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1.  The impact of exacerbation frequency on mortality following acute exacerbations of COPD: a registry-based cohort study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(12):e006720.
To examine the association between exacerbation frequency and mortality following an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).
Cohort study using medical databases.
Northern Denmark.
On 1 January 2005, we identified all patients with prevalent hospital-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had at least one AECOPD during 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009. We followed patients from the first AECOPD during this period until death, emigration or 31 December 2009, whichever came first. We flagged all AECOPD events during follow-up and characterised each by the exacerbation frequency (0, 1, 2 or 3+) in the prior 12-month period.
Main outcomes and measures
Using Cox regression, we computed 0–30-day and 31–365-day age-adjusted, sex-adjusted, and comorbidity-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95% CIs entering exacerbation frequency as a time-varying exposure.
We identified 16 647 eligible patients with prevalent COPD, of whom 6664 (40%) developed an AECOPD and were thus included in the study cohort. The 0–30-day MRRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.18), 0.90 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.15) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.32) among patients with AECOPD with 1, 2 and 3+ AECOPDs versus no AECOPD within the past 12 months, respectively. The corresponding MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.66), 1.89 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.25) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.05) for days 31–365.
Among patients with AECOPD, one or more exacerbations in the previous year were not associated with 30-day mortality but were associated with an increased 31–365-day mortality.
PMCID: PMC4275660  PMID: 25526796
Cohort study; Registry study; Severe exacerbations; Time-varying exposure
2.  Effects of benralizumab on airway eosinophils in asthma with sputum eosinophilia 
Many subjects with asthma exhibit sputum eosinophilia associated with exacerbations. Benralizumab targets eosinophils by binding interleukin-5 receptor alpha, inducing apoptosis via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
To evaluate the safety of benralizumab in adults with eosinophilic asthma, and its effects on eosinophil counts in airway mucosal/submucosal biopsies, sputum, bone marrow, and peripheral blood.
In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I study, 13 subjects were randomized to single intravenous placebo or benralizumab 1 mg/kg (day 0) [Cohort 1], and 14 subjects were randomized to three monthly subcutaneous doses of placebo or benralizumab 100 or 200 mg (days 0, 28, and 56) [Cohort 2]. Cohorts 1 and 2 were consecutive.
The incidence of adverse events was similar between groups. No serious adverse events related to benralizumab occurred. Cohort 1: intravenous benralizumab produced a median decrease from baseline of 61.9% in airway mucosal eosinophils (day 28; placebo: +19.6%; P = .28), 18.7% (day 21) in sputum and 100% (day 28) in blood. Eosinophils were not detectable in bone marrow of benralizumab-treated subjects (day 28, n=4). Cohort 2: subcutaneous benralizumab demonstrated a combined (100 + 200 mg) median reduction of 95.8% in airway eosinophils (day 84; placebo −46.7%; P = .06), 89.9% (day 28) in sputum and 100% (day 84) in blood.
Single-dose intravenous and multiple-dose subcutaneous benralizumab reduced eosinophil counts in airway mucosa/submucosa and sputum, and suppressed eosinophils in bone marrow and peripheral blood. The safety profile supports further development. Additional studies are needed to assess clinical benefit in asthma.
PMCID: PMC4172321  PMID: 23866823
eosinophils; IL-5; IL-5 receptors; asthma; antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
3.  A randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of an anti-interleukin-9 monoclonal antibody in adults with uncontrolled asthma 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):93.
Preclinical studies suggest that interleukin-9 may be a central mediator in the development and maintenance of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of MEDI-528, an anti-interleukin-9 monoclonal antibody, in adults with confirmed uncontrolled moderate-to-severe asthma.
In this prospective double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study, 329 subjects were randomized (1:1:1:1) to subcutaneous placebo or MEDI-528 (30, 100, 300 mg) every 2 weeks for 24 weeks, in addition to their usual asthma medications. The primary endpoint was change in mean Asthma Control Questionnaire-6 (ACQ-6) score at week 13. Secondary endpoints included weighted asthma exacerbation rates and pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at weeks 13 and 25, as well as Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores at weeks 12 and 25 and the safety of MEDI-528 throughout the study period. The primary endpoint was analyzed using analysis of covariance.
The study population (n = 327) was predominantly female (69%) with a mean age of 43 years (range 18–65). The mean (SD) baseline ACQ-6 score for placebo (n = 82) and combined MEDI-528 (n = 245) was 2.8 (0.7) and 2.8 (0.8); FEV1 % predicted was 70.7% (15.9) and 71.5% (16.7). Mean (SD) change from baseline to week 13 in ACQ-6 scores for placebo vs combined MEDI-528 groups was −1.2 (1.0) vs −1.2 (1.1) (p = 0.86). Asthma exacerbation rates (95% CI) at week 25 for placebo vs MEDI-528 were 0.58 (0.36–0.88) vs 0.49 (0.37–0.64) exacerbations/subject/year (p = 0.52). No significant improvements in FEV1 % predicted were observed between the placebo and MEDI-528 groups. Adverse events were comparable for placebo (82.9%) and MEDI-528 groups (30 mg, 76.5%; 100 mg, 81.9%; 300 mg, 85.2%). The most frequent were asthma (placebo vs MEDI-528, 30.5% vs 33.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (14.6% vs 17.1%), and headache (9.8% vs 9.8%).
