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1.  Single photon emission computed tomography perfusion differences in mild cognitive impairment 
Objective
To relate cerebral perfusion abnormalities to subsequent changes in clinical status among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Methods
Perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were acquired in 105 elderly patients without dementia with MCI, using 99mTc‐HMPAO. Clinical outcome after a 5‐year follow‐up period was heterogeneous.
Results
Baseline SPECT data differed in those patients with MCI who were later diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (the converter group) from those patients with MCI who experienced clinically evident decline but did not progress to a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease within the follow‐up period (the decliner group), from patients with MCI who had no clinical evidence of progression (the stable group), and from a group of 19 normal subjects (the control group). The most consistent decreases in relative perfusion in converters compared with the normal, stable and decliner groups were observed in the caudal anterior cingulate, and in the posterior cingulate. In addition, converters showed increased relative perfusion in the rostral anterior cingulate in comparison to the stable and decliner groups. A group of patients with Alzheimer's disease were also included for purposes of comparison. The group of patients with Alzheimer's disease at baseline differed from each of the other groups, with temporoparietal regions showing the most significant reductions in perfusion.
Conclusions
These results suggest that clinical heterogeneity in MCI is reflected in SPECT perfusion differences, and that the pattern of perfusion abnormalities evolves with increasing clinical severity.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.096800
PMCID: PMC2117661  PMID: 17056633
2.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background:
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives:
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods:
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results:
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions:
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
GLOSSARY
= Automated Anatomic Labeling;
= Alzheimer disease;
= Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center;
= American version of the National Adult Reading Test;
= analysis of covariance;
= Blessed Dementia Scale;
= cerebral amyloid angiopathy;
= Clinical Dementia Rating;
= Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes;
= dementia with Lewy bodies;
= distribution volume ratio;
= Cued Selective Reminding Test;
= Free Selective Reminding Test;
= Hoehn and Yahr;
= Massachusetts General Hospital;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= normal control;
= neurofibrillary tangle;
= Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire;
= not significant;
= Parkinson disease;
= Parkinson disease dementia;
= Pittsburgh Compound B;
= region of interest;
= Statistical Parametric Mapping;
= UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank Research Center;
= United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale;
= Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
3.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
4.  Intranasal Delivery of Group B Meningococcal Native Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Induces Local Mucosal and Serum Bactericidal Antibody Responses in Rabbits  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(8):5031-5038.
We have previously shown that intranasal immunization of mice with meningococcal native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) induces both a good local mucosal antibody response and a good systemic bactericidal antibody response. However, in the intranasal mouse model, some of the NOMV entered the lung and caused an acute granulocytic response. We therefore developed an alternate animal model using the rabbit. This model reduces the probability of lung involvement and more closely mimics intranasal immunization of humans. Rabbits immunized intranasally with doses of 100 μg of NOMV in 0.5 ml of saline developed serum bactericidal antibody levels comparable to those of rabbits immunized intramuscularly with 25-μg doses, particularly when the primary intranasal immunization was given daily for 3 days. Intranasal immunization also induced a local mucosal response as evidenced by immunoglobulin A antibody in saliva, nasal washes, and lung lavage fluids. NOMV from a capsule-deficient mutant induced higher serum bactericidal antibody responses than NOMV from the encapsulated parent. Meningococcal NOMV could be administered intranasally at 400 μg with no pyrogenic activity, but as little as 0.03 μg/kg of body weight administered intravenously or 25 μg administered intramuscularly induced a pyrogenic response. These data indicate that the rabbit is a useful model for preclinical testing of intranasal meningococcal NOMV vaccines, and this immunization regimen produces a safe and substantial systemic and local mucosal antibody response.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.8.5031-5038.2005
PMCID: PMC1201206  PMID: 16041018
5.  A new mdr-1 encoded P-170 specific monoclonal antibody: (6/1C) on paraffin wax embedded tissue without pretreatment of sections. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1997;50(6):465-471.
