinary task force panel to address the clinical issues associated with these therapies in attempt to help practicing oncologists optimize patient outcomes. This report summarizes the background data presented at the task force meeting and the ensuing discussion.
PMCID: PMC4659363  PMID: 21335444
NCCN; renal cell carcinoma; molecular targeted therapy; VEGF; mTOR; TKI; patient outcomes
14.  Impact of Recurrent Copy Number Alterations and Cancer Gene Mutations on the Predictive Accuracy of Prognostic Models in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma 
The Journal of urology  2014;192(1):24-29.
Purpose
Several recently reported recurrent genomic alterations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are linked to pathological and clinical outcomes. We determined if any of the recurrent cancer gene mutations or copy number alterations identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ccRCC dataset could add to the predictive accuracy of the current prognostic models.
Materials and Methods
413 patients who underwent nephrectomy/partial nephrectomy with whole exome, copy number array analyses, and clinical variables were interrogated. Sixty-five recurrent genomic alterations were identified based on prevalence and combined into 35 alterations including 12 cancer gene mutations. The genomic markers were modeled using the elastic-net algorithm with preoperative variables (tumor size + age) and in the postoperative setting using the externally validated Mayo Clinic stage, size, grade, and necrosis (SSIGN) prognostic scoring system. These models were subjected to internal validation using bootstrap.
Results
The median follow up for survivors was 45 months. Several markers correlated with adverse cancer-specific survival (CSS) and time to recurrence (TTR) on univariate analysis. However, most lost significance when controlling for tumor size +/- age in the preoperative models or SSIGN score in the postoperative setting. The addition of multiple genomic markers selected by the elastic-net algorithm failed to substantially add to the predictive accuracy of any of the preoperative or postoperative models for CSS or TTR.
Conclusions
While recurrent copy number alterations and cancer gene mutations are biologically significant, they do not appear to improve the predictive accuracy of existing clinical CSS or TTR models in ccRCC.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2014.01.088
PMCID: PMC4146751  PMID: 24518768
Renal cell carcinoma; mutations; copy number alterations; prognostic models
15.  Patient-Reported Outcomes in a Phase III Study of Everolimus Versus Placebo in Patients with Metastatic Carcinoma of the Kidney That Has Progressed on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy 
The Oncologist  2011;16(5):632-640.
A phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. There was no evidence of a difference between everolimus and placebo in longitudinal patterns of disease-related symptoms, and little difference between the arms in physical functioning or global quality of life trends. This supports the conclusion that delay in tumor progression demonstrated by everolimus is associated with minimal impact on symptoms, physical functioning, or quality of life, as reported by patients.
Purpose.
A phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the patient-reported outcomes.
Methods.
Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive oral everolimus 10 mg once daily or placebo. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Kidney Symptom Index—Disease-Related Symptoms (FKSI-DRS) and European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 were administered before randomization and on day 1 of each cycle. The FKSI-DRS and the EORTC QLQ-C30 Physical Functioning and Global Quality of Life scores were the primary endpoints examined. Longitudinal models were used to compare treatment arms. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the impact of missing data assumptions.
Results.
Longitudinal trends for FKSI-DRS scores did not differ by treatment arm. Taking nonignorable missing data into account, there were significant differences between treatment arms in the trend over time for physical functioning and global quality of life, with the everolimus arm exhibiting greater decreases. All three of these measures of health-related quality of life were significantly related to progression-free survival.
Conclusions.
There was no evidence of a difference between everolimus and placebo in longitudinal patterns of disease-related symptoms, and little difference between the arms in physical functioning or global quality of life trends. This supports the conclusion that delay in tumor progression demonstrated by everolimus is associated with minimal impact on symptoms, physical functioning, or quality of life, as reported by patients.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2010-0299
PMCID: PMC3228193  PMID: 21459902
Everolimus; Renal cell carcinoma; Quality of life; Metastatic
16.  Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Today and Tomorrow 
The Oncologist  2011;16(Suppl 2):45-50.
