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1.  Resorption of labial bone in maxillary anterior implant 
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of resorption and thickness of labial bone in anterior maxillary implant using cone beam computed tomography with Hitachi CB Mercuray (Hitachi, Medico, Tokyo, Japan).
Twenty-one patients with 26 implants were followed-up and checked with CBCT. 21 OSSEOTITE NT® (3i/implant Innovations, Florida, USA) and 5 OSSEOTITE® implants (3i/implant Innovations, Florida, USA) were placed at anterior region and they were positioned vertically at the same level of bony scallop of adjacent teeth. Whenever there was no lesion or labial bone was intact, immediate placement was tried as possible as it could be. Generated bone regeneration was done in the patients with the deficiency of hard tissue using Bio-Oss® (Geistlich, Wolhusen, Switzerland) and Bio-Gide® (Geistlich, Wolhusen, Switzerland). Second surgery was done in 6 months after implant placement and provisionalization was done for 3 months. Definite abutment was made of titanium abutment with porcelain, gold and zirconia, and was attached after provisionalization. Two-dimensional slices were created to produce sagittal, coronal, axial and 3D by using OnDemand3D (Cybermed, Seoul, Korea).
The mean value of bone resorption (distance from top of implant to labial bone) was 1.32 ± 0.86 mm and the mean thickness of labial bone was 1.91 ± 0.45 mm.
It is suggested that the thickness more than 1.91 mm could reduce the amount and incidence of resorption of labial bone in maxillary anterior implant.
PMCID: PMC3141124  PMID: 21814617
Implant; Labial bone; Bone resorption; Cone beam computed tomography
2.  The Influence of an Overactive Bladder on Falling: A Study of Females Aged 40 and Older in the Community 
An overactive bladder (OAB) affects a person's quality of life. Patients who suffer from OAB run to the toilet frequently to prevent incontinence, and this behavior increases their risk of falling and fear of falling. This study evaluated the influence of OAB on falls and concern about falling in females aged 40 and over living in urban and rural communities.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) and a questionnaire regarding falls, in females aged 40 and over in Guri city and Yangpyeong county. The data from 514 responders were analyzed. The definition of OAB was 'moderately' or 'a lot' of urgency, or urge incontinence in KHQ. Falls was defined as experience of falls in the last year. High fear of falling was defined as a score of 24 or over in KFES-I. The factors were analyzed by the exact chi-square test and Student's t-test. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in order to examine the effects of OAB on falls and concern about falling.
Of the 514 responders, 98 fitted the criterion of OAB. Eighty-nine (17.3%) of the responders had experienced falls in the last year: twenty-seven (27.5%) in the group with OAB and 62 (14.9%) in the group without OAB. There was a significant association between falls and OAB (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.08; P=0.0485), and between high fear of falling and OAB (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.20; P=0.0024).
Urgency and symptoms of urge incontinence increase the risk of falls in women aged 40 or older in the community. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may prevent falls and improve quality of life in OAB patients.
PMCID: PMC3070226  PMID: 21468286
Urinary bladder; Overactive; Urinary incontinence; Urge; Accidental falls
3.  Bladder Reconstruction Using Bovine Pericardium in a Case of Enterovesical Fistula 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(2):150-153.
The use of graft materials in bladder mucosa has been examined in animal models, but debate exists over which materials are effective. Intestine has been used as a substitute in augmentation cystoplasty for patients with neuropathic bladder, but serious adverse effects of the operation have occurred in some instances. We report a case of a successful repair of an enterovesical fistula by use of bovine pericardium. The patient has remained well for 2.5 years. We suggest that bovine pericardium may be a suitable option as a bladder substitute.
PMCID: PMC3045723  PMID: 21379435
Pericardium; Radiation injuries; Urinary bladder fistula
4.  Predictive Factors of Gleason Score Upgrading in Localized and Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Diagnosed by Prostate Biopsy 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(10):677-682.