AIMS: The generation and characterisation of a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognises the mdr-1 encoded protein, P-glycoprotein (P-170), on routinely processed formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue sections. METHODS: The monoclonal antibody, designated 6/1C, was produced following a combination of in vivo and in vitro immunisation regimens in Balb/c mice with a synthetic 12 amino acid peptide that corresponds to amino acids 21-32 (believed to be intracellularly located) of P-170 and has insignificant homology with the mdr-3 encoded P-170. Antibody 6/1C was characterised by western blotting and immunocytochemistry on cytospins of paired multidrug resistant or sensitive cell lines, including mdr-1 and mdr-3 transfected cells, and by immunohistochemistry on normal and malignant formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue sections. RESULTS: Antibody 6/1C showed a single band at 170 kDa on western blots of multidrug resistant cell lysates and mdr-1 transfected cell lysates that was absent on similar preparations of drug sensitive cells and mdr-3 transfected cells. Immunocytochemical studies on cytospins of multidrug resistant cells and mdr-1 transfected cells revealed strong inner plasma membrane/cytoplasmic staining. Staining was negligible on drug sensitive cells and cells transfected with the mdr-3 gene. Immunohistochemical studies on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded normal adult kidney, liver, and breast tissue and a range of fetal tissues exhibited staining patterns of a variety of secretory surfaces consistent with documented mdr-1 specific staining. Specific staining of malignant cells in similarly treated sections of breast tumours was seen also with antibody 6/1C. Staining on paraffin wax embedded tissue with this antibody did not require any pretreatment of tissue sections. CONCLUSIONS: This new monoclonal antibody, chosen for its specificity with the mdr-1 encoded P-170 and its reactivity on routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue samples without pretreatment, appears to be useful for the investigation of P-170 in archival material. It is especially useful for retrospective studies on pretreatment and post-treatment tissue sections, and could help establish when and how rapidly mdr-1 associated drug resistance develops during chemotherapeutic regimens. Immunohistochemical assessment of P-170 expression in many cancers has potential for diagnostic purposes and may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of refractory tumours.
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PMCID: PMC499970  PMID: 9378810
6.  Immunogenicity of Intranasally Administered Meningococcal Native Outer Membrane Vesicles in Mice 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(1):113-119.
Colonization of the human nasopharyngeal region by Neisseria meningitidis is believed to lead to natural immunity. Although the presence of bactericidal antibody in serum has been correlated with immunity to meningococcal disease, mucosal immunity at the portal of entry may also play an important role. This study was undertaken to examine in mice the possibility of safely using native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) not exposed to detergent as an intranasal (i.n.) vaccine. The mucosal and systemic responses of mice to intranasal and intraperitoneal (i.p.) vaccination with NOMV were compared over a range of doses from 0.1 to 20 μg. Intranasal vaccination of mice with NOMV induced a strong systemic bactericidal antibody response, as well as a strong local immunoglobulin A immune response in the lung as determined by assay of lung lavage fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lung antibody secreting cells by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. However, 8- to 10-fold-higher doses of NOMV were required i.n. compared to i.p. to elicit an equivalent bactericidal antibody response in serum. Some NOMV vaccine was aspirated into the lungs of mice during i.n. immunization and resulted in an acute inflammatory response that peaked at 1 to 2 days postimmunization and was cleared by day 7. These results indicate that i.n. delivery of meningococcal NOMV in mice is highly effective in eliciting the production of both a mucosal immune response and a systemic bactericidal antibody response.
PMCID: PMC96285  PMID: 9864204
7.  Bactericidal antibody responses of juvenile rhesus monkeys immunized with group B Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(3):1053-1060.