The addition of MEDI-528 to existing asthma controller medications was not associated with any improvement in ACQ-6 scores, asthma exacerbation rates, or FEV1 values, nor was it associated with any major safety concerns.
Trial registration NCT00968669.
PMCID: PMC3848834  PMID: 24050312
Asthma; Anti-IL-9 monoclonal antibody; MEDI-528
4.  Challenge models to assess new therapies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Current therapies confer partial benefits either by incompletely improving airflow limitation or by reducing acute exacerbations, hence new therapies are desirable. In the absence of robust early predictors of clinical efficacy, the potential success of novel therapeutic agents in COPD will not entirely be known until the drugs enter relatively large and costly clinical trials. New predictive models in humans, and new study designs are being sought to allow for confirmation of pharmacodynamic and potentially clinically meaningful effects in early development. This review focuses on human challenge models with lipopolysaccharide endotoxin, ozone, and rhinovirus, in the early clinical development phases of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment and reduction of exacerbations in COPD.
PMCID: PMC3459659  PMID: 23055710
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; challenge models; therapy assessment
5.  Smoking and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis 
Pulmonary Medicine  2012;2012:808260.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease of unknown etiology with considerable morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoking is one of the most recognized risk factors for development of IPF. Furthermore, recent work suggests that smoking may have a detrimental effect on survival of patients with IPF. The mechanism by which smoking may contribute to the pathogenesis of IPF is largely unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggests that increased oxidative stress might promote disease progression in IPF patients who are current and former smokers. In this review, potential mechanisms by which cigarette smoking affects IPF, the effects of cigarette smoking on accelerated loss of lung function in patients with IPF, key genetic studies evaluating the potential candidate genes and gene-environment (smoking) interaction, diagnosis, and treatment with emphasis on recently closed and ongoing clinical trials are presented.
PMCID: PMC3289849  PMID: 22448328
6.  An open-label, single-dose bioavailability study of the pharmacokinetics of CAT-354 after subcutaneous and intravenous administration in healthy males 
To assess the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of CAT-354, an anti-IL-13 human monoclonal IgG4 antibody, following subcutaneous (s.c.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration.
This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel-group bioavailability study. Healthy male subjects aged 20–54 years were randomly assigned to one of three dose groups (n= 10/group) to receive CAT-354: 150 mg i.v.; 150 mg s.c. or 300 mg s.c. (two 150 mg injections). Serum pharmacokinetics, adverse events (AEs), vital signs, electrocardiograms and laboratory parameters were assessed.
CAT-354 showed bioavailability of 62% and 60% after 150 mg and 300 mg s.c. doses, respectively, and linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range tested. Peak serum concentrations in the s.c. groups occurred after 3–9 (median 5) days, with a mean elimination half-life of 19.2 ± 3.1 days (150 mg) and 19.4 ± 3.59 days (300 mg) after s.c. and 21.4 ± 2.46 days after i.v. administration. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 4960 ± 1440 ml kg−1 after i.v. (slightly greater than plasma volume). Average apparent clearances (CL/F) were 292 ± 82.3 and 307 ± 109 ml day−1 after 150 and 300 mg s.c., respectively; systemic CL of 188 ± 84.0 ml day−1 after i.v. dosing was consistent with endogenous IgG and reticuloendothelial elimination. No severe or serious AEs occurred. Among 40 reported AEs, 25 were headache, sinus disorders/respiratory symptoms and changes in body temperature perception.
CAT-354 exhibited bioavailability of approximately 60% when given s.c. to healthy male subjects.
PMCID: PMC2883757  PMID: 20565456
antibody; asthma; bioavailability; CAT-354; half-life; IL-13
7.  Safety profile and clinical activity of multiple subcutaneous doses of MEDI-528, a humanized anti-interleukin-9 monoclonal antibody, in two randomized phase 2a studies in subjects with asthma 
Interleukin-9 (IL-9)-targeted therapies may offer a novel approach for treating asthmatics. Two randomized placebo-controlled studies were conducted to assess the safety profile and potential efficacy of multiple subcutaneous doses of MEDI-528, a humanized anti-IL-9 monoclonal antibody, in asthmatics.
Study 1: adults (18-65 years) with mild asthma received MEDI-528 (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg) or placebo subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks. Study 2: adults (18-50 years) with stable, mild to moderate asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction received 50 mg MEDI-528 or placebo subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks. Adverse events (AEs), pharmacokinetics (PK), immunogenicity, asthma control (including asthma exacerbations), and exercise challenge test were evaluated in study 1, study 2, or both.
