Expert bodies and health organisations recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA). However, the underpinning data largely emanate from studies of populations of European descent. It is unclear whether this level of activity is appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have increased cardio-metabolic disease risk compared to Europeans. The aim of this study was to explore the level of MPA required in South Asians to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans undertaking the currently recommended MPA level of 150 min.week−1.
Seventy-five South Asian and 83 European men, aged 40–70, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes had fasted blood taken, blood pressure measured, physical activity assessed objectively (using accelerometry), and anthropometric measures made. Factor analysis was used to summarise measured risk biomarkers into underlying latent ‘factors’ for glycaemia, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, blood pressure, and overall cardio-metabolic risk. Age-adjusted regression models were used to determine the equivalent level of MPA (in bouts of ≥10 minutes) in South Asians needed to elicit the same value in each factor as Europeans undertaking 150 min.week−1 MPA.
For all factors, except blood pressure, equivalent MPA values in South Asians were significantly higher than 150 min.week−1; the equivalent MPA value for the overall cardio-metabolic risk factor was 266 (95% CI 185-347) min.week−1.
South Asian men may need to undertake greater levels of MPA than Europeans to exhibit a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile, suggesting that a conceptual case can be made for ethnicity-specific physical activity guidance. Further study is needed to extend these findings to women and to replicate them prospectively in a larger cohort.
The processing of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is multifaceted, comprising of protein transport, internalization and sequential proteolysis. However, the exact mechanism of APP intracellular trafficking and distribution remains unclear. To determine the interaction between sortilin and APP and the effect of sortilin on APP trafficking and processing, we studied the binding site and its function by mapping experiments, colocalization, coimmunoprecipitation and sucrose gradient fractionation. We identified for the first time that sortilin interacts with APP at both N- and C-terminal regions. The sortilin-FLVHRY (residues 787–792) and APP-NPTYKFFE (residues 759–766) motifs are crucial for the C-terminal interaction. We also found that lack of the FLVHRY motif reduces APP lysosomal targeting and increases APP distribution in lipid rafts in co-transfected HEK293 cells. These results are consistent with our in vivo data where sortilin knockout mice showed a decrease of APP lysosomal distribution and an increase of APP in lipid rafts. We further confirmed that overexpression of sortilin-FLVHRY mutants failed to rescue the lysosomal degradation of APP. Thus, our data suggests that sortilin is implicated in APP lysosomal and lipid raft targeting via its carboxyl-terminal F/YXXXXF/Y motif. Our study provides new molecular insights into APP trafficking and processing.
Pituitary adenomas can invade surrounded tissue, but the mechanism remains elusive. Ether à go-go-1 (Eag1) potassium channel and epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB1 and ErbB2) have been associated to invasive phenotypes or poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, cells arrange their cytoskeleton in order to acquire a successful migration pattern. We have studied ErbBs and Eag1 expression, and cytoskeleton arrangements in 11 human pituitary adenomas. Eag1, ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression were studied by immunochemistry in tissue and cultured cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement was analyzed in cultured cells by immunofluorescence. Normal pituitary tissue showed ErbB2 expression and Eag1 only in few cells. However, Eag1 and ErbB2 were expressed in all the tumors analyzed. ErbB1 expression was observed variable and did not show specificity for a tumor characteristic. Cultured cells from micro- and macro-adenomas clinically functional organize their cytoskeleton suggesting a mesenchymal pattern, and a round leucocyte/amoeboid pattern from invasive clinically silent adenoma. Pituitary tumors over-express EGF receptors and the ErbB2 repeated expression suggests is a characteristic of adenomas. Eag 1 was express, in different extent, and could be a therapeutic target. The cytoskeleton arrangements observed suggest that pituitary tumor cells acquire different patterns: mesenchymal, and leucocyte/amoeboid, the last observed in the invasive adenomas. Amoeboid migration pattern has been associated with high invasion capacity.
Pituitary adenomas; ErbBs; Eag1; cytoskeleton; invasion; cell culture
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a genetic variant at a locus on chromosome 1p13 that is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, reduced plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and markedly increased expression of the gene sortilin-1 (SORT1) in liver. Sortilin is a lysosomal sorting protein that binds ligands both in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane and traffics them to the lysosome. We previously reported that increased hepatic sortilin expression in mice reduced plasma LDL-C levels. Here we show that increased hepatic sortilin not only reduced hepatic apolipoprotein B (APOB) secretion, but also increased LDL catabolism, and that both effects were dependent on intact lysosomal targeting. Loss-of-function studies demonstrated that sortilin serves as a bona fide receptor for LDL in vivo in mice. Our data are consistent with a model in which increased hepatic sortilin binds intracellular APOB-containing particles in the Golgi apparatus as well as extracellular LDL at the plasma membrane and traffics them to the lysosome for degradation. We thus provide functional evidence that genetically increased hepatic sortilin expression both reduces hepatic APOB secretion and increases LDL catabolism, providing dual mechanisms for the very strong association between increased hepatic sortilin expression and reduced plasma LDL-C levels in humans.