Reports on the bactericidal activities of antibodies to group B Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (B PS) are conflicting. Using three different complement sources, we analyzed the bactericidal activities of sera of juvenile rhesus monkeys immunized with five conjugate vaccines of B PS synthesized by different schemes, an Escherichia coli K92 conjugate, and a noncovalent complex of B PS with group B meningococcal outer membrane vesicles (B+OMV) (S. J. N. Devi, W. D. Zollinger, P. J. Snoy, J. Y. Tai, P. Costantini, F. Norelli, R. Rappuoli, and C. E. Frasch, Infect. Immun. 65:1045-1052, 1997). With rabbit complement, nearly all preimmune sera showed relatively high bactericidal titers, and all vaccines, except the K92 conjugate, induced a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal titers in most of the monkeys vaccinated. In contrast, with human complement, most prevaccination sera showed no bactericidal activity and in most of the vaccine groups, little or no increase in bactericidal titer was observed. However, the covalent conjugation of P BS and OMV (B-OMV) administered with and without the Ribi adjuvant induced relatively high bactericidal titers which persisted up to 30 weeks. An analysis of the specificities of bactericidal antibodies revealed that absorption with E. coli K1 cells did not change the bactericidal titer with human complement but reduced the titers observed with the rabbit and monkey complements. A significant increase in anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies was elicited by the B-OMV conjugates, and nearly all of the bactericidal activity with human complement could be inhibited with the purified group B meningococcal L3,7,8 LPS. B-OMV covalently coupled via adipic acid dihydrazide elicited significantly elevated levels (P < or = 0.02) of anti-OMV antibodies compared to those of the noncovalently complexed B+OMV. An initial small-scale evaluation of B PS conjugates in adult human males appears feasible, with careful monitoring, to settle the inconsistent reports of the importance of source of complement in eliciting bacteriolysis. Subsequent analysis of resultant human antibodies for bacteriolysis, opsonophagocytosis, and protective efficacy in animal models may be the first step toward answering safety- and efficacy-related concerns about B PS conjugate vaccines.
PMCID: PMC175087  PMID: 9038315
8.  Characterization of monoclonal antibodies raised against p300: both p300 and CBP are present in intracellular TBP complexes. 
Journal of Virology  1997;71(2):1726-1731.
The amino terminus of the adenovirus E1A protein is involved in E1A transforming functions, repression of tissue-specific gene expression, and E1A-mediated enhancer repression. These N-terminal functions are associated with the ability of this region of E1A to bind to p300 and CBP, two closely related cellular proteins thought to function as transcriptional adaptor molecules. Here we describe the characterization of a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies raised against E1A-affinity-purified 300-kDa proteins. The panel can be divided into two groups based on immunoprecipitation patterns. The first group consists of five p300/CBP-cross-reactive and two p300-specific monoclonal antibodies, all of which immunoprecipitate p300 and/or CBP without associated cellular proteins. In contrast, the second group immunoprecipitates p300 or both p300 and CBP in association with a complex of at least seven other cellular proteins. Taking advantage of the specificities of these monoclonal antibodies, we have identified both p300 and CBP in in vivo complexes with TBP, a finding consistent with a role for both p300 and CBP in promoting interactions between upstream promoter elements and the basal transcription apparatus.
PMCID: PMC191239  PMID: 8995708
9.  E1A promotes association between p300 and pRB in multimeric complexes required for normal biological activity. 
Journal of Virology  1995;69(12):7917-7924.
The oncogenes of the small DNA tumor viruses encode transforming proteins with multiple domains that influence the cell cycle and aspects of the transformed phenotype. Like other gene products of this type, the adenovirus E1A proteins influence the cell by binding to specific cell growth control proteins. These include members of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) family, which are bound by the E1A region 2-specific site, and p300, which is bound at the E1A amino terminus. Binding at these two sites is largely independent, and discrete transcription-regulating functions remain intact in E1A products when only one or the other binding site is functional. In this report, immunoprecipitation with p300 antibodies reveals the presence of the pRB family proteins in p300 complexes when E1A is expressed in host cells, indicating that E1A can mediate physical contact between p300 and the pRB-related proteins. The ability of E1A to induce proliferation efficiently in quiescent primary cells correlates closely with the ability to bind p300 and individual members of the pRB family simultaneously in multimeric complexes, even though the E1A active sites can bind their target proteins efficiently when separated on different molecules. Conservation of a spacer region between the two binding sites that is required for simultaneous binding and efficient induction of proliferation supports the concept that the E1A protein structure has evolved to facilitate simultaneous binding. These results indicate that the E1A proteins are designed not merely to sequester these cellular products, but also to bring them into proximal association with each other in biologically significant complexes.
