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1.  STAT5b as Molecular Target in Pancreatic Cancer—Inhibition of Tumor Growth, Angiogenesis, and Metastases12 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2012;14(10):915-925.
The prognosis of patients suffering from pancreatic cancer is still poor and novel therapeutic options are urgently needed. Recently, the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) was associated with tumor progression in human solid cancer. Hence, we assessed whether STAT5b might serve as an anticancer target in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (DPAC). We found that nuclear expression of STAT5b can be detected in approximately 50% of DPAC. Blockade of STAT5b by stable shRNA-mediated knockdown showed no effects on tumor cell growth in vitro. However, inhibition of tumor cell motility was found even in response to stimulation with epidermal growth factor or interleukin-6. These findings were paralleled by a reduction of prometastatic and proangiogenic factors in vitro. Subsequent in vivo experiments revealed a strong growth inhibition on STAT5b blockade in subcutaneous and orthotopic models. These findings were paralleled by impaired tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In contrast to the subcutaneous model, the orthotopic model revealed a strong reduction of tumor cell proliferation that emphasizes the meaning of assessing targets in an appropriate microenvironment. Taken together, our results suggest that STAT5b might be a potential novel target for human DPAC.
PMCID: PMC3479837  PMID: 23097626
2.  Tumor development in murine ulcerative colitis depends on MyD88 signaling of colonic F4/80+CD11bhighGr1low macrophages  
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2011;121(5):1692-1708.
Patients with prolonged ulcerative colitis (UC) frequently develop colorectal adenocarcinoma for reasons that are not fully clear. To analyze inflammation-associated colonic tumorigenesis, we developed a chronic form of oxazolone-induced colitis in mice that, similar to UC, was distinguished by the presence of IL-13–producing NKT cells. In this model, the induction of tumors using azoxymethane was accompanied by the coappearance of F4/80+CD11bhighGr1low M2 macrophages, cells that undergo polarization by IL-13 and are absent in tumors that lack high level IL-13 production. Importantly, this subset of macrophages was a source of tumor-promoting factors, including IL-6. Similar to dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis, F4/80+CD11bhighGr1intermediate macrophages were present in the mouse model of chronic oxazolone-induced colitis and may influence tumor development through production of TGF-β1, a cytokine that inhibits tumor immunosurveillance. Finally, while robust chronic oxazolone-induced colitis developed in myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88–deficient (Myd88–/–) mice, these mice did not support tumor development. The inhibition of tumor development in Myd88–/– mice correlated with cessation of IL-6 and TGF-β1 production by M2 and F4/80+CD11bhighGr1intermediate macrophages, respectively, and was reversed by exogenous IL-6. These data show that an UC-like inflammation may facilitate tumor development by providing a milieu favoring development of MyD88-dependent tumor-supporting macrophages.
doi:10.1172/JCI42540
PMCID: PMC3083803  PMID: 21519141
3.  Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and is up-regulated upon heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:668.
Background
Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. However, its exact role in cancer is discussed controversially because both tumor suppressive and oncogenic effects have been described. Here we followed-up on our previous observation that inhibition of Hsp90 may increase ATF3 expression and sought to determine the role of ATF3 in colon cancer.
Methods
Regulation of ATF3 was determined in cancer cells using signaling inhibitors and a heat-shock protein-90 (Hsp90) antagonist. Human HCT116 cancer cells were stably transfected with an ATF3-shRNA or a luciferase-shRNA expression plasmid and alterations in cell motility were assessed in migration assays. The impact of ATF3 down-regulation on cancer growth and metastasis were investigated in a subcutaneous tumor model, a model of hepatic tumor growth and in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Human colon cancer tissues were analyzed for ATF3 expression.
Results
The results show that therapeutic Hsp90 inhibition substantially up-regulates the expression of ATF3 in various cancer cells, including colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer. This effect was evident both in vitro and in vivo. RNAi mediated knock-down of ATF3 in HCT116 colon cancer cells significantly increased cancer cell migration in vitro. Moreover, in xenogenic mouse models, ATF3 knock-down promoted subcutaneous tumor growth and hepatic metastasis, as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Importantly, ATF3 expression was lower in human colon cancer specimens, as compared to corresponding normal surrounding tissues, suggesting that ATF3 may represent a down-regulated tumor suppressor in colon cancer.
Conclusion
In conclusion, ATF3 down-regulation in colon cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-668
PMCID: PMC3003660  PMID: 21129190
4.  ENMD-1198, a novel tubulin-binding agent reduces HIF-1alpha and STAT3 activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cells, and inhibits growth and vascularization in vivo 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:206.
