Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-10 (10)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
1.  A Novel, Innovative Ovine Model of Chronic Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Induced by Multiple Coronary Ligations 
Artificial organs  2010;34(11):918-922.
Heart failure is one of the fastest-growing epidemics worldwide in health care today. Although a wide variety of animal models exist to create chronic heart failure, there are few truly successful, reproducible models with ischemic dilation and mitral regurgitation. Six healthy sheep (36 ± 5 kg) underwent multiple, strategic coronary artery ligations on the left ventricle (LV). Six to eight ligations were performed transmurally on three of four segments of the LV: anterior, lateral, and posterior. Side branches of the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries were ligated to create multiple, patchy areas of myocardial infarction. Cardiac global and regional systolic function was assessed by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent, the characteristics, and the location of the myocardial infarction were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by late gadolinium enhancement imaging. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (1/6 animals). Animals who survived showed a significantly reduced ejection fraction (mean 60 ± 5% to 28 ± 7%; P < 0.05); additionally, two out of the remaining five (40%) animals developed mild to moderate mitral regurgitation quantified by cardiac MRI. Furthermore, each animal developed clinical signs of heart failure (tachycardia, dyspnea, and tachypnea) consistent with global, dilated cardiomyopathy noted on MRI. Creating and reproducing a model of global, ischemic cardiomyopathy with functional mitral regurgitation is an arduous task. We have developed a promising model of ischemic heart failure using multiple ligations, which mimics the sequelae of human cardiomyopathy. Our proposed model is highly effective, reproducible, and may be used for experimental research on heart failure (cardiac assist devices, heart transplant, etc.).
PMCID: PMC3954519  PMID: 21137156
Coronary ligation; Chronic heart failure; Animal model; Sheep
2.  Optimized ventricular restraint therapy: Adjustable restraint is superior to standard restraint in an ovine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy 
The effects of ventricular restraint level on left ventricular reverse remodeling are not known. We hypothesized that restraint level affects the degree of reverse remodeling and that restraint applied in an adjustable manner is superior to standard, nonadjustable restraint.
This study was performed in 2 parts using a model of chronic heart failure in the sheep. In part I, restraint was applied at control (0 mm Hg, n = 3), low (1.5 mm Hg, n = 3), and high (3.0 mm Hg, n = 3) levels with an adjustable and measurable ventricular restraint (AMVR) device. Restraint level was not altered throughout the 2-month treatment period. Serial restraint level measurements and transthoracic echocardiography were performed. In part II, restraint was applied with the AMVR device set at 3.0 mm Hg (n = 6) and adjusted periodically to maintain that level. This was compared with restraint applied in a standard, nonadjustable manner using a mesh wrap (n = 6). All subjects were followed up for 2 months with serial magnetic resonance imaging.
In part I, there was greater and earlier reverse remodeling in the high restraint group. In both groups, the rate of reverse remodeling peaked and then declined as the measured restraint level decreased with progression of reverse remodeling. In part II, adjustable restraint resulted in greater reverse remodeling than standard restraint. Left ventricular end diastolic volume decreased by 12.7% (P = .005) with adjustable restraint and by 5.7% (P = .032) with standard restraint. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 18.9% (P = .014) and 14.4% (P<.001) with adjustable and standard restraint, respectively.
Restraint level affects the rate and degree of reverse remodeling and is an important determinant of therapy efficacy. Adjustable restraint is more effective than nonadjustable restraint in promoting reverse remodeling.
PMCID: PMC3954527  PMID: 22698557
3.  AMPK - Activated Protein Kinase and its Role in Energy Metabolism of the Heart 
Current Cardiology Reviews  2010;6(4):337-342.
Adenosine monophosphate – activated kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the coordination of the heart’s anabolic and catabolic pathways. It induces a cellular cascade at the center of maintaining energy homeostasis in the cardiomyocytes.. The activated AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein, separated into a catalytic α - subunit (63kDa), a regulating β - subunit (38kDa) and a γ - subunit (38kDa), which is allosterically adjusted by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The actual binding of AMP to the γ – subunit is the step which activates AMPK.
AMPK serves also as a protein kinase in several metabolic pathways of the heart, including cellular energy sensoring or cardiovascular protection. The AMPK cascade represents a sensitive system, activated by cellular stresses that deplete ATP and acts as an indicator of intracellular ATP/AMP. In the context of cellular stressors (i.e. hypoxia, pressure overload, hypertrophy or ATP deficiency) the increasing levels of AMP promote allosteric activation and phosphorylation of AMPK. As the concentration of AMP begins to increase, ATP competitively inhibits further phosphorylation of AMPK. The increase of AMP may also be induced either from an iatrogenic emboli, percutaneous coronary intervention, or from atherosclerotic plaque rupture leading to an ischemia in the microcirculation. To modulate energy metabolism by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is vital in terms of ATP usage, maintaining transmembrane transporters and preserving membrane potential.