Recent updates to the guidelines put forth by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the European Association of Urology for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma are discussed and future areas of research to be explored are outlined.
In the U.S. and Europe, clinical practice guidelines for metastatic renal cell carcinoma have undergone several revisions as a result of the introduction of molecular-targeted therapies. Recently, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the European Association of Urology (EAU) published updated guidelines to reflect these new treatment approaches that provide greater efficacy and better tolerability than the previous standard of care, cytokine therapy with interleukin-2 or interferon-α. Recommendations are classified by line of therapy, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk level for survival, and level of evidence. Although many similarities exist, levels of evidence between the NCCN and EAU guidelines have differing designations and definitions, and timing of updates varies. New research developments, such as identification of effective combinations of targeted agents, optimal regimens for sequential therapy, newly designed targeted agents, benefits in special populations, and identification of additional prognostic factors and biomarkers, will prompt continued updates and refinements of today's clinical practice guidelines, with the goal of providing physicians with the most up-to-date clinical consensus upon which to base treatment decisions. Because clinical trial populations may not represent real-life patient populations, recommendations should serve only as a guide and must be tailored to the needs of each patient.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-S2-45
PMCID: PMC3867940  PMID: 21346039
Angiogenesis inhibitor; Evidence-based medicine; Mammalian target of rapamycin; Renal cell carcinoma; Vascular endothelial growth factor
17.  Efficacy and Safety of Everolimus in Elderly Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Exploratory Analysis of the Outcomes of Elderly Patients in the RECORD-1 Trial 
European urology  2012;61(4):826-833.
Background
Elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) may require special treatment considerations, particularly when comorbidities are present. An understanding of the efficacy and safety of targeted agents in elderly patients with mRCC is essential to provide individualized therapy.
Objective
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of everolimus in elderly patients (those ≥65 and ≥70 yr of age) enrolled in RECORD-1.
Design, setting, and participants
The multicenter randomized RECORD-1 phase 3 trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT00410124; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) enrolled patients with mRCC who progressed during or within 6 mo of stopping sunitinib and/or sorafenib treatment (n = 416).
Intervention
Everolimus 10 mg once daily (n = 277) or placebo (n = 139) plus best supportive care. Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Measurements
Median progression-free survival (PFS), median overall survival (OS), and time to deterioration in Karnofsky performance status (TTD-KPS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method; the log-rank test was used to compare treatment arms. Other outcomes evaluated included reduction in tumor burden, overall response rate (ORR), and safety.
Results and limitations
In RECORD-1, 36.8% of patients were ≥65 yr and 17.5% were ≥70 yr of age. PFS, OS, TTD-KPS, reduction in tumor burden, and ORR were similar in the elderly and the overall RECORD-1 population. Everolimus was generally well tolerated in elderly patients, and most adverse events were grade 1 or 2 in severity. The toxicity profile of everolimus was generally similar in older patients and the overall population; however, peripheral edema, cough, rash, and diarrhea were reported more frequently in the elderly regardless of treatment. The retrospective nature of the analyses was the major limitation.
Conclusions
Everolimus is effective and tolerable in elderly patients with mRCC. When selecting targeted therapies in these patients, the specific toxicity profile of each agent and any patient comorbidities should be considered.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.12.057
PMCID: PMC4142675  PMID: 22297244
Adverse events; Kidney cancer; mTOR inhibitor; Pneumonitis
18.  Long-Term Survival Rates after Resection for Locally Advanced Kidney Cancer: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 1989–2012 Experience 
The Journal of urology  2014;193(6):1911-1917.
