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1.  Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Children with Acute Leukemia: Experience at a Single Institution 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(5):904-909.
We evaluate the outcomes in children with acute leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) using unrelated donor. Fifty-six children in complete remission (CR) received HCT from unrelated donors between 2000 and 2007. Thirty-five had acute myeloid leukemia, and 21 had acute lymphoid leukemia. Stem cell sources included bone marrow in 38, peripheral blood in 4, and cord blood (CB) in 14. Four patients died before engraftment and 52 engrafted. Twenty patients developed grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and 8 developed extensive chronic GVHD. With median follow-up of 39.1 months, event free survival and overall survival were 60.4% and 67.5%, respectively, at 5 yr. Events included relapse in 10 and treatment-related mortality (TRM) in 10. The causes of TRM included sepsis in 4, GVHD in 4 (1 acute GVHD and 3 chronic GVHD), veno-occlusive disease in 1 and fulminant hepatitis in 1. Patients transplanted with CB had event free survival of 57.1%, comparable to 63.2% for those transplanted with other than CB. In conclusion, HCT with unrelated donors is effective treatment modality for children with acute leukemia. In children with acute leukemia candidate for HCT but lack suitable sibling donor, unrelated HCT may be a possible treatment option at the adequate time of their disease.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.5.904
PMCID: PMC2752776  PMID: 19794991
Child; Acute Leukemia; Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Unrelated Donor
2.  Prophylactic Low-dose Heparin or Prostaglandin E1 may Prevent Severe Veno-occlusive Disease of the Liver after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Korean Children 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(5):897-903.
Studies investigating the effect of prophylactic drugs on hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) development are rare in children that have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study examined risk factors for VOD, the effect of prophylactic low-dose heparin or lipo-prostaglandin E1 (lipo-PGE1) and the survival rate at day +100 in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Eighty five children underwent HSCT between June 1997 and September 2004. Patients were diagnosed and classified as having mild, moderate or severe VOD according to Seattle clinical criteria. Among 85 patients, 25 (29%) developed VOD. VOD occurred more frequently in patients receiving busulfan-based conditioning (24/65, 37%) than in those receiving TBI-based (1/10, 10%) or other (0/10, 0%) regimens (p<0.05). The incidence of VOD was lower in patients with non-malignant disease compared to those with malignant disease (p<0.05). Survival at day +100 for non-VOD patients was better than that for VOD patients (92% vs. 76%, p<0.05). No patients receiving prophylactic heparin or lipo-PGE1 were found to develop severe VOD, whereas 5 of 35 patients not receiving such prophylaxis developed severe VOD. Given severe VOD is associated with a high mortality rate, this study indicates that prophylactic heparin or lipo-PGE1 may decrease mortality in children undergoing HSCT.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.5.897
PMCID: PMC2722002  PMID: 17043426
Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease; Heparin; Prostaglandins; prevention and control; Prophylaxis; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Child
3.  Prognostic Significance of Multidrug Resistance Gene 1 (MDR1), Multidrug Resistance-related Protein (MRP) and Lung Resistance Protein (LRP) mRNA Expression in Acute Leukemia 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(2):253-258.
The prognostic significance of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene expression is controversial. We investigated whether multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP) and lung resistance protein (LRP) mRNA expression are associated with outcomes in acute leukemia patients. At diagnosis we examined MDR1, MRP and LRP mRNA expression in bone marrow samples from 71 acute leukemia patients (39 myeloid, 32 lymphoblastic) using nested RT-PCR. The expression of each of these genes was then expressed as a ratio in relation to ╬▓-actin gene expression, and the three genes were categorized as being either 0, 1+, 2+ or 3+. MDR1, MRP and LRP mRNA expression was detected in 23.9%, 83.1% and 45.1%, respectively. LRP mRNA expression was significantly associated with resistance to induction chemotherapy in acute leukemia patients, and in the AML proportion (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). MRP and high MDR1 mRNA expression was associated with poorer 2-yr survival (p=0.049 and p=0.04, respectively). Patients expressing both MRP and LRP mRNA had poorer outcomes and had worse 2-yr survival. The present data suggest that MDR expression affects complete remission and survival rates in acute leukemia patients. Thus, determination of MDR gene expression at diagnosis appears likely to provide useful prognostic information for acute leukemia patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.2.253
PMCID: PMC2734000  PMID: 16614510
Genes, MDR; Multidrug Resistance Gene 1; P-Glycoprotein Multidrug Resistance-related Protein 1; lung resistance protein; Prognosis; Leukemia
4.  Autologous stem cell transplantation for the treatment of neuroblastoma in Korea. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(2):242-247.
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma (NBL) is an accepted method for restoring bone marrow depression after high dose chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed eighty eight cases of NBL that underwent ASCT following marrow ablative therapy at 12 transplant centers of the Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology between January 1996 and September 2000. Seventy nine children were of stage IV NBL and 9 were of stage III with N-myc amplification. Various cytoreductive regimens were used. However, the main regimen was 'CEM' consisting of carboplatin, etoposide and melphalan, and this was used in 66 patients. Total body irradiation was also added in 36 patients for myeloablation. To reduce tumor cell contamination, stem cell infusions after CD34+ cell selection were performed in 16 patients. Post-transplantation therapies included the second transplantation in 18 patients, interleukin2 therapy in 45, 13-cis retinoic acid in 40, 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine in 4, conventional chemotherapy in 11, and local radiotherapy in 8. Twenty two patients died, sixty six patients are surviving 1 to 46 months after ASCT (median followup duration, 14.5 months). Although the follow-up period was short and the number of patients small, we believe that ASCT might improve the survival rate in high-risk NBL.
PMCID: PMC3055035  PMID: 12692423
5.  Karyotypes of Pneumocystis carinii derived from several mammals 
Pneumocystis carinii is the most important opportunistic pathogen of humans in the world. Pneumocystis carinii is experimentally detected in the lungs of rats, mice, rabbits, and monkeys, however, the organisms from different mammals are identical in microscopic morphology. The present study tried to find out more mammalian hosts of P. carinii and also to differentiate the organisms from different mammals by karyotyping. Rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, cats, and dogs were successfully infected by P. carinii, but guinea pigs and pigs were not. Karyotype of P. carinii from rabbits showed similar size range of chromosomes with that of the prototype, but in different pattern. The patterns from cats and dogs were also different from that of rats. The present study confirms that cats and dogs are infected by P. carinii and at least total three karyotype strains of P. carinii are proven in Korea.
doi:10.3347/kjp.1999.37.4.271
PMCID: PMC2733205  PMID: 10634044
Pneumocystis carinii; rat; dog; cat; rabbit; karyotype

Results 1-5 (5)