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1.  Cell cycle and genetic requirements of two pathways of nonhomologous end-joining repair of double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1996;16(5):2164-2173.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break can be repaired by at least two pathways of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) that closely resemble events in mammalian cells. In one pathway the chromosome ends are degraded to yield deletions with different sizes whose endpoints have 1 to 6 bp of homology. Alternatively, the 4-bp overhanging 3' ends of HO-cut DNA (5'-AACA-3') are not degraded but can be base paired in misalignment to produce +CA and +ACA insertions. When HO was expressed throughout the cell cycle, the efficiency of NHEJ repair was 30 times higher than when HO was expressed only in G1. The types of repair events were also very different when HO was expressed throughout the cell cycle; 78% of survivors had small insertions, while almost none had large deletions. When HO expression was confined to the G1 phase, only 21% were insertions and 38% had large deletions. These results suggest that there are distinct mechanisms of NHEJ repair producing either insertions or deletions and that these two pathways are differently affected by the time in the cell cycle when HO is expressed. The frequency of NHEJ is unaltered in strains from which RAD1, RAD2, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, or RAD57 is deleted; however, deletions of RAD50, XRS2, or MRE11 reduced NHEJ by more than 70-fold when HO was not cell cycle regulated. Moreover, mutations in these three genes markedly reduced +CA insertions, while significantly increasing the proportion of both small (-ACA) and larger deletion events. In contrast, the rad5O mutation had little effect on the viability of G1-induced cells but significantly reduced the frequency of both +CA insertions and -ACA deletions in favor of larger deletions. Thus, RAD50 (and by extension XRS2 and MRE11) exerts a much more important role in the insertion-producing pathway of NHEJ repair found in S and/or G2 than in the less frequent deletion events that predominate when HO is expressed only in G1.
PMCID: PMC231204  PMID: 8628283
2.  Mechanism of MAT alpha donor preference during mating-type switching of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1996;16(2):657-668.
During homothallic switching of the mating-type (MAT) gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a- or alpha-specific sequences are replaced by opposite mating-type sequences copied from one of two silent donor loci, HML alpha or HMRa. The two donors lie at opposite ends of chromosome III, approximately 190 and 90 kb, respectively, from MAT. MAT alpha cells preferentially recombine with HMR, while MATa cells select HML. The mechanisms of donor selection are different for the two mating types. MATa cells, deleted for the preferred HML gene, efficiently use HMR as a donor. However, in MAT alpha cells, HML is not an efficient donor when HMR is deleted; consequently, approximately one-third of HO HML alpha MAT alpha hmr delta cells die because they fail to repair the HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break at MAT. MAT alpha donor preference depends not on the sequence differences between HML and HMR or their surrounding regions but on their chromosomal locations. Cloned HMR donors placed at three other locations to the left of MAT, on either side of the centromere, all fail to act as efficient donors. When the donor is placed 37 kb to the left of MAT, its proximity overcomes normal donor preference, but this position is again inefficiently used when additional DNA is inserted in between the donor and MAT to increase the distance to 62 kb. Donors placed to the right of MAT are efficiently recruited, and in fact a donor situated 16 kb proximal to HMR is used in preference to HMR. The cis-acting chromosomal determinants of MAT alpha preference are not influenced by the chromosomal orientation of MAT or by sequences as far as 6 kb from HMR. These data argue that there is an alpha-specific mechanism to inhibit the use of donors to the left of MAT alpha, causing the cell to recombine most often with donors to the right of MAT alpha.
PMCID: PMC231045  PMID: 8552094
3.  Making the new deal for junior doctors happen. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;308(6943):1553-1555.
How can the new deal for juniors be implemented in today's overstretched health service? How do you get clinicians and management to work together? On the Wirral falling house officer morale and recruitment stimulated a new approach, action learning, which proved to be highly successful. Action learning is not a new approach in management terms, but it is rarely used in the health service. Guided by an experienced facilitator, a group of people learn management skills by exploring and resolving practical problems relevant to them. A group of general practitioners and consultants used action learning to teach themselves more about management and at the same time to make changes which addressed many of the junior doctors' difficulties and solved the hospital recruiting problem.