Purpose
To analyze the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 23-year experience with surgical resection and utilization of concurrent adrenalectomy and lymphadenectomy for locally advanced non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Material and Methods
Retrospective review of 802 patients who underwent nephrectomy, with or without concurrent adrenalectomy or lymphadenectomy, for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma defined as stage ≥T3 and M0. Patients who had undergone adjuvant treatment within 3 months of surgery, had <3 months of follow-up, or had bilateral renal masses at presentation were excluded. Five- and 10-year progression-free and overall survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences between groups were analyzed by the log-rank test.
Results
A total of 596 (74%) and 206 (26%) patients underwent radical and partial nephrectomy, respectively. Renal cell carcinoma progressed in 189 patients and 104 died from it. Median follow-up for patients who did not progress was 4.6 years. Symptoms at presentation, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, tumor stage, histologic subtype, grade, and lymph node status were significantly associated with progression-free and overall survival. On multivariate analysis, adrenalectomy utilization decreased over time with odds ratio .82/year, whereas lymphadenectomy increased with odds ratio 1.16/year. Larger tumors were associated with a higher likelihood of concurrent adrenalectomy and lymphadenectomy.
Conclusions
In our series of patients with locally advanced non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma, those who are in good health, asymptomatic upon presentation, have T3 tumors, and negative lymph nodes had favorable survival. Further, there has been a trend toward more selective use of adrenalectomy and increased use of lymphadenectomy.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2014.12.022
PMCID: PMC4439353  PMID: 25524244
kidney neoplasms; partial nephrectomy; radical nephrectomy; renal cell carcinoma; survival
19.  Sarcomatoid-variant Renal Cell Carcinoma Treatment Outcome and Survival in Advanced Disease 
Objectives
Sarcomatoid variant is a spindle cell phenotype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is associated with a poor prognosis. We reviewed outcomes of systemic therapy for metastatic, sarcomatoid-variant RCC.
Methods
Clinical features, treatment outcome, and survival were evaluated in 63 patients with sarcomatoid-variant metastatic RCC (47 clear cell, 16 nonclear cell). Initial systemic treatment included antiangiogenesis-targeted therapy (n=34), cytokines (n=20), and chemotherapy (n=9).
Results
Five of 63 patients (8%) achieved an objective response to the first systemic treatment: 1 (5%) to cytokine and 4 (12%) to sunitinib-targeted therapy. Median progression-free survival for 63 patients was 3 months (95% confidence interval), and median overall survival was 10 months (95% confidence interval). The median progression-free survival for patients treated with sunitinib versus all others was 4.4 months versus 2 months (P=0.03), and 3 months for patients with clear-cell histology versus 1.6 months for nonclear-cell histology (P=0.004).
Conclusions
Metastatic sarcomatoid-variant RCC was associated with a poor response to systemic therapy. Sunitinib treatment resulted in a modest response rate, but studies to characterize the underlying tumor biology of sarcomatoid-variant RCC, to assess outcome to targeted agents, and to develop novel treatment strategies are warranted.
doi:10.1097/COC.0b013e3181f47aa4
PMCID: PMC3661202  PMID: 21127411
metastatic; sarcomatoid; renal cell carcinoma; sunitinib; targeted therapy
20.  New Perspectives on the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Introduction and Historical Overview 
The Oncologist  2011;16(Suppl 2):1-3.
The content of the supplement is summarized, including a review of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma and the efficacy and safety of the currently available targeted therapies.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-S2-01
PMCID: PMC3868198  PMID: 21346034
Renal cell carcinoma; Kidney cancer; Metastatic; Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; Mammalian target of rapamycin; mTOR
21.  An Epidemiologic and Genomic Investigation Into the Obesity Paradox in Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Background
Obesity increases risk for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), yet obese patients appear to experience longer survival than nonobese patients. We examined body mass index (BMI) in relation to stage, grade, and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) while considering detection bias, nutritional status, and molecular tumor features.
