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1.  Mycophenolate mofetil for lupus related myelopathy 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2006;65(7):971-973.
PMCID: PMC1798209  PMID: 16769787
lupus; mycophenolate; myelitis; neuropsychiatric; treatment
2.  Pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2003;56(7):481-490.
The exact patho-aetiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains elusive. An extremely complicated and multifactorial interaction among various genetic and environmental factors is probably involved. Multiple genes contribute to disease susceptibility. The interaction of sex, hormonal milieu, and the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis modifies this susceptibility and the clinical expression of the disease. Defective immune regulatory mechanisms, such as the clearance of apoptotic cells and immune complexes, are important contributors to the development of SLE. The loss of immune tolerance, increased antigenic load, excess T cell help, defective B cell suppression, and the shifting of T helper 1 (Th1) to Th2 immune responses leads to B cell hyperactivity and the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Finally, certain environmental factors are probably required to trigger the disease.
PMCID: PMC1769989  PMID: 12835292
aetiology; pathogenesis; genetic; interaction; autoimmune; autoantibody
3.  Association of BANK1 and TNFSF4 with systemic lupus erythematosus in Hong Kong Chinese 
Genes and Immunity  2009;10(5):414-420.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BANK1 and TNFSF4 have been shown to be associated with SLE in Caucasian populations, but it is not known whether they are also involved in the disease in other ethnic groups. Recent data from our genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 314 SLE cases and 920 controls collected in Hong Kong identified SNPs in and around BANK1 and TNFSF4 to be associated with SLE risk. On the basis of the results of the reported studies and our GWAS, SNPs were selected for further genotyping in 949 SLE patients (overlapping with the 314 cases in our GWAS) and non-overlapping 1042 healthy controls. We confirmed the associations of BANK1 and TNFSF4 with SLE in Chinese (BANK1, rs3733197, odds ratio (OR)=0.84, P=0.021; BANK1, rs17266594, OR=0.61, P=4.67 × 10−9; TNFSF4, rs844648, OR=1.22, P=2.47 × 10−3; TNFSF4, rs2205960, OR=1.30, P=2.41 × 10−4). Another SNP located in intron 1 of BANK1, rs4522865, was separately replicated by Sequenom in 360 cases and 360 controls and was also confirmed to be associated with SLE (OR=0.725, P=2.93 × 10−3). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs3733197 (A383T in ankyrin domain) and rs17266594 (a branch point-site SNP) from BANK1 had independent contributions towards the disease association (P=0.037 and 6.63 × 10−8, respectively). In TNFSF4, rs2205960 was associated with SLE independently from the effect of rs844648 (P=6.26 × 10−3), but not vice versa (P=0.55). These findings suggest that multiple independent genetic variants may be present within the gene locus, which exert their effects on SLE pathogenesis through different mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC2834352  PMID: 19357697
SLE; BANK1; TNFSF4; Chinese; genetic association
4.  Late onset systemic lupus erythematosus in southern Chinese 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1998;57(7):437-440.
OBJECTIVE—Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder that predominately affects women of the reproductive age. Onset of the disease beyond the age of 50 years is unusual. This study was undertaken to compare retrospectively the clinical and laboratory features between early and late onset (onset of disease beyond the age of 50 years) SLE patients in a Chinese population.
METHODS—Case records of all SLE patients who attended our rheumatology clinics between 1971 and 1997 were reviewed. Patients with a disease onset beyond the age of 50 years were identified. One hundred consecutive SLE patients who had their disease onset before the age of 50 were recruited as controls. The presenting clinical features, autoantibody profile, number of major organs involved, number of major relapses, and the use of cytotoxic agents in the two groups of patients were obtained and compared.
RESULTS—25 patients with late onset SLE were identified. All the female patients in the late onset group were postmenopausal. The female to male ratio was 3.2 to 1, compared with 13.3 to 1 in the control group (p<0.02). Both groups had a comparable duration of disease. There were no significant differences in the presenting features between the two groups except for a lower prevalence of malar rash (24% v 86%, p<0.0001) and a higher prevalence of rheumatoid factor (32% v 1%, p<0.0001) in the late onset patients. On subsequent visits, the late onset group had a lower prevalence of lupus nephritis (4% v 51%, p<0.001), fewer major organs involved (mean number of major organs involved; 0.3 v 0.9, p<0.02), fewer major relapses (mean number of major relapses/patient; 0.08 v 0.47, p<0.002, number of major relapses/patient year; 0.009 v 0.12, p<0.001), and required fewer cytotoxic agents for disease control (percentage of patients on cytotoxic agents; 32% v 79%, p<0.002).
CONCLUSION—Late onset SLE in Chinese tends to run a more benign course with fewer major organ involvement and fewer major relapses. The significantly higher incidence of male sex in late onset SLE and the milder disease course in the postmenopausal female patients suggest that oestrogen status may influence disease activity.

 Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; southern Chinese; Asians
PMCID: PMC1752656  PMID: 9797573

Results 1-5 (5)