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1.  Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulates Production of Isoprostanes In Vivo during Chlamydial Genital Infection in Mice 
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(12):7183-7187.
Urinary nitrite and F2-isoprostanes, an index of oxidant stress, were elevated during chlamydial genital infection of mice. Enhancement of urinary nitrite and F2-isoprostanes was observed in phagocyte oxidase-deficient mice. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduced isoprostane excretion. We conclude that nitrogen radicals induce F2-isoprostane production and excretion during murine chlamydial genital infection.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.12.7183-7187.2003
PMCID: PMC308939  PMID: 14638813
2.  Activation of human THP-1 cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(4):1183-1187.
The mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori, which has little or no invasive activity, induces gastric-tissue inflammation and injury has not been well characterized. We have previously demonstrated that water-extracted proteins of H. pylori are capable of activating human monocytes by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-independent mechanism. We have now compared activation of macrophages by purified LPS from H. pylori and from Escherichia coli. LPS was prepared by phenol-water extraction from H. pylori 88-23 and from E. coli O55. THP-1, a human promyelomonocytic cell line, and macrophages derived from rat bone marrow each were incubated with the LPS preparations, and cell culture supernatants were assayed for production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide. THP-1 cells showed maximal activation by the LPS molecules after cell differentiation was induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Maximal TNF-alpha and PGE2 production occurred by 6 and 18 h, respectively, in both types of cells. In contrast, NO was produced by rat bone marrow-derived macrophages only and was maximal at 18 h. The minimum concentration of purified LPS required to induce TNF-alpha, PGE2, and NO responses in both types of cells was 2,000- to 30,000-fold higher for H. pylori than for E. coli. Purified LPS from three other H. pylori strains with different polysaccharide side chain lengths showed a similarly low level of activity, and polymyxin B treatment markedly reduced activity as well, suggesting that activation was a lipid A phenomenon. These results indicate the low biological activity of H. pylori LPS in mediating macrophage activation.
PMCID: PMC173132  PMID: 7890370
3.  Effects of flexible-dose fesoterodine on overactive bladder symptoms and treatment satisfaction: an open-label study 
Aims:
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose fesoterodine in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who were dissatisfied with previous tolterodine treatment.
Methods:
This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study of adults with OAB (≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 3 urgency episodes per 24 h) who had been treated with tolterodine (immediate- or extended-release) for OAB within 2 years of screening and reported dissatisfaction with tolterodine treatment. Subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks; thereafter, daily dosage was maintained at 4 mg or increased to 8 mg based on the subject’s and physician’s subjective assessment of efficacy and tolerability. Subjects completed 5-day diaries, the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) at baseline and week 12 and rated treatment satisfaction at week 12 using the Treatment Satisfaction Question (TSQ). Safety and tolerability were assessed.
Results:
Among 516 subjects treated, approximately 50% opted for dose escalation to 8 mg at week 4. Significant improvements from baseline to week 12 were observed in micturitions, urgency urinary incontinence episodes, micturition-related urgency episodes and severe micturition-related urgency episodes per 24 h (all p< 0.0001). Approximately 80% of subjects who responded to the TSQ at week 12 reported satisfaction with treatment; 38% reported being very satisfied. Using the PPBC, 83% of subjects reported improvement at week 12 with 59% reporting improvement ≥ 2 points. Significant improvements from baseline (p< 0.0001) exceeding the minimally important difference (10 points) were observed in OAB-q Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) scales and all four HRQL domains. Dry mouth (23%) and constipation (5%) were the most common adverse events; no safety issues were identified.
Conclusion:
Flexible-dose fesoterodine significantly improved OAB symptoms, HRQL, and rates of treatment satisfaction and was well tolerated in subjects with OAB who were dissatisfied with prior tolterodine therapy.
doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02035.x
PMCID: PMC2705818  PMID: 19348029
4.  Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias with Synchronized Electrical Counter-shock 
Synchronized electrical countershock is an intriguing new method for the treatment of ectopic tachycardias. The authors applied this treatment to 20 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and, in 17 patients, sinus rhythm was restored immediately. An additional four patients with atrial flutter were successfully converted to sinus rhythm. One patient developed a hemiplegia two weeks after cardioversion. No other untoward side effects were observed. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation electrical countershock terminated the arrhythmia. After successful cardioversion of atrial fibrillation, a maintenance dose of quinidine is given to help maintain sinus rhythm. In spite of this precaution, one-half of the patients reverted to atrial fibrillation within a month. The quinidine was administered for two to three days in advance of cardioversion; on this regimen, 10 of 34 patients reverted to sinus rhythm on quinidine alone and did not require countershock. The exact place of this treatment of cardiac arrhythmias has not yet been clearly defined.