Methods
Data were available from 2119 ccRCC patients who underwent renal mass surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1995 and 2012. Logistic regression models produced associations between BMI and advanced disease. Multivariable competing risks regression models estimated associations between BMI and CSM. Somatic mutation, copy number, methylation, and expression data were examined by BMI among a subset of 126 patients who participated in the Cancer Genome Atlas Project for ccRCC using the Kruskal–Wallis or Fisher exact tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results
Obese and overweight patients were less likely to present with advanced-stage disease compared with normal-weight patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48 to 0.79 vs OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.83, respectively). Higher BMI was associated with reduced CSM in univariable analyses (P < .005). It remained statistically significant after adjustment for comorbidities and albumin level, but it became non-statistically significant after adjusting for stage and grade (P > .10). Genome-wide interrogation by BMI suggested differences in gene expression of metabolic and fatty acid genes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN), consistent with the obesity paradox.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that although BMI is not an independent prognostic factor for CSM after controlling for stage and grade, tumors developing in an obesogenic environment may be more indolent.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djt310
PMCID: PMC3866155  PMID: 24285872
22.  The impact of genetic heterogeneity on biomarker development in kidney cancer assessed by multiregional sampling 
Cancer Medicine  2014;3(6):1485-1492.
Primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genetic heterogeneity may lead to an underestimation of the mutational burden detected from a single site evaluation. We sought to characterize the extent of clonal branching involving key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC and determine if genetic heterogeneity could limit the mutation profiling from a single region assessment. Ex vivo core needle biopsies were obtained from three to five different regions of resected renal tumors at a single institution from 2012 to 2013. DNA was extracted and targeted sequencing was performed on five genes associated with ccRCC (von-Hippel Lindau [VHL], PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and KDM5C). We constructed phylogenetic trees by inferring clonal evolution based on the mutations present within each core and estimated the predictive power of detecting a mutation for each successive tumor region sampled. We obtained 47 ex vivo biopsy cores from 14 primary ccRCC's (median tumor size 4.5 cm, IQR 4.0–5.9 cm). Branching patterns of various complexities were observed in tumors with three or more mutations. A VHL mutation was detected in nine tumors (64%), each time being present ubiquitously throughout the tumor. Other genes had various degrees of regional mutational variation. Based on the mutations' prevalence we estimated that three different tumor regions should be sampled to detect mutations in PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and/or KDM5C with 90% certainty. The mutational burden of renal tumors varies by region sampled. Single site assessment of key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC may not adequately capture the genetic predictors of tumor behavior.
doi:10.1002/cam4.293
PMCID: PMC4298374  PMID: 25124064
Biomarker; genetic heterogeneity; kidney cancer; renal biopsy; renal cell carcinoma
23.  Phase I Study Combining Treatment with Temsirolimus and Sunitinib Malate in Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Clinical genitourinary cancer  2009;7(1):24-27.
Purpose
Concurrent inhibition of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways might improve the efficacy of anticancer agents and abrogate resistance mechanisms. This phase I study evaluated temsirolimus in combination with sunitinib in patients with advanced RCC.
Patients and Methods
Eligibility included advanced RCC and ≤ 2 previous systemic regimens. At the starting dose, temsirolimus 15 mg was administered by intravenous (I.V.) infusion once weekly, and sunitinib 25 mg was administered orally once daily for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week rest period.
Results
In the first cohort, dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 treatment-related toxicities that lasted ≥ 7 days) were observed in 2 of 3 patients. One patient experienced grade 3 rash during week 3, which led to treatment discontinuation. A second patient had grade 3 thrombocytopenia (platelet count, 48,000/μL), cellulitis, and gout during week 3 and was hospitalized; platelets recovered to 109,000/μL 4 days after discontinuation of protocol therapy. A third patient experienced rash, asthenia, diarrhea, stomatitis, constipation, fever, and rectal hemorrhage, all of which were mild in severity. The study was terminated because of dose-limiting toxicity observed at low starting doses of both agents.
