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1.  2-[3-(4-Bromo­phenyl)-5-(4-fluoro­phenyl)-4,5-di­hydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-4-phenyl-1,3-thia­zole 
In the title compound, C24H17BrFN3S, the pyrazole ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.043 Å), with all but the perpendicular fluoro­benzene ring substituents [dihedral angle = 77.9 (3)°] being very approximately coplanar [dihedral angle with the 2-thienyl ring = 19.4 (3)° and with the bromo­benzene ring = 20.3 (3)°; dihedral angle between the 2-thienyl and attached phenyl ring = 11.0 (4)°], so that the mol­ecule has a T-shape. In the crystal, supra­molecular chains along the b-axis direction are sustained by C—H⋯S and C—Br⋯π inter­actions.
PMCID: PMC3648267  PMID: 23723887
2.  (2E)-3-(4-Fluoro­phen­yl)-1-[5-methyl-1-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]prop-2-en-1-one1  
With respect to the triazole ring in the title compound, C19H16FN3O, the p-tolyl ring is inclined [dihedral angle = 51.79 (11)°], whereas the chalcone residue is almost coplanar [O—C—C—N and C—C—C—C torsion angles = −178.71 (19) and 178.42 (18)°, respectively]. The conformation about the C=C bond [1.328 (3) Å] is E, and the triazole methyl group and the carbonyl O atom are syn. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related mol­ecules are connected by π–π inter­actions between the triazole and p-tolyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6599 (12) Å] and these are linked into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H⋯N and C—H⋯π inter­actions.
PMCID: PMC3647839  PMID: 23723805
3.  5-Methyl-N′-[(3Z)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-3-yl­idene]-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbohydrazide 
In the title compound, C18H14N6O2, the benzene ring is slightly twisted out of the plane of the 1,2,3-triazole ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.010 Å), forming a dihedral angle of 6.20 (13)°. The nine non-H ring atoms of the fused five- and six-membered ring system are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.032 Å). The near coplanarity in the central residue is consolidated by an intra­molecular bifurcated N—H⋯(O,N) hydrogen bond. The conformation about the N=C bond is Z. In the crystal, supra­molecular chains along [101] are sustained by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O inter­actions. These are consolidated into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions; the latter occur between centrosymmetrically related 1,2,3-triazole rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6056 (14) Å].
PMCID: PMC3629624  PMID: 23634111
4.  4-Dimethyl­amino-1-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile 
In the title compound, C14H13N3O3, a twist occurs, as seen in the dihedral angle of 53.60 (12)° between the pyrrole and benzene rings. A three-dimensional architecture is formed in the crystal whereby layers of mol­ecules in the ac plane are connected by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions.
PMCID: PMC3588536  PMID: 23476607
5.  3-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-5-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothio­amide 
In the title compound, C16H13ClFN3S, the pyrazole ring adopts an envelope conformation with the methine C atom being the flap atom. The chloro- and fluoro­benzene rings are twisted out of the plane of the pyrazole ring [dihedral angles = 15.12 (11) and 80.55 (10)°, respectively]. The amine group is orientated towards a ring N atom, forming an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. This H atom also forms a hydrogen bond to the F atom, which along with N—H⋯S hydrogen bonding leads to a supra­molecular chain along the c axis. Connections between chains of the type Cl⋯π lead to a layer in the bc plane.
PMCID: PMC3588515  PMID: 23476591
6.  2-[5-(4-Fluoro­phen­yl)-3-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-4-phenyl-1,3-thia­zole 
In the title compound, C25H20FN3S, two independent mol­ecules comprise the asymmetric unit, which differ in the relative orientation of the fluoro­benzene ring with respect to the pyrazole ring to which it is attached [dihedral angles = 89.39 (17) and 75.23 (16)° in the two mol­ecules]. Each pyrazole ring adopts an envelope conformation with the methine C atom being the flap atom. There are additional twists in the mol­ecules, e.g. between the five-membered rings [dihedral angles = 18.23 (16) and 17.84 (16)°] and between the thia­zole and attached phenyl ring [10.26 (16) and 20.87 (15)°]. Overall, each mol­ecule has a T-shape. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions.
