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1.  Disseminated Penicilliosis, Recurrent Bacteremic Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, and Burkholderiosis Associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Due to Autoantibody against Gamma Interferon ▿  
Acquired immunodeficiency due to autoantibody against gamma interferon has recently been associated with opportunistic nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, especially among Southeast Asians. We report another 8 cases, all except one apparently immunocompetent hosts who suffered from concomitant or sequential infections by other intracellular pathogens causing penicilliosis, extraintestinal nontyphoidal salmonellosis, and burkholderiosis. The only case with an underlying immunodeficiency syndrome had systemic lupus erythematosus that was quiescent throughout the multiple infective episodes. Eight out of 10 (80.0%) patients with serological evidence of penicilliosis, 5 out of 7 (71.4%) with culture-positive extraintestinal nontyphoidal salmonellosis, 5 out of 28 (17.9%) with serological evidence of melioidosis, and 7 out of 13 (53.8%) with culture-positive nontuberculous mycobacteriosis possessed autoantibody against gamma interferon, whereas only 1 out of 100 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus did. Our study represents the first and largest case series linking this emerging immunodeficiency syndrome with these atypical infections in apparently immunocompetent hosts. Thus, we advocate that any patient with unexplained recurrent or polymicrobial infections due to these intracellular pathogens should be screened for acquired immunodeficiency due to autoantibody against gamma interferon.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00053-10
PMCID: PMC2897261  PMID: 20445006
2.  Association of BANK1 and TNFSF4 with systemic lupus erythematosus in Hong Kong Chinese 
Genes and Immunity  2009;10(5):414-420.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BANK1 and TNFSF4 have been shown to be associated with SLE in Caucasian populations, but it is not known whether they are also involved in the disease in other ethnic groups. Recent data from our genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 314 SLE cases and 920 controls collected in Hong Kong identified SNPs in and around BANK1 and TNFSF4 to be associated with SLE risk. On the basis of the results of the reported studies and our GWAS, SNPs were selected for further genotyping in 949 SLE patients (overlapping with the 314 cases in our GWAS) and non-overlapping 1042 healthy controls. We confirmed the associations of BANK1 and TNFSF4 with SLE in Chinese (BANK1, rs3733197, odds ratio (OR)=0.84, P=0.021; BANK1, rs17266594, OR=0.61, P=4.67 × 10−9; TNFSF4, rs844648, OR=1.22, P=2.47 × 10−3; TNFSF4, rs2205960, OR=1.30, P=2.41 × 10−4). Another SNP located in intron 1 of BANK1, rs4522865, was separately replicated by Sequenom in 360 cases and 360 controls and was also confirmed to be associated with SLE (OR=0.725, P=2.93 × 10−3). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs3733197 (A383T in ankyrin domain) and rs17266594 (a branch point-site SNP) from BANK1 had independent contributions towards the disease association (P=0.037 and 6.63 × 10−8, respectively). In TNFSF4, rs2205960 was associated with SLE independently from the effect of rs844648 (P=6.26 × 10−3), but not vice versa (P=0.55). These findings suggest that multiple independent genetic variants may be present within the gene locus, which exert their effects on SLE pathogenesis through different mechanisms.
doi:10.1038/gene.2009.16
PMCID: PMC2834352  PMID: 19357697
SLE; BANK1; TNFSF4; Chinese; genetic association

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