Background
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a highly vascularized tumor entity and the process of angiogenesis is essential for the growth of HCC. Importantly, the pro-angiogenic transcription factors HIF-1α and STAT3 have been implicated in HCC progression, thus representing interesting targets for molecular targeted therapy. We hypothesized that therapeutic inhibition of HIF-1α could be achieved by using a novel tubulin-binding agent (ENMD-1198). ENMD-1198 is an analog of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity.
Methods
The human HCC cell lines HUH-7 and HepG2 were used for experiments. Effects of ENMD-1198 on constitutive and inducible (hypoxia, growth factors) activation of signaling cascades, including HIF-1α and STAT3, were investigated by Western blotting. Changes in VEGF expression were determined by real-time PCR. Effects of ENMD-1198 on cancer cell migration and invasion were evaluated in in vitro-assays. The growth-inhibitory effects of ENMD-1198 (200 mg/kg/day) were determined in a subcutaneous tumor model (HUH-7).
Results
ENMD-1198 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, PI-3K/Akt and FAK. Moreover, activation of HIF-1α and STAT3 was dramatically reduced by ENMD-1198, which resulted in lower VEGF mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In addition, tumor cell migratory and invasive properties were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05, for both). In vivo, treatment with ENMD-1198 led to a significant reduction in tumor growth, tumor vascularization, and numbers of proliferating tumor cells (P < 0.05 for all).
Conclusion
The novel microtubule destabilizing agent ENMD-1198 is suitable for inhibiting HIF-1α and STAT3 in human HCC cells and leads to reduced tumor growth and vascularization in vivo. Hence, inhibition of HIF-1α and STAT3 could prove valuable for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-206
PMCID: PMC2496914  PMID: 18651980
5.  ESAM supports neutrophil extravasation, activation of Rho, and VEGF-induced vascular permeability 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(7):1671-1677.
Endothelial cell–selective adhesion molecule (ESAM) is specifically expressed at endothelial tight junctions and on platelets. To test whether ESAM is involved in leukocyte extravasation, we have generated mice carrying a disrupted ESAM gene and analyzed them in three different inflammation models. We found that recruitment of lymphocytes into inflamed skin was unaffected by the gene disruption. However, the migration of neutrophils into chemically inflamed peritoneum was inhibited by 70% at 2 h after stimulation, recovering at later time points. Analyzing neutrophil extravasation directly by intravital microscopy in the cremaster muscle revealed that leukocyte extravasation was reduced (50%) in ESAM−/− mice without affecting leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Depletion of >98% of circulating platelets did not abolish the ESAM deficiency–related inhibitory effect on neutrophil extravasation, indicating that it is only ESAM at endothelial tight junctions that is relevant for the extravasation process. Knocking down ESAM expression in endothelial cells resulted in reduced levels of activated Rho, a GTPase implicated in the destabilization of tight junctions. Indeed, vascular permeability stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor was reduced in ESAM−/− mice. Collectively, ESAM at endothelial tight junctions participates in the migration of neutrophils through the vessel wall, possibly by influencing endothelial cell contacts.
doi:10.1084/jem.20060565
PMCID: PMC2118342  PMID: 16818677
6.  Inhibition of tumor growth in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency is mediated by heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-peptide–activated, CD94 positive natural killer cells 
Cell Stress & Chaperones  2002;7(4):365-373.
Previously, we reported that the major stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) acts as a recognition structure for natural killer (NK) cells, if localized on the cell surface of tumor cells. Incubation of purified NK cells with low-dose interleukin (IL)-2 (100 IU/mL) plus recombinant Hsp70-protein or the immunogenic 14-mer Hsp70-peptide TKDNNLLGRFELSG450–463, termed TKD (2 μg/mL), enhances the cytolytic activity against Hsp70 membrane-positive (CX+) but not against Hsp70-negative (CX−) tumor cells. Here, we show that the cytolytic activity against Hsp70-positive tumor cells is inducible by incubation of unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) with low-dose IL-2 plus TKD. Cell sorting experiments revealed that within the PBMNC population CD94+/CD3− NK cells, and not CD94−/CD3+ T cells, mediate the cytotoxic activity against Hsp70-positive tumor cells. The antitumoral effect of PBMNC stimulated either with IL-2 plus TKD or with IL-2 alone was assessed in tumor-bearing severe combined immunodeficiency/beige mice. A single intravenous (iv) injection of 40 × 106 IL-2 plus TKD-stimulated PBMNC (containing 5.2 × 106 NK cells) on day 4 results in a 60% reduction in tumor size, from 3.89 g to 1.56 g. In contrast, the adoptive transfer of the identical amount PBMNC stimulated with low-dose IL-2 only (containing 4.4 × 106 NK cells) reduces the tumor size only less than 10% (3.64 g). A phenotypic characterization of the excised tumors revealed that predominantly Hsp70-positive tumor cells were eliminated by TKD-activated PBMNC. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the in vivo cytolytic capacity of TKD-stimulated PBMNC is dependent on the effector to target cell ratio. An iv injection of effector cells on day 1 or 2 after tumor cell inoculation results in significantly smaller tumors (0.77 g or 0.89 g) on day 21 as compared with mice that were immunoreconstituted on day 4 or 8 (1.39 g or 2.23 g). The tumor size of nonimmunoreconstituted control animals was 3.55 g.