In study 1 (N = 36), MEDI-528 showed linear serum PK; no anti-MEDI-528 antibodies were detected. Asthma control: 1/27 MEDI-528-treated subjects had 1 asthma exacerbation, and 2/9 placebo-treated subjects had a total of 4 asthma exacerbations (one considered a serious AE). In study 2, MEDI-528 (n = 7) elicited a trend in the reduction in mean maximum decrease in FEV1 post-exercise compared to placebo (n = 2) (-6.49% MEDI-528 vs -12.60% placebo; -1.40% vs -20.10%; -5.04% vs -15.20% at study days 28, 56, and 150, respectively). Study 2 was halted prematurely due to a serious AE in an asymptomatic MEDI-528-treated subject who had an abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging that was found to be an artifact on further evaluation.
In these studies, MEDI-528 showed an acceptable safety profile and findings suggestive of clinical activity that support continued study in subjects with mild to moderate asthma.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00507130 and ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00590720
PMCID: PMC3058114  PMID: 21356110
8.  A phase 1 study evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of repeat dosing with a human IL-13 antibody (CAT-354) in subjects with asthma 
IL-13 has been implicated in the development of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. This study investigated the multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety profile of human anti-IL-13 antibody (CAT-354) in adults with asthma.
This was a multiple-dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 study in asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] ≥ 80% predicted). Subjects were randomised to receive three intravenous infusions of CAT-354 (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) or placebo at 28-day intervals. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic measurements. Safety was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, laboratory and pulmonary function parameters.
Twenty-three subjects (aged 21-60 years, FEV1 88-95% predicted) received ≥ 1 dose of study medication. The half-life of CAT-354 was 12-17 days and was dose-independent. The maximum serum concentration and area under the curve were dose-dependent. Clearance (2.2-2.6 mL/day/kg) and volume of distribution (44-57 mL/kg) were both low and dose-independent. The observed maximum serum concentration after each dose increased slightly from dose 1 through dose 3 at all dose levels, consistent with an accumulation ratio of 1.4 to 1.7 for area under the curve. Most adverse events were deemed mild to moderate and unrelated to study medication. One SAE was reported and deemed unrelated to study drug. There were no effects of clinical concern for vital signs, ECG, laboratory or pulmonary parameters.
CAT-354 exhibited linear pharmacokinetics and an acceptable safety profile. These findings suggest that at the doses tested, CAT-354 can be safely administered in multiple doses to patients with asthma.
Trial registration
PMCID: PMC2820465  PMID: 20064211
9.  Gene-environment interactions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world and is largely associated with cigarette smoking. Despite the appreciation of the central role of smoking in the development of COPD, only a relatively small number of smokers (15%–20%) develop COPD. Recent studies depicting familial aggregation suggest that some subjects may have a genetic predisposition to developing COPD. In this respect, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported in association with different COPD features (subphenotypes), although much of this data remains controversial. Classical genetic studies (including twin and family studies) assume an “equal-environment” scenario, but as gene-environment interactions occur in COPD, this assumption needs revision. Thus, new integrated models are needed to examine the major environmental factors associated with COPD which include smoking as well as air pollution, and respiratory infections, and not only genetic predisposition. Revisiting this area, may help answer the question of what has more bearing in the pathogenesis of COPD—the environment or the genomic sequence of the affected subjects. It is anticipated that an improved understanding of this interaction will both enable improved identification of individuals susceptible to developing this disease, as well as improved future treatments for this disease.
PMCID: PMC2629985  PMID: 18990979
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; environment; genomics; pathogenesis
10.  A phase II placebo-controlled study of tralokinumab in moderate-to-severe asthma 
The European Respiratory Journal  2012;41(2):330-338.
Pre-clinical data demonstrate a pivotal role for interleukin (IL)-13 in the development and maintenance of asthma. This study assessed the effects of tralokinumab, an investigational human IL-13-neutralising immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody, in adults with moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma despite controller therapies.
194 subjects were randomised to receive tralokinumab (150, 300 or 600 mg) or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Primary end-point was change from baseline in mean Asthma Control Questionnaire score (ACQ-6; ACQ mean of six individual item scores) at week 13 comparing placebo and combined tralokinumab dose groups. Secondary end-points included pre-bronchodilator lung function, rescue β2-agonist use and safety. Numerical end-points are reported as mean±sd.
At week 13, change from baseline in ACQ-6 was -0.76±1.04 for tralokinumab versus -0.61±0.90 for placebo (p=0.375). Increases from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were 0.21±0.38 L versus 0.06±0.48 L (p=0.072), with a dose-response observed across the tralokinumab doses tested. β2-agonist use (puffs per day) was decreased for tralokinumab -0.68±1.45 versus placebo -0.10±1.49 (p=0.020). The increase in FEV1 following tralokinumab treatment remained evident 12 weeks after the final dose. Safety profile was acceptable with no serious adverse events related to tralokinumab.
No improvement in ACQ-6 was observed, although tralokinumab treatment was associated with improved lung function.
PMCID: PMC3561510  PMID: 22743678
Asthma; CAT-354; interleukin-13; lung function; monoclonal antibody; tralokinumab

Results 1-10 (10)