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PMCID: PMC1922207  PMID: 14118680
5.  Formation of non-cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids (F2-isoprostanes) in plasma and low density lipoprotein exposed to oxidative stress in vitro. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;93(3):998-1004.
F2-isoprostanes are prostaglandin F2-like compounds that are known to be formed in vivo by free radical oxidation of arachidonyl-containing lipids, and their plasma levels have been suggested as indicators of in vivo oxidative stress. As oxidation of LDL, a likely causal factor in atherosclerosis, involves lipid peroxidation, we investigated whether F2-isoprostanes are formed in plasma and LDL exposed to oxidative stress, and how F2-isoprostane formation is related to endogenous antioxidant status. In plasma exposed to aqueous peroxyl radicals, lipid hydroperoxides and esterified F2-isoprostanes were formed simultaneously after endogenous ascorbate and ubiquinol-10 had been exhausted, despite the continued presence of urate, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and lycopene. In isolated LDL exposed to aqueous peroxyl radicals or Cu2+, consumption of endogenous ubiquinol-10 and alpha-tocopherol was followed by rapid formation and subsequent breakdown of lipid hydroperoxides and esterified F2-isoprostanes, and a continuous increase in LDL's electronegativity, indicative of atherogenic modification. In Cu(2+)-exposed LDL, the decrease in esterified F2-isoprostane levels was paralleled by the appearance of free F2-isoprostanes, suggesting that hydrolysis by an LDL-associated activity had occurred. Our data suggest that F2-isoprostanes are useful markers of LDL oxidation in vivo. As F2-isoprostanes are potent vasoconstrictors and can modulate platelet aggregation, their formation in LDL demonstrated here may also have important implications for the etiology of cardiovascular disease.
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PMCID: PMC294019  PMID: 8132786
6.  Formation of novel non-cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids (F2-isoprostanes) in carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. An animal model of lipid peroxidation. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(6):2502-2507.
These studies examine the in vivo formation of a unique series of PGF2-like compounds (F2-isoprostanes) derived from free radical-catalyzed nonenzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid. We have previously shown that levels of these compounds increase up to 50-fold in rats administered CCl4. To understand further the formation of these compounds in vivo, we carried out a series of experiments assessing factors influencing their generation. After CCl4 (2 ml/kg) was administered to rats, plasma F2-isoprostanes increased 55-fold by 4 h. Levels declined thereafter, but at 24 h, they were still elevated 21-fold, indicating continued lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment of rats with isonicotinic acid hydrazide and phenobarbital to induce cytochrome P-450 enhanced the production of F2-isoprostanes after CCl4 administration eightfold and fivefold, respectively, whereas inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 system with SKF-525A and 4-methylpyrazole decreased formation of F2-isoprostanes after CCl4 by 55 and 82%, respectively. Further, the glutathione-depleting agents buthionine sulfoximine and phorone augmented the F2-isoprostane response to CCl4 by 22- and 11-fold, respectively. F2-isoprostanes are formed in situ esterified to lipids and, in addition to increases in levels of free F2-isoprostanes in the circulation, levels of F2-isoprostanes esterified to lipids in various organs and plasma also increase sharply during CCl4 poisoning. The measurement of F2-isoprostanes may facilitate investigation of the role of lipid peroxidation in human diseases.
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PMCID: PMC443408  PMID: 1469101
7.  Glomerular actions of a free radical-generated novel prostaglandin, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha, in the rat. Evidence for interaction with thromboxane A2 receptors. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(1):136-141.
8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2 alpha) and related compounds are novel prostanoid produced by a noncyclooxygenase mechanism involving lipid peroxidation. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury increased urinary excretion of these compounds by 300% over baseline level. Intrarenal arterial infusion at 0.5, 1, and 2 micrograms/kg per min induced dose-dependent reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow, with renal function ceasing at the highest dose. Micropuncture measurements (0.5 microgram/kg per min) revealed a predominant increase in afferent resistance, resulting in a decrease in transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference, and leading to reductions in single nephron GFR and plasma flow. These changes were completely abolished or reversed by a TxA2 receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548. Competitive radioligand binding studies demonstrated that 8-epi-PGF2 alpha is a potent competitor for [3H]SQ 29,548 binding to rat renal arterial smooth muscle cells (RASM) in culture. Furthermore, addition of 8-epi-PGF2 alpha to RASM or isolated glomeruli was not associated with stimulation of arachidonate cyclooxygenase products. Therefore, 8-epi-PGF2 alpha is a potent preglomerular vasoconstrictor acting principally through TxA2 receptor activation. These findings may explain, in part, the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy and TxA2 antagonism observed in numerous models of renal injury induced by lipid peroxidation.
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PMCID: PMC443072  PMID: 1386085

Results 1-8 (8)