PMCID: PMC189736  PMID: 7494304
11.  Expression of the L8 lipopolysaccharide determinant increases the sensitivity of Neisseria meningitidis to serum bactericidal activity. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(12):5290-5295.
The influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) expression on the sensitivity of Neisseria meningitidis to serum bactericidal activity was investigated by using a series of variants that expressed different LPS determinants. For each of two different strains, a series of three LPS variants that expressed L3,7, L8, or both were analyzed. LPS variants were identified and monitored by colony blotting with murine monoclonal antibodies specific for the L8 or the L3,7,9 immunotype determinants. Differences in LPS expression were verified by analysis of proteinase K lysates of whole cells by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then by silver staining or immunoblotting. The variants were used as test strains in bactericidal assays with human sera and with murine sera and monoclonal antibodies. Expression of the L8 LPS epitope was correlated with increased sensitivity to serum bactericidal activity. The geometric mean bactericidal titers of 12 to 16 sets of pre- and postvaccination sera were determined for each variant. Mean serum titers increased progressively with increased expression of L8 on the target strain. The bactericidal titers of anti-outer membrane protein monoclonal antibodies also increased with increased L8 expression.
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PMCID: PMC303267  PMID: 7960107
12.  The E1A products of oncogenic adenovirus serotype 12 include amino-terminally modified forms able to bind the retinoblastoma protein but not p300. 
Journal of Virology  1993;67(8):4804-4813.
The cell growth-regulating properties of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1A oncogene correlate closely with the binding of the E1A products to specific cellular proteins. These proteins include the products of the retinoblastoma tumor susceptibility gene and a 300-kDa product, p300. pRB binds to E1A sequences that are highly conserved among the E1A products of various serotypes, while p300 binding requires sequences in the E1A amino terminus, a region that is not highly conserved. To help evaluate the roles of the E1A-associated proteins in cell growth control, we have compared the p300-binding abilities of the E1A products of Ad5 and of the more oncogenic Ad12 serotype. We show here that despite encoding a sequence that varies somewhat from the p300-binding sequences of Ad5 E1A, the Ad12 E1A products associate with p300 with an affinity similar to that of the Ad5 E1A products. Both the 12S and 13S splice products of Ad12 E1A, like those of Ad5 E1A, encode proteins able to associate with p300. Interestingly, though, both also give rise to prominent forms that are amino terminally modified and unable to associate with p300. This modification, at least in the 13S product, does not appear to diminish the affinity of this product for the retinoblastoma protein.
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PMCID: PMC237867  PMID: 8331729
13.  Identification of specific adenovirus E1A N-terminal residues critical to the binding of cellular proteins and to the control of cell growth. 
Journal of Virology  1993;67(1):476-488.
Adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) oncogene-encoded sequences essential for transformation- and cell growth-regulating activities are localized at the N terminus and in regions of highly conserved amino acid sequence designated conserved regions 1 and 2. These regions interact to form the binding sites for two classes of cellular proteins: those, such as the retinoblastoma gene product, whose association with the E1A products is specifically dependent on region 2, and another class which so far is known to include only a large cellular DNA-binding protein, p300, whose association with the E1A products is specifically dependent on the N-terminal region. Association between the E1A products and either class of cellular proteins can be disrupted by mutations in conserved region 1. While region 2 has been studied intensively, very little is known so far concerning the nature of the essential residues in the N-terminal region, or about the manner in which conserved region 1 participates in the binding of two distinct sets of cellular proteins. A combination of site-directed point mutagenesis and monoclonal antibody competition experiments reported here suggests that p300 binding is dependent on specific, conserved residues in the N terminus, including positively charged residues at positions 2 and 3 of the E1A proteins, and that p300 and pRB bind to distinct, nonoverlapping subregions within conserved region 1. The availability of precise point mutations disrupting p300 binding supports previous data linking p300 with cell cycle control and enhancer function.
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PMCID: PMC237385  PMID: 8416379
14.  Promoter-specific trans-activation by the adenovirus E1A12S product involves separate E1A domains. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1992;12(10):4391-4399.
