The Gleason score (GS) is an important factor that is considered when making decisions about prostate cancer and its prognosis. However, upgrading of the GS can occur between transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) biopsy and radical prostatectomy. This study analyzed the clinical factors predictive of upgrading of the GS after radical prostatectomy compared with that at the time of TRUS biopsy.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed the medical records of 107 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients in whom the GS was not upgraded, and group 2 consisted of patients in whom the GS was upgraded. Associations between preoperative clinical factors and upgrading of the GS were analyzed. Preoperative clinical factors included age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, GS of TRUS biopsy, maximum core percentage of cancer, percentage of positive cores, number of biopsies, location of positive core with maximum GS, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neplasia (HGPIN), inflammation on biopsy, and clinical stage.
Among 85 patients, 42 (49%) patients had an upgraded GS after operation. TRUS biopsy core number of 12 or fewer (p=0.029) and prostate volume of 36.5 ml or less (p<0.001) were associated with upgrading of the GS. Preoperative clinical factors associated with nonupgrading of the GS were the detection of positive cores with a maximum GS at the apex (p=0.002) or in a hypoechoic lesion (p=0.002) in TRUS.
If the positive cores with maximum GS are located at the apex or in a hypoechoic lesion in TRUS, we can expect that the GS will not be upgraded. In patients with the clinical predictive factors of a prostate volume of 36.5 ml or less and TRUS biopsy core number of less than 12, we can expect upgrading of the GS after radical prostatectomy, and more aggressive treatment may be needed.