PMCID: PMC514836  PMID: 12653481
7.  β-Defensin 1 Contributes to Pulmonary Innate Immunity in Mice  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(6):3068-3072.
Innate immunity serves as a first line defense in vertebrate organisms by providing an initial barrier to microorganisms and triggering antigen-specific responses. Antimicrobial peptides are thought to be effectors of innate immunity through their antibiotic activity and direct killing of microorganisms. Evidence to support this hypothesis in vertebrates is indirect, based on expression profiles and in vitro assays using purified peptides. Here we investigated the function of antimicrobial peptides in vivo using mice deficient in an antimicrobial peptide, mouse β-defensin-1 (mBD-1). We find that loss of mBD-1 results in delayed clearance of Haemophilus influenzae from lung. These data demonstrate directly that antimicrobial peptides of vertebrates provide an initial block to bacteria at epithelial surfaces.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.6.3068-3072.2002
PMCID: PMC127957  PMID: 12010999
8.  Cytopathogenic and Noncytopathogenic RNA Replicons of Classical Swine Fever Virus 
Journal of Virology  1999;73(9):7787-7794.
To determine the minimal requirements for autonomous RNA replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), genomes having in-frame deletions within the genes for structural and flanking nonstructural proteins were constructed, based on an infectious cDNA clone of CSFV Alfort/187. RNA was transcribed in vitro from the respective plasmids and transfected into SK-6 swine kidney cells. The replication competence of the RNA was determined by immunostaining transfected cells for CSFV NS3 protein and by analysis of cell extracts for viral RNA, as well as protein synthesis at different times after transfection. The genes encoding Npro, C, Erns, E1, E2, p7, and NS2 proved to be dispensable for RNA replication, but the efficiency of replication varied strongly between individual constructs. RNA replicons containing the complete NS2-NS3 gene persisted in transfected cells and continued to replicate without causing any obvious morphological or functional damage to the cells, whereas genomes lacking the NS2 gene replicated more efficiently and induced a cytopathic effect. These findings suggest that NS2, although it is not essential for pestivirus RNA replication, has a regulatory function therein. Both cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic replicons were packaged into virus particles provided in trans by a cotransfected full-length helper virus genome.
PMCID: PMC104306  PMID: 10438869
9.  Classical Swine Fever Virus Leader Proteinase Npro Is Not Required for Viral Replication in Cell Culture 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(9):7681-7684.
The sequence encoding the viral leader proteinase Npro was replaced by the murine ubiquitin gene in a full-length cDNA clone of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Alfort/187. The recombinant virus vA187-Ubi showed growth characteristics similar to those of the parent vA187-1 virus. At two occasions cells infected with vA187-Ubi exhibited a cytopathic effect and were found to contain a subgenomic viral RNA. This RNA lacked the same viral genes as the subgenomic RNA which has been found in all cytopathogenic CSFV strains analyzed so far, but it maintained the ubiquitin sequence.
PMCID: PMC110041  PMID: 9696875
10.  A Recombinant Classical Swine Fever Virus Stably Expresses a Marker Gene 
Journal of Virology  1998;72(6):5318-5322.
The gene coding for bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) was inserted in frame into the viral Npro gene of the full-length cDNA clone pA187-1 of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Alfort/187. RNA transcribed in vitro from the resulting plasmid was transfected into SK-6 porcine kidney cells. Infectious progeny virus vA187-CAT recovered from transfected cells had growth characteristics indistinguishable from those of parental virus vA187-1. In cells infected with vA187-CAT the predicted fusion protein, CAT-Npro, was detected, and it retained the enzymatic activities of both CAT and Npro. The CAT gene remained stably inserted in the viral genome after 10 virus passages. Thus, marker virus vA187-CAT represents a useful tool for quantitative analysis of viral replication and gene expression.
PMCID: PMC116437  PMID: 9573312

Results 1-10 (10)