Recent studies have shown that the adenovirus E1A12S product can trans-activate transcription by activating the transcription factor E2F. However, E2F cannot be the only target for the E1A12S product, since several cellular promoters have been found to be activated by the E1A12S protein even though they lack E2F sites. Indeed, we now show that activation of the hsp70 promoter by the E1A12S product requires the TATAA sequence. Moreover, activation of the hsp70 promoter requires the N-terminal domain of the E1A protein and does not require the conserved region 2 sequences which are required for the E2F-dependent activation of transcription. We conclude that the targeting of distinct transcription factors, leading to trans-activation of transcription of multiple promoters, involves distinct domains of the E1A proteins that are also required for oncogenic activity.
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PMCID: PMC360363  PMID: 1406628
15.  DNA-binding properties of the E1A-associated 300-kilodalton protein. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1992;12(6):2826-2836.
One of the major E1A-associated cellular proteins is a 300-kDa product (p300) that binds to the N-terminal region of the E1A products. The p300 binding site is distinct from sequences involved in binding the retinoblastoma product and other E1A-associated cellular products such as p60-cyclin A and p107. p300 binding to E1A is linked genetically to the enhancer repression function of E1A and the other E1A-mediated gene-regulating functions as well as to the transforming functions of E1A. However, the biochemical properties of p300 have not yet been characterized. We report here that p300 has an intrinsic DNA-binding activity and shows a preferential affinity for specific DNA sequences. The sequences selectively bound by p300 are related to those of a series of enhancer elements that are recognized by NF-kappa B. The direct physical interaction of p300 with enhancer elements provides a biochemical basis for the genetic evidence linking the E1A-mediated enhancer repression function with the p300-binding activity of E1A.
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PMCID: PMC364477  PMID: 1534143
16.  Analysis with specific polyclonal antiserum indicates that the E1A-associated 300-kDa product is a stable nuclear phosphoprotein that undergoes cell cycle phase-specific modification. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(11):5389-5397.
Binding of a 300-kDa host cell protein (p300) is tightly correlated with the ability of the adenovirus E1A products to induce quiescent baby rat kidney cells to proliferate. We have generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies against p300 to characterize this protein further. We have found p300 to be a nuclear phosphoprotein that is actively synthesized in both quiescent and proliferating baby rat kidney cells. In partially purified mitotic cell populations, we observe a form of p300 with decreased electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels that shares a nearly identical partial proteolytic digest pattern with p300. The slower-migrating form of p300 is greatly reduced by treating immune complexes with potato acid phosphatase. The relative stability and presence of p300 even in resting cells suggests that p300 has a basal cell function, but the appearance of differentially modified forms during the cell cycle suggests the possibility that p300 function is modulated specifically in growing cells.
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PMCID: PMC361670  PMID: 1833633
17.  E1A induces phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein independently of direct physical association between the E1A and retinoblastoma products. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(8):4253-4265.
We have studied the initial effects of adenovirus E1A expression on the retinoblastoma (RB) gene product in normal quiescent cells. Although binding of the E1A products to pRB could, in theory, make pRB phosphorylation unnecessary for cell cycle progression, we have found that the 12S wild-type E1A product is capable of inducing phosphorylation of pRB in normal quiescent cells. The induction of pRB phosphorylation correlates with E1A-mediated induction of p34cdc2 expression and kinase activity, consistent with the possibility that p34cdc2 is a pRB kinase. Expression of simian virus 40 T antigen induces similar effects. Induction of pRB phosphorylation is independent of the pRB binding activity of the E1A products; E1A domain 2 mutants do not bind detectable levels of pRB but remain competent to induce pRB phosphorylation and to activate cdc2 protein kinase expression and activity. Although the kinetics of induction are slower, domain 2 mutants induce wild-type levels of pRB phosphorylation and host cell DNA synthesis and yet fail to induce cell proliferation. These results imply that direct physical interaction between the RB and E1A products does not play a required role in the early stages of E1A-mediated cell cycle induction and that pRB phosphorylation is not, of itself, sufficient to allow quiescent cells to divide. These results suggest that the E1A products do not need to bind pRB in order to stimulate resting cells to enter the cell cycle. Indeed, a more important role of the RB binding activity of the E1A products may be to prevent dividing cells from returning to G0.