In this article, we review AMPK and its role as an important regulatory enzyme during periods of myocardial stress, regulating energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cardiovascular protection.
PMCID: PMC3083815  PMID: 22043210
Adenosine monophosphate - activated protein kinase; AMPK; heart failure; cardiac energy metabolism.
5.  Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in usa and germany 
Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany.
We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees.
The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication.
The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment.
PMCID: PMC3002340  PMID: 21108853
6.  Daptomycin as a possible new treatment option for surgical management of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery 
We present a case of a 77-year old female who had undergone a coronary artery bypass grafting with an aortic valve replacement and developed three month later a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sternal wound infection which was successful treated with Daptomycin combined with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC).
PMCID: PMC2922106  PMID: 20691034
7.  Bentall procedure 39 years after implantation of a Starr-Edwards Aortic Caged- Ball-Valve Prosthesis 
We report a case of a male patient who received an implantation of a Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis in 1967. The surgery and postoperative course were without complications and the patient recovered well after the operation. For the next four decades, the patient remained asymptomatic - no restrictions on his lifestyle and without any complications. In 2006, 39 years after the initial operation, we performed a Bentall-Procedure to treat an aortic ascendens aneurysm with diameters of 6.0 × 6.5 cm: we explanted the old Starr-Edwards-aortic-caged-ball-valve-prosthesis and replaced the ascending aorta with a 29 mm St.Jude Medical aortic-valve-composite-graft and re-implanted the coronary arteries.
This case represents the longest time period between Starr-Edwards-caged-ball-valve-prothesis-implantation and Bentall-reoperation, thereby confirming the excellent durability of this valve.
PMCID: PMC2848035  PMID: 20298579
8.  Intrathoracic fire during preparation of the left internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting 
A surgical fire is a serious complication not previously described in the literature with regard to the thoracic cavity. We report a case in which an intrathoracic fire developed following an air leak combined with high pressure oxygen ventilation in a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The patient presented to our institution with diffuse coronary artery disease and angina pectoris. He was treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery, including left internal thoracic artery harvesting. Additionally to this rare presentation of an intrathoracic fire, a brief review of surgical fires is included to this paper.
PMCID: PMC2843679  PMID: 20219127
9.  Early results of coronary artery bypass grafting with coronary endarterectomy for severe coronary artery disease 
Despite the existence of controversial debates on the efficiency of coronary endarterectomy (CE), it is still used as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This is particularly true in patients with endstage coronary artery disease. Given the improvements in cardiac surgery and postoperative care, as well as the rising number of elderly patient with numerous co-morbidities, re-evaluating the pros and cons of this technique is needed.
Patient demographic information, operative details and outcome data of 104 patients with diffuse calcified coronary artery disease were retrospectively analyzed with respect to functional capacity (NYHA), angina pectoris (CCS) and mortality. Actuarial survival was reported using a Kaplan-Meyer analysis.
Between August 2001 and March 2005, 104 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with adjunctive coronary endarterectomy (CE) in the Department of Thoracic-, Cardiac- and Vascular Surgery, University of Goettingen. Four patients were lost during follow-up. Data were gained from 88 male and 12 female patients; mean age was 65.5 ± 9 years. A total of 396 vessels were bypassed (4 ± 0.9 vessels per patient). In 98% left internal thoracic artery (LITA) was used as arterial bypass graft and a total of 114 vessels were endarterectomized. CE was performed on right coronary artery (RCA) (n = 55), on left anterior descending artery (LAD) (n = 52) and circumflex artery (RCX) (n = 7). Ninety-five patients suffered from 3-vessel-disease, 3 from 2-vessel- and 2 from 1-vessel-disease. Closed technique was used in 18%, open technique in 79% and in 3% a combination of both. The most frequent endarterectomized localization was right coronary artery (RCA = 55%). Despite the severity of endstage atherosclerosis, hospital mortality was only 5% (n = 5). During follow-up (24.5 ± 13.4 months), which is 96% complete (4 patients were lost caused by unknown address) 8 patients died (cardiac failure: 3; stroke: 1; cancer: 1; unknown reasons: 3). NYHA-classification significantly improved after CABG with CE from 2.2 ± 0.9 preoperative to 1.7 ± 0.9 postoperative. CCS also changed from 2.4 ± 1.0 to 1.5 ± 0.8
Early results of coronary endarterectomy are acceptable with respect to mortality, NYHA & CCS. This technique offers a valuable surgical option for patients with endstage coronary artery disease in whom complete revascularization otherwise can not be obtained. Careful patient selection will be necessary to assure the long-term benefit of this procedure.
PMCID: PMC2756249  PMID: 19772645
10.  Daptomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis saphenectomy wound infection after coronary artery bypass graft operation (CABG): a case report 
We report a case of successful treatment of postoperative saphenectomy wound infection of the upper left leg with the antibiotic drug Daptomycin.
PMCID: PMC2753312  PMID: 19747387

Results 1-10 (10)