The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) on early outcomes in young and middle-aged patients undergoing conventional aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis remains unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of some degree of PPM and its influence on early mortality and morbidity.
We analyzed our single center experience in all patients <70 years undergoing first-time isolated aortic valve replacement for severe stenosis in our center from September 2007 to September 2011. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0,85 cm2/m2. The influence of PPM on early mortality and postoperative complications was studied using propensity score analysis. Follow up at 30 postoperative days was 100% complete.
Of 199 patients studied, 61 (30,7%) had some degree of PPM. PPM was associated with an increased postoperative mortality (OR = 8,71; 95% CI = 1,67–45,29; p = 0,04) and major postoperative complications (OR = 2,96; CI = 1,03–8,55; p = 0,044). However, no association between PPM and prolonged hospital or ICU stay was demonstrated.
Moderate PPM is a common finding in young and middle-aged patients undergoing surgery for aortic valve replacement due to severe stenosis. In addition, its influence on early outcomes may be relevant.
Patient-prosthesis mismatch; Severe aortic stenosis
Imprecise measurement of physical activity variables might attenuate estimates of the beneficial effects of activity on health-related outcomes. We aimed to compare the cardiometabolic risk factor dose-response relationships for physical activity and sedentary behaviour between accelerometer- and questionnaire-based activity measures.
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed in 317 adults by 7-day accelerometry and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Fasting blood was taken to determine insulin, glucose, triglyceride and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations and homeostasis model-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR). Waist circumference, BMI, body fat percentage and blood pressure were also measured.
For both accelerometer-derived sedentary time (<100 counts.min−1) and IPAQ-reported sitting time significant positive (negative for HDL cholesterol) relationships were observed with all measured risk factors – i.e. increased sedentary behaviour was associated with increased risk (all p≤0.01). However, for HOMAIR and insulin the regression coefficients were >50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived measure (p<0.0001 for both interactions). The relationships for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and risk factors were less strong than those observed for sedentary behaviours, but significant negative relationships were observed for both accelerometer and IPAQ MVPA measures with glucose, and insulin and HOMAIR values (all p<0.05). For accelerometer-derived MVPA only, additional negative relationships were seen with triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat, and a positive relationship was evident with HDL cholesterol (p = 0.0002). Regression coefficients for HOMAIR, insulin and triglyceride were 43–50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived MVPA measure (all p≤0.01).
Using the IPAQ to determine sitting time and MVPA reveals some, but not all, relationships between these activity measures and metabolic and vascular disease risk factors. Using this self-report method to quantify activity can therefore underestimate the strength of some relationships with risk factors.
A modified sol-gel process for synthesizing nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders (nHA) for biomedical applications, using tetrahydrated calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2∙4H2O] and phosphorous pentoxide [P2O5] as precursor, is presented and discussed. The powders were washed and heat-treated at different temperatures and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The total process time reached with this modified process was less than 16 h. The results showed that there was an increment in size of the HA nanocrystals (nHA) when treated at different temperatures, ranging from 30 nm for the sample treated at 600°C to 500 nm for the sample heat-treated at 1200°C.
X-ray diffraction; biomaterials; hydroxyapatite; nanocrystals; sol-gel
Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile.
123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant “ethnicity x environment” interaction for HOMAIR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p(interaction) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMAIR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMAIR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders.
Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a locus on chromosome 1p13 as strongly associated with both serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and myocardial infarction (MI) in humans. Here we show through a series of studies in human cohorts and human-derived hepatocytes that a common noncoding polymorphism at the 1p13 locus, rs12740374, creates a C/EBP transcription factor binding site and alters the hepatic expression of the SORT1 gene. With siRNA knockdown and viral overexpression in mouse liver, we demonstrate that Sort1 alters plasma LDL-C and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle levels by modulating hepatic VLDL secretion. Thus, we provide functional evidence for a novel regulatory pathway for lipoprotein metabolism and suggest that modulation of this pathway may alter risk for MI in humans. We also demonstrate that common noncoding DNA variants identified by GWASs can directly contribute to clinical phenotypes.
The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) and Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC) indexes are designed to develop control strategies and to reduce morbidity and mortality rates resulting from infections in surgical patients. We sought to assess the application of these indexes in patients under-going surgery for abdominal trauma and to develop an alternative model to predict surgical site infections (SSIs).