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PMCID: PMC361255  PMID: 1830128
18.  Simian virus 40 large-T antigen expresses a biological activity complementary to the p300-associated transforming function of the adenovirus E1A gene products. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(4):2116-2124.
In this report we present evidence that simian virus 40 T antigen encodes a biological activity that is functionally equivalent to the transforming activity lost by deletion of the E1A p300-binding region. T-antigen constructs from which the pRb-binding region has been deleted are virtually unable to induce foci of transformed cells in a ras cooperation assay in primary baby rat kidney cells. Nevertheless, such a construct can cooperate with an E1A N-terminal deletion mutant, itself devoid of transforming activity, to induce foci in this assay. The heterologous trans-cooperating activity observed between E1A and T-antigen deletion products is as efficient as trans cooperation between mutants expressing individual E1A domains. The cooperating function can be impaired by a deletion near the N terminus of T antigen. Such a deletion impairs neither the p53-binding function nor the activity of the pRb-binding region.
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PMCID: PMC359899  PMID: 1848672
19.  Analysis of E1A-mediated growth regulation functions: binding of the 300-kilodalton cellular product correlates with E1A enhancer repression function and DNA synthesis-inducing activity. 
Journal of Virology  1990;64(9):4421-4427.
Adenovirus E1A transforming function requires two distinct regions of the protein. Transforming activity is closely linked with the presence of a region designated conserved domain 2 and the ability of this region to bind the product of the cellular retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. We have investigated the biological properties of the second transforming region of E1A, which is located near the N terminus. Transformation-defective mutants containing deletions in the N terminus (deletion of residues between amino acids 2 and 36) were deficient in the ability to induce DNA synthesis and repress insulin enhancer-stimulated activity. The function of the N-terminal region correlated closely with binding of the 300-kilodalton E1A-associated protein and not with binding of the retinoblastoma protein. These results indicate that transformation by E1A is mediated by two functionally independent regions of the protein which interact with different specific cellular proteins and suggest that the 300-kilodalton E1A-associated protein plays a major role in E1A-mediated cell growth control mechanisms.
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PMCID: PMC247911  PMID: 2143544
20.  Purification and characterization of H.8 antigen from group B Neisseria meningitidis. 
Infection and Immunity  1988;56(4):773-778.
The surface antigen (H.8) common to the pathogenic Neisseria species was purified by a simple procedure by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified H.8 antigen was characterized as to its amino acid composition, susceptibilities to several proteolytic enzymes, isoelectric point, and susceptibilities to an acid and a base. The amino acid composition of purified H.8 antigen from two strains of Neisseria meningitidis group B, namely, 44/76 and 8047, were compared. It was found that glutamic acid, alanine, and proline accounted for about 80% of the total amino acids in each case. A preliminary analysis of the lipid content of this protein was made. It showed the presence of a lipid component that moves between C9 and C11 straight-chain fatty acids in the gas chromatograph. Limited amino acid sequence data were obtained by sequencing a fragment of the H.8 antigen that was isolated after partial acid hydrolysis. The H.8 antigen epitope was found to be labile to treatment with both a mild acid and a mild base.
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PMCID: PMC259369  PMID: 2450067
21.  Different functional domains of the adenovirus E1A gene are involved in regulation of host cell cycle products. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1987;7(2):821-829.
We have analyzed the cell cycle effects that different domains of the adenovirus E1A proteins have on quiescent primary BRK cells. Studies with deletion mutants that in combination removed all but the N-terminal 85 amino acids common to both the 12S and 13S proteins suggest that this region may be sufficient for the induction of synthesis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the stimulation of DNA synthesis. A second domain also common to the N-terminal exon of the 12S and 13S proteins was required for the induction of mitosis and stimulation of proliferation of primary BRK cells. A virus containing a mutation in this region was still able to stimulate DNA synthesis efficiently. A third domain, unique to the 13S protein, was required for the accelerated activation of the cellular thymidylate synthase gene in a manner similar to the 13S-dependent stimulation of adenovirus early region genes.