The Gleason score (GS) is an important factor that is considered when making decisions about prostate cancer and its prognosis. However, upgrading of the GS can occur between transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) biopsy and radical prostatectomy. This study analyzed the clinical factors predictive of upgrading of the GS after radical prostatectomy compared with that at the time of TRUS biopsy.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed the medical records of 107 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients in whom the GS was not upgraded, and group 2 consisted of patients in whom the GS was upgraded. Associations between preoperative clinical factors and upgrading of the GS were analyzed. Preoperative clinical factors included age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, GS of TRUS biopsy, maximum core percentage of cancer, percentage of positive cores, number of biopsies, location of positive core with maximum GS, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neplasia (HGPIN), inflammation on biopsy, and clinical stage.
Among 85 patients, 42 (49%) patients had an upgraded GS after operation. TRUS biopsy core number of 12 or fewer (p=0.029) and prostate volume of 36.5 ml or less (p<0.001) were associated with upgrading of the GS. Preoperative clinical factors associated with nonupgrading of the GS were the detection of positive cores with a maximum GS at the apex (p=0.002) or in a hypoechoic lesion (p=0.002) in TRUS.
If the positive cores with maximum GS are located at the apex or in a hypoechoic lesion in TRUS, we can expect that the GS will not be upgraded. In patients with the clinical predictive factors of a prostate volume of 36.5 ml or less and TRUS biopsy core number of less than 12, we can expect upgrading of the GS after radical prostatectomy, and more aggressive treatment may be needed.
PMCID: PMC2963779  PMID: 21031086
Biopsy; Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms
5.  Unusual Foreign Bodies in the Urinary Bladder and Urethra Due to Autoerotism 
Most foreign bodies in the lower genitourinary tract are self-inserted via the urethra as the result of exotic impulses, psychometric problems, sexual curiosity, or sexual practice while intoxicated. Diagnosis of these foreign bodies can be done by clinical history, physical examination, and image studies of the patient. The treatment of foreign bodies is determined by their size, location, shape, and mobility. In most cases, minimally invasive procedures such as endoscopic removal are recommended to prevent bladder and urethral injuries. In some cases, however, surgical treatment should be done if the foreign bodies cannot be removed by the endoscopic procedure or further injuries are expected as a result of the endoscopic procedures. Herein we present 2 cases of self-inserted lower genitourinary foreign bodies with a brief review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC2998407  PMID: 21179338
Foreign bodies; Urethra; Urinary bladder
6.  Urachal Actinomycosis Mimicking a Urachal Tumor 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(6):438-440.
A 26-year-old man presented with lower abdominal discomfort and a palpable mass in the right lower quadrant. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an abdominal wall mass that extended from the dome of the bladder. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) showed hypermetabolic wall thickening around the bladder dome area that extended to the abdominal wall and hypermetabolic mesenteric infiltration. Differential diagnosis included a urachal tumor with invasion into adjacent organs and chronic inflammatory disease. Partial cystectomy with abdominal wall mass excision was performed, and the final pathologic report was consistent with urachal actinomycosis.
PMCID: PMC2890064  PMID: 20577614
Actinomycosis; Positron-emission tomography; Urachal cyst
7.  Sinking and fit of abutment of locking taper implant system 
Unlike screw-retention type, fixture-abutment retention in Locking taper connection depends on frictional force so it has possibility of abutment to sink.
In this study, Bicon® Implant System, one of the conical internal connection implant system, was used with applying loading force to the abutments connected to the fixture. Then the amount of sinking was measured.
10 Bicon® implant fixtures were used. First, the abutment was connected to the fixture with finger force. Then it was tapped with a mallet for 3 times and loads of 20 kg corresponding to masticatory force using loading application instrument were applied successively. The abutment state, slightly connected to the fixture without pressure was considered as a reference length, and every new abutment length was measured after each load's step was added. The amount of abutment sinking (mm) was gained by subtracting the length of abutment-fixture under each loading condition from reference length.
It was evident, that the amount of abutment sinking in Bicon® Implant System increased as loads were added. When loads of 20 kg were applied more than 5 - 7 times, sinking stopped at 0.45 ± 0.09 mm.
Even though locking taper connection type implant shows good adaption to occlusal force, it has potential for abutment sinking as loads are given. When locking taper connection type implant is used, satisfactory loads are recommended for precise abutment location.
PMCID: PMC2994685  PMID: 21165262
locking taper connection; abutment sinking; masticatory force; Bicon® Implant System

Results 1-7 (7)