We conducted a prospective cohort study between November 2000 and March 2002. The main outcome measure was SSIs. We evaluated the variables included in the NNIS and SENIC indexes and some preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative variables that could be risk factors related to the development of SSIs. We performed multivariate analyses using a forward logistic regression method. Finally, we assessed infection risk prediction, comparing the estimated probabilities with actual occurrence using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
Overall, 614 patients underwent an exploratory laparotomy. Of these, 85 (13.8%) experienced deep incisional and organ/intra-abdominal SSIs. The independent variables associated with this complication were an Abdominal Trauma Index score greater than 24, abdominal contamination and admission to the intensive care unit. We proposed a model for predicting deep incisional and organ/intra-abdominal SSIs using these variables (alternative model). The areas under the ROC curves were compared using the estimated probabilities for this alternative model and for the NNIS and SENIC scores. The analysis revealed a greater area under the ROC curve for the alternative model. The NNIS and SENIC scores did not perform as well as the alternative model in patients with abdominal trauma.
The NNIS and SENIC indexes were inferior to the proposed alternative model for predicting SSIs in patients undergoing surgery for abdominal trauma.
Mammalian spermatozoa lose plasma membrane cholesterol during their maturation in the epididymis and during their capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While acceptors such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and J have been found in male and female reproductive tracts, transporters that mediate cholesterol efflux from plasma membranes of spermatozoa to such acceptors have not yet been defined. Candidate transporters are members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily including ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1 and ABCG4, which have all been implicated in the transport of sterols and phospholipids to apolipoproteins and HDL. Here we show that mouse spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and epididymis express ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1, but not ABCG4. Moreover, we show that ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1 antibodies decrease cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa to lipid acceptors apoA-I and albumin and inhibit in vitro fertilization.
ATP-binding cassette transporters; cholesterol efflux; in vitro fertilization; sperm; mouse
Tay-Sachs disease is a severe lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the HexA gene coding for the α-subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A, which converts GM2 to GM3 ganglioside. Hexa−/− mice, depleted of β-hexosaminidase A, remain asymptomatic to 1 year of age, because they catabolise GM2 ganglioside via a lysosomal sialidase into glycolipid GA2, which is further processed by β-hexosaminidase B to lactosyl-ceramide, thereby bypassing the β-hexosaminidase A defect. Since this bypass is not effective in humans, infantile Tay-Sachs disease is fatal in the first years of life. Previously, we identified a novel ganglioside metabolizing sialidase, Neu4, abundantly expressed in mouse brain neurons. Now we demonstrate that mice with targeted disruption of both Neu4 and Hexa genes (Neu4−/−;Hexa−/−) show epileptic seizures with 40% penetrance correlating with polyspike discharges on the cortical electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Single knockout Hexa−/− or Neu4−/− siblings do not show such symptoms. Further, double-knockout but not single-knockout mice have multiple degenerating neurons in the cortex and hippocampus and multiple layers of cortical neurons accumulating GM2 ganglioside. Together, our data suggest that the Neu4 block exacerbates the disease in Hexa−/− mice, indicating that Neu4 is a modifier gene in the mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, reducing the disease severity through the metabolic bypass. However, while disease severity in the double mutant is increased, it is not profound suggesting that Neu4 is not the only sialidase contributing to the metabolic bypass in Hexa−/− mice.
Tay-Sachs disease is the second most common lysosomal storage disorder, especially frequent in Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians. The disorder is caused by mutations in the gene coding for lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A (HexA), resulting in accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neurons followed by progressive neurologic degeneration, fatal in early childhood. However mice, depleted of HexA, remain asymptomatic to at least 1 year of age, owing to the ability of these mice to catabolise stored GM2 ganglioside via a lysosomal neuraminidase into glycolipid GA2 further processed by β-hexosaminidase B, thereby completely bypassing the HexA defect. Our current study provides an explanation why the disease is severe in humans but not in mice. We showed that mice depleted of both HexA and ganglioside neuraminidase 4 (Neu4) show epileptic seizures similar to that often observed in Tay-Sachs patients. Single HexA or Neu4 knockout mice do not show such symptoms. Further, double-knockout but not single-knockout mice have multiple degenerating cortical and hippocampal neurons and multiple layers of cortical neurons accumulating GM2 ganglioside. Our data suggest that the Neu4 depletion exacerbates the disease in HexA knockout mice, supporting the view that Neu4 is one of the modifier genes in the mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease.