PMCID: PMC3588500  PMID: 23476577
7.  5-(4-Fluoro­phen­yl)-3-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothio­amide 
The central pyrazole ring in the title compound, C17H16FN3S, adopts an envelope conformation with the methine C atom bearing the 4-fluoro­phenyl substituent as the flap atom. Whereas the tolyl ring is slightly twisted out of the least-squares plane through the pyrazole ring [dihedral angle = 13.51 (11)°], the fluoro­benzene ring is almost perpendicular [dihedral angle = 80.21 (11)°]. The thio­amide group is almost coplanar with the N—N bond of the ring [N—N—C—N torsion angle = 1.2 (3)°] and the amine group forms an intra­molecular hydrogen bond with a ring N atom. In the crystal, supra­molecular double layers in the bc plane are formed via N—H⋯S, N—H⋯F and C—H⋯F inter­actions.
PMCID: PMC3588501  PMID: 23476571
8.  2-(2,4-Dichloro­phen­oxy­meth­yl)-5-(4-methyl­phen­yl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thia­diazole1  
In the title compound, C18H13Cl2N3OS, the eight atoms comprising the central imidazo/thia­diazo­lethia­diazole residue are coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.009 Å). The dihedral angle of 8.72 (13)° between the dichloro­benzene and tolyl rings reflects a twist about the O—C(benzene) bond; the Cm—O—Cb—Cb torsion angle = −168.5 (2)° (m = methyl­ene C and b is benzene C). Supra­molecular tapes along the b axis are found in the crystal structure which are mediated by π–π inter­actions occurring between centrosymmetrically related thia­diazole rings [inter-ring centroid distance = 3.6907 (16) Å] and between the benzene and tolyl rings [inter-ring centroid distance = 3.7597 (16) Å].
PMCID: PMC3588533  PMID: 23476564
9.  3-[5-Methyl-1-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-phenyl-5-[4-(piperidin-1-yl)phen­yl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothio­amide dimethyl­formamide hemisolvate 
The essentially planar pyrazole ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.013 Å) in the title hemisolvate, C31H33N7S·0.5C3H7NO, is almost coplanar with the pendant thio­urea residue [N—N—C—S torsion angle = −173.2 (4)°] and slightly twisted with respect to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 7.7 (3)°]. An intra­molecular thio­urea–pyrazole N—H⋯N hydrogen bond, via an S(5) loop, is formed. Supra­molecular chains along the c axis are formed in the crystal via piperidine–triazole C—H⋯N inter­actions. These are bridged into loosely associated double chains via C—H⋯O inter­actions involving the disordered (over two positions) dimethyl­formamide solvent mol­ecules. The thio­urea-bound phenyl ring is also disordered over two positions of equal occupancy.
PMCID: PMC3393261  PMID: 22807818
10.  4-{1-[4-(4-Bromo­phen­yl)-1,3-thia­zol-2-yl]-5-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl}-5-methyl-1-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole 
In the title compound, C28H22BrFN6S, the central pyrazole ring has an envelope conformation, with the methine C atom being the flap atom. The dihedral angles between the least-squares plane through this ring and the adjacent thia­zole [18.81 (15)°] and triazole [1.83 (16)°] rings indicate a twist in the mol­ecule. A further twist is evident by the dihedral angle of 64.48 (16)° between the triazole ring and the attached benzene ring. In the crystal, C—H⋯N, C—H⋯F, C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions [occurring between the thia­zole and triazole rings, centroid–centroid distance = 3.571 (2) Å] link mol­ecules into a three-dimensional architecture. The sample studied was a non-merohedral twin; the minor twin component refined to 47.16 (7)%.
PMCID: PMC3379506  PMID: 22719704
11.  Polymerase Chain Reaction Pool Screening Used To Compare Prevalence of Infective Black Flies in Two Onchocerciasis Foci in Northern Sudan 
Onchocerciasis remains an important debilitating disease in many areas of Africa, including Sudan. The status of infection transmission in 2007 was assessed in the vectors of two disease foci in Sudan: Abu Hamed in northern Sudan, which has received at least 10 years of annual treatment and Galabat focus in eastern Sudan, where only minor, largely undocumented treatment activity has occurred. Assessment of more than 30,000 black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infectious stage L3 larvae by using an O-150 polymerase chain reaction protocol showed that black fly infectivity rates were 0.84 (95% confidence interval = 0.0497–1.88) per 10,000 flies for Abu Hamed and 6.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.1–16.4) infective flies per 10,000 for Galabat. These results provide entomologic evidence for suppressed Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus and a moderate transmission rate of the parasite in the Galabat focus.
PMCID: PMC3083743  PMID: 21540385

Results 1-11 (11)