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1.  Vancomycin Treatment's Association with Delayed Intestinal Tissue Injury, Clostridial Overgrowth, and Recurrence of Clostridium difficile Infection in Mice 
Antibiotic treatment, including vancomycin, for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with recurrence of disease in up to 25% of infected persons. This study investigated the effects of vancomycin on the clinical outcomes, intestinal histopathology, and anaerobic community during and after treatment in a murine model of CDI. C57BL/6 mice were challenged with C. difficile strain VPI 10463 after pretreatment with an antibiotic cocktail. Twenty-four hours after infection, mice were treated daily with vancomycin, nitazoxanide, fidaxomicin, or metronidazaole for 5 days. Mice were monitored for either 6 or 12 days postinfection. Clinical, diarrhea, and histopathology scores were measured. Cecal contents or stool samples were assayed for clostridial or Bacteroides DNA and C. difficile toxins A and B. Vancomycin treatment of infected mice was associated with improved clinical, diarrhea, and histopathology scores and survival during treatment. However, after discontinuation of the drug, clinical scores and histopathology were worse in treated mice than in untreated infected controls. At the end of the study, 62% of the vancomycin-treated mice succumbed to recurrence, with an overall mortality rate equivalent to that of the untreated infected control group. Fidaxomicin-treated mice had outcomes similar to those of vancomycin-treated mice. C. difficile predominated over Bacteroides in cecal contents of vancomycin-treated mice, similar to findings for untreated infected mice. Decreasing the duration of vancomycin treatment from 5 days to 1 day decreased recurrence and deaths. In conclusion, vancomycin improved clinical scores and histopathology acutely but was associated with poor outcome posttreatment in C. difficile-infected mice. Decreasing vancomycin exposure may decrease relapse and improve survival in CDI.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00877-12
PMCID: PMC3553708  PMID: 23147742
2.  Technical Changes in Paraspinous Muscle Flap Surgery Have Increased Salvage Rates of Infected Spinal Wounds 
Eplasty  2008;8:e50.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to introduce modifications in paraspinous muscle flap surgery and compare this new variation's ability to salvage infected hardware with the classic technique. Infected posterior spine wounds are a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. As per experience, hardware retention in infected wounds maintains spinal stability, decreases length of stay, and decreases the wound healing complication rate. Methods: An 11-year retrospective office and hospital chart review was conducted between July 1996 and August 2007. All patients who underwent paraspinous muscle flap reconstruction for postspine surgery wound infections during this time period were included. There were 51 patients in the study representing the largest reported series, to date, for this procedure. Twenty-two patients underwent treatment using the modified technique and 29 patients were treated using the classic technique. Results: There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups in demographics, medical history, or reason for initial spine surgery. The hardware salvage rate associated with the modified technique was greater than the rate associated with the classic technique (95.4% vs 75.8%; P = .03). There were fewer postreconstruction wound healing complications requiring hospital readmission in the modified technique group than the classic group (13.6% vs 44.8%; P = .04). Patients in the modified technique group demonstrated a shorter mean length of stay than the patients in the classic group (23.7 days vs 29.7; P = .25). Conclusions: The modified paraspinous muscle flap technique is an excellent option for spinal wound reconstruction, preservation of spinal hardware, and local infection control.
PMCID: PMC2570115  PMID: 19011678

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