It is now established that CD1 molecules present lipid antigens to T cells, although it is not clear how the exchange of lipids between membrane compartments and the CD1 binding groove is assisted. We report that mice deficient in prosaposin, the precursor to a family of endosomal lipid transfer proteins (LTP), exhibit specific defects in CD1d-mediated antigen presentation and lack Vα14 NKT cells. In vitro, saposins extracted monomeric lipids from membranes and from CD1, thereby promoting the loading as well as the editing of lipids on CD1. Transient complexes between CD1, lipid, and LTP suggested a “tug-of-war” model in which lipid exchange between CD1 and LTP is on the basis of their respective affinities for lipids. LTPs constitute a previously unknown link between lipid metabolism and immunity and are likely to exert a profound influence on the repertoire of self, tumor, and microbial lipid antigens.
PMID: 14684827 CAMSID: cams1387
Infection promotes coagulation via a large number of molecular and cellular mechanisms, and this procoagulant activity has boosted basic and clinical research using anticoagulant molecules as therapeutic tools in sepsis. Heparin, which is a naturally occurring proteoglycan that acts by reducing thrombin generation and fibrin formation, has not been rigorously tested in a randomized clinical trial.
Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, single-center clinical trial. Patients are recruited through the emergency room at Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paul. This is a 650-bed University Hospital in Medellín, Colombia and is a referral center for a region with approximately 3 million habitants. The recruitment process started on July 2005 and will finish on June 2007. Patients aged 18 years or older, males or females, hospitalized with clinically or microbiological confirmed sepsis, have been included. The interventions are unfractioned heparin in low dose continuous infusion (500 units per hour for 7 days) or placebo, additionally to the standard of care for sepsis patients in Colombia.
Our primary aims are to estimate the effects of heparin on hospital length of stay and change from baseline Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MOD) score. Secondary objectives are to estimate the effects of heparin on 28-day all-cause mortality, and to estimate the possible effect modification on 28-day all-cause mortality, in subgroups defined by source and site of infection, and baseline values of APACHE II score, MOD score and D-dimer.
The available literature in animal and human research, and the understanding of the molecular biology regarding inflammation and coagulation, supports a randomized clinical trial for the use of heparin in sepsis. Our study will provide appropriate power to detect differences in valid surrogate outcomes, and it will explore important preliminary data for efficacy regarding the clinical end-point of mortality.
While transmission ratio distortion, TRD, (a deviation from Mendelian ratio) is extensive in humans and well-documented in mice, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Our earlier studies on carriers of spontaneous mutations of mouse Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (Spam1) suggested that TRD results from biochemically different sperm, due to a lack of transcript sharing through the intercellular cytoplasmic bridges of spermatids. These bridges usually allow transcript sharing among genetically different spermatids which develop into biochemically and functionally equivalent sperm.
The goals of the study were to provide support for the lack of sharing (LOS) hypothesis, using transgene and null carriers of Spam1, and to determine the mechanism of Spam1-associated TRD.
Carriers of Spam1-Hyal5 BAC transgenes were mated with wild-type female mice and the progeny analyzed for TRD by PCR genotyping. Sperm from transgene and Spam1 null carriers were analyzed using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry to detect quantities of Spam1 and/or Hyal5. Transgene-bearing sperm with Spam1 overexpression were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In wild-type animals, EM studies of in situ transcript hybridization of testis sections and Northern analysis of biochemically fractionated testicular RNA were performed to localize Spam1 transcript. Finally, AU-rich motifs identified in the 3' UTR of Spam1 RNA were assayed by UV cross-linking to determine their ability to interact with testicular RNA binding proteins.
The Tg8 line of transgene carriers had a significant (P < 0.001) TRD, due to reduced fertilizing ability of transgene-bearing sperm. These sperm retained large cytoplasmic droplets engorged with overexpressed Spam1 or Hyal5 protein. Caudal sperm from transgene carriers and caput sperm of null carriers showed a bimodal distribution of Spam1, indicating that the sperm in a male were biochemically different with respect to Spam1 quantities. Spam1 RNA was absent from the bridges, associated exclusively with the ER, and was shown to be anchored to the cytoskeleton. This compartmentalization of the transcript, mediated by cytoskeletal binding, occurs via protein interactions with 3' UTR AU-rich sequences that are likely involved in its stabilization.
We provide strong support for the LOS hypothesis, and have elucidated the mechanism of Spam1-associated TRD.