Conclusion
Concomitant use of I.V. temsirolimus 15 mg weekly and oral sunitinib 25 mg daily (4 weeks on, 2 weeks off) is not recommended.
doi:10.3816/CGC.2009.n.004
PMCID: PMC3740755  PMID: 19213664
Hypertriglyceridemia; Kidney cancer; Mammalian target of rapamycin; Mucositis; Targeted therapy
24.  Characterizing fatigue associated with sunitinib and its impact on health-related quality of life in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma 
Cancer  2014;120(12):1871-1880.
BACKGROUND
Using phase 3 trial data for sunitinib versus interferon (IFN)-α in treatment-naive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, retrospective analyses characterized sunitinib-associated fatigue and its impact on patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
METHODS
Patients received sunitinib at a dose of 50 mg/day on a schedule of 4 weeks on/2 weeks off (375 patients) or IFN-α at a dose of 9 MU subcutaneously 3 times per week (360 patients). HRQoL was self-assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Kidney Symptom Index–15-item (FKSI-15) questionnaire, with fatigue assessed using its Disease-Related Symptoms subscale. Fatigue was also assessed by providers using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). A repeated-measures model (M1) and random intercept-slope model (M2) characterized sunitinib-associated fatigue over time. Another repeated-measures model examined the relationship between HRQoL scores and CTCAE fatigue grade.
RESULTS
M1 demonstrated that the initial increase in patient-reported fatigue with sunitinib was worst during cycle 1, with mean values numerically better at subsequent cycles; most pairwise comparisons of consecutive CTCAE fatigue cycle means were not found to be statistically significant. M2 demonstrated that the overall trend (slope) for patient-reported and CTCAE fatigue with sunitinib was not statistically different from 0. The relationship between most HRQoL scores and CTCAE fatigue was close to linear regardless of treatment, with lower scores (worse HRQoL) corresponding to higher fatigue grade. The majority of HRQoL scores were better with sunitinib versus IFN-α for the same CTCAE fatigue grade.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients reported worse fatigue during the first sunitinib cycle. However, in subsequent consecutive cycles, less fatigue was reported with no statistically significant worsening. CTCAE fatigue assessment may not fully capture patient treatment experience. Cancer 2014;120:1871–1880. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Using phase 3 trial data for sunitinib versus interferon-α in treatment-naive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, retrospective analyses characterized sunitinib-associated fatigue and its impact on patient-reported health-related quality of life. Patients reported worse fatigue during the first sunitinib cycle, but in subsequent consecutive cycles less fatigue was reported with no statistically significant worsening; provider-assessed fatigue did not appear to fully capture patient treatment experience.
doi:10.1002/cncr.28660
PMCID: PMC4231253  PMID: 24634003
sunitinib; metastatic renal cell carcinoma; fatigue; health-related quality of life; phase 3
25.  Axitinib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis 
Journal of clinical pharmacology  2013;53(5):491-504.
Axitinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, approved for second-line therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Axitinib population pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships were evaluated. Using nonlinear mixed effects modeling with pooled data from 383 healthy volunteers, 181 patients with metastatic RCC, and 26 patients with other solid tumors in 17 trials, the disposition of axitinib was best described by a 2-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time, with estimated mean systemic clearance (CL) of 14.6 L/h and central volume of distribution (Vc) of 47.3 L. Of 12 covariates tested, age over 60 years and Japanese ethnicity were associated with decreased CL, whereas Vc increased with body weight. However, the magnitude of predicted changes in exposure based on these covariates does not warrant dose adjustments. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses showed that higher exposure and diastolic blood pressure were independently associated with longer progression-free and overall survivals and higher probability of partial response in metastatic RCC patients. These findings support axitinib dose titration to increase plasma exposure in patients who tolerate axitinib, and also demonstrate diastolic blood pressure as a potential marker of efficacy.
doi:10.1002/jcph.73
PMCID: PMC4175417  PMID: 23553560
axitinib; metastatic renal cell carcinoma; population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; VEGF receptor inhibitor; diastolic blood pressure

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