PMCID: PMC2540511  PMID: 8019316
4.  Two different types of double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repaired by similar RAD52-independent, nonhomologous recombination events. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1994;14(2):1293-1301.
In haploid rad52 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains unable to undergo homologous recombination, a chromosomal double-strand break (DSB) can be repaired by imprecise rejoining of the broken chromosome ends. We have used two different strategies to generate broken chromosomes: (i) a site-specific DSB generated at the MAT locus by HO endonuclease cutting or (ii) a random DSB generated by mechanical rupture during mitotic segregation of a conditionally dicentric chromosome. Broken chromosomes were repaired by deletions that were highly variable in size, all of which removed more sequences than was required either to prevent subsequent HO cleavage or to eliminate a functional centromere, respectively. The junction of the deletions frequently occurred where complementary strands from the flanking DNA could anneal to form 1 to 5 bp, although 12% (4 of 34) of the events appear to have occurred by blunt-end ligation. These types of deletions are very similar to the junctions observed in the repair of DSBs by mammalian cells (D. B. Roth and J. H. Wilson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:4295-4304, 1986). When a high level of HO endonuclease, expressed in all phases of the cell cycle, was used to create DSBs, we also recovered a large class of very small (2- or 3-bp) insertions in the HO cleavage site. These insertions appear to represent still another mechanism of DSB repair, apparently by annealing and filling in the overhanging 3' ends of the cleavage site. These types of events have also been well documented for vertebrate cells.
PMCID: PMC358484  PMID: 8289808
5.  Awareness during bronchoscopy. 
The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence of awareness during bronchoscopy and to evaluate the effectiveness of auditory random noise in preventing awareness. All patients were unpremedicated and underwent elective bronchoscopy under thiopentone-suxamethonium anaesthesia. Half the patients received auditory random noise preoperatively. Patients were interviewed postoperatively and the incidence of awareness and dreaming assessed. Eleven patients described awareness, of whom three had received random noise. No relation with awareness could be shown with the age and sex of the patient, nor was awareness related to the dosage of thiopentone. Awareness was associated with a short time interval between removal of the bronchoscope and response to command. Awareness is still an important problem in anaesthesia and the use of random noise stimulation to block auditory input of relevance to the patient merits further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2498361  PMID: 3566125
6.  Duplicated KOX zinc finger gene clusters flank the centromere of human chromosome 10: evidence for a pericentric inversion during primate evolution. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1993;21(6):1409-1417.
Two related zinc finger (ZNF) gene clusters from the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 10, defined by cDNAs of the KOX series, have been cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). The two clusters evolved by duplication of an ancestral gene cluster before the divergence of the human and great ape lineages. Included in cluster A are the ZNF gene sequences ZNF11A, ZNF33A, and ZNF37A, while cluster B comprises the related sequences ZNF11B, ZNF33B and ZNF37B. Genes from both clusters are expressed: cDNAs KOX2, KOX31 and KOX21 derive from ZNF11B, ZNF33A and ZNF37A, respectively. Further YACs have been isolated which link ZNF11A and ZNF33A to another gene, ZNF25, defined by cDNA clone KOX19. Therefore ZNF25 also forms part of cluster A, but has no counterpart in cluster B. Surprisingly, the KOX ZNF gene clusters are located on opposite sides of the centromere: cluster A maps to 10p11.2, while cluster B is in 10q11.2. This suggests the occurrence during primate evolution of a previously undescribed pericentric inversion subsequent to the cluster duplication. The evolution of this subset of KOX ZNF genes has therefore involved three types of genetic event: local gene duplication, gene cluster duplication, and chromosome rearrangement.
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PMCID: PMC309326  PMID: 8464732

Results 1-6 (6)