Activation of ubiquitination occurs during spermatogenesis and is dependent on the induction of isoforms of the UBC4 family of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. The UBC4-testis isoform is testis specific, is induced in round spermatids, and demonstrates biochemical functions distinct from a ubiquitously expressed isoform UBC4-1. To explore further the function of UBC4-testis, mice bearing inactivation of this gene were produced. Homozygous (−/−) mice showed normal body growth and fertility. Although testis weight and morphology were normal in testes from adult mice, examination of young mice during the first wave of spermatogenesis revealed that testes were ∼10% smaller in weight at 40 and 45 days of age but had become normal at 65 days of age. Overall protein content, levels of ubiquitinated proteins, and ubiquitin-conjugating activity did not differ between wild-type and homozygous (−/−) mice. Spermatid number, as well as the motility of spermatozoa isolated from the epididymis, was also normal in homozygous (−/−) mice. To determine whether the germ cells lacking UBC4-testis might be more sensitive to stress, testes from wild-type and knockout mice were exposed to heat stress by implantation in the abdominal cavity. Testes from both strains of mice showed similar rates of degeneration in response to heat. The lack of an obvious phenotype did not appear to be due to induction of other UBC4 isoforms, as shown by two-dimensional gel immunoblotting. Our data indicate that UBC4-testis plays a role in early maturation of the testis and suggest that the many UBC4 isoforms have mixed redundant and specific functions.
To assess the role of sortilin in the sorting and trafficking of sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) the function of sortilin was abolished by a dominant-negative mutant and by the use of RNAi. Mutant sortilin lacking the carboxyl-terminal region that contains the sorting signal abolished the trafficking of SAPs to the lysosomes. Both sortilin and SAPs were retained in the Golgi apparatus. The use of chemically synthesized siRNA effectively blocked the trafficking of SAPs to the lysosomes as well. Additionally, we created a stable COS-7 cell line transfected with the pSilencer 3.1 H1 neo vector containing a selected siRNA template oligonucleotide (small hairpin interference RNA) where the levels of sortilin were greatly suppressed. The elimination of sortilin by this method will permit to determine whether or not sortilin is involved in a general mechanism of lysosomal sorting that involves the trafficking of various soluble lysosomal proteins other than SAPs.
Sortilin; Sphingolipid Activator Proteins
Ubiquitin-specific processing proteases (UBPs) presently form the largest enzyme family in the ubiquitin system, characterized by a core region containing conserved motifs surrounded by divergent sequences, most commonly at the N-terminal end. The functions of these divergent sequences remain unclear. We identified two isoforms of a novel testis-specific UBP, UBP-t1 and UBP-t2, which contain identical core regions but distinct N termini, thereby permitting dissection of the functions of these two regions. Both isoforms were germ cell specific and developmentally regulated. Immunocytochemistry revealed that UBP-t1 was induced in step 16 to 19 spermatids while UBP-t2 was expressed in step 18 to 19 spermatids. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that UBP-t1 was found in the nucleus while UBP-t2 was extranuclear and was found in residual bodies. For the first time, we show that the differential subcellular localization was due to the distinct N-terminal sequences. When transfected into COS-7 cells, the core region was expressed throughout the cell but the UBP-t1 and UBP-t2 isoforms were concentrated in the nucleus and the perinuclear region, respectively. Fusions of each N-terminal end with green fluorescent protein yielded the same subcellular localization as the native proteins, indicating that the N-terminal ends were sufficient for determining differential localization. Interestingly, UBP-t2 colocalized with anti-γ-tubulin immunoreactivity, indicating that like several other components of the ubiquitin system, a deubiquitinating enzyme is associated with the centrosome. Regulated expression and alternative N termini can confer specificity of UBP function by restricting its temporal and spatial loci of action.
The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum IMI206040 secretes β-1,3-glucanases in the presence of different glucose polymers and fungal cell walls. The level of β-1,3-glucanase activity secreted was found to be proportional to the amount of glucan present in the inducer. The fungus produces at least seven extracellular β-1,3-glucanases upon induction with laminarin, a soluble β-1,3-glucan. The molecular weights of five of these enzymes fall in the range from 60,000 to 80,000, and their pIs are 5.0 to 6.8. In addition, a 35-kDa protein with a pI of 5.5 and a 39-kDa protein are also secreted. Glucose appears to inhibit the formation of all of the inducible β-1,3-glucanases detected. A 77-kDa glucanase was partially purified from the laminarin culture filtrate. This enzyme is glycosylated and belongs to the exo-β-1,3-glucanase group. The properties of this complex group of enzymes suggest that the enzymes might play different roles in host cell wall lysis during mycoparasitism.
The presence of cyanosis following repair of congenital cardiac defects may result from several different mechanisms. We report two patients in whom early postoperative arterial hypoxemia manifested by cyanosis was caused by right-to-left interatrial shunting. Two-dimensional contrast echocardiography correctly identified the site and direction of shunting, leading to surgical correction of the complication.