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PMCID: PMC365140  PMID: 2881197
22.  Identification of separate domains in the adenovirus E1A gene for immortalization activity and the activation of virus early genes. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1986;6(10):3470-3480.
The transformation and early adenovirus gene transactivation functions of the E1A region were analyzed with deletion and point mutations. Deletion of amino acids from position 86 through 120 had little effect on the lytic or transforming functions of the E1A products, while deletion of amino acids from position 121 through 150 significantly impaired both functions. The sensitivity of the transformation function to alterations in the region from amino acid position 121 to 150 was further indicated by the impairment of transforming activity resulting from single amino acid substitutions at positions 124 and 135. Interestingly, conversion of a cysteine residue at position 124 to glycine severely impaired the transformation function without affecting the early adenovirus gene activating functions. Single amino acid substitutions in a different region of the E1A gene had the converse effect. All the mutants produced polypeptides of sufficient stability to be detected by Western immunoblot analysis. The single amino acid substitutions at positions 124 and 135, although impairing the transformation functions, did not detectably alter the formation of the higher-apparent-molecular-weight forms of the E1A products.
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PMCID: PMC367095  PMID: 3025595
24.  Chemical industry voluntary test program for phthalate esters: health effects studies. 
The Chemical Manufacturers' Association voluntary test program on phthalate esters is described, and the results of certain key aspects of the program are presented. Representative phthalate esters were chosen for genotoxicity testing and peroxisome proliferation screening, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its initial metabolic products were tested in the genotoxicity battery. A comparative metabolism study was performed with DEHP in the mouse, rat, and cynomologus monkey, together with a study of the metabolism of DEHP in the rodent at several dose levels, and after prolonged feeding. A standard test for peroxisome proliferation in the rat, employing 21 days of feeding and several end points is described, based on DEHP as a reference compound. DEHP is shown to be nongenotoxic in the test battery, and its initial major metabolites are also nongenotoxic. A nonlinear dose response with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP in the rodent is demonstrated. Quantitative differences exist between the mouse and rat, and the cynomologus monkey with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP, beta-oxidation being a much less used pathway in the monkey. The significance of these results in interpreting the hepatocellular carcinogenesis of DEHP in the Fischer 344 rat is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1474691  PMID: 3709458
25.  Lytic and transforming functions of individual products of the adenovirus E1A gene. 
Journal of Virology  1986;57(3):765-775.
To distinguish the individual roles of the 13S, 12S, and 9S adenovirus E1A gene products, we isolated the corresponding cDNA clones and recombined them into both plasmids and viruses. Only the expected E1A mRNA products were made from the corresponding 12S and 13S viruses. The 9S mRNA was detected when the 9S virus was coinfected with the 13S virus but not when either virus was infected alone. The 13S virus formed plaques equally well in 293 cells, HeLa cells, and A549 cells, a human lung oat cell carcinoma line. Plaque titers of the 12S virus were much reduced in HeLa and A549 cells compared with 293 cells, although the 12S virus is multiplicity-dependent leaky in both HeLa and A549 cells. A549 cells were significantly more permissive than HeLa cells for growth of the 12S virus. In A549 cells even at low multiplicities of infection the final yield of 12S virus eventually approached the maximum yield from 293 cells. Expression from the adenovirus early region 2 and early region 3 promoters in HeLa cells was activated in the presence of a 13S cDNA E1A region but not in the presence of a 12S E1A cDNA region. Although defective for lytic growth in HeLa cells, the 12S virus immortalized BRK cells at very high efficiency, whereas infection of these cells with 13S virus, as with wild-type E1A virus, resulted mainly in cell death. The 13S product does have an immortalization function, however, revealed in the absence of adenovirus lytic functions when a plasmid containing the E1A 13S cDNA region was transfected into BRK cells. The 9S virus failed to immortalize infected BRK cells or to interfere with focus formation when coinfected with the 12S virus.
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PMCID: PMC252804  PMID: 2936898

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