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1.  A qualitative analysis of perceptions and barriers to therapeutic lifestyle changes among homeless hypertensive patients 
Homeless individuals have higher rates of hypertension when compared to the general population. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) have the potential to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension, yet TLCs can be difficult for homeless persons to implement due to competing priorities.
To identify: 1) Patients' knowledge and perceptions of hypertension and TLCs; and 2) Barriers to implementation of TLCs.
This qualitative study was conducted with patients from an urban healthcare clinic within a homeless center. Patients ≥ 18 years old with a diagnosis of hypertension were eligible. Three focus groups were conducted at which time saturation was deemed to have been reached. Focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed for data analysis. A systematic, inductive analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes.
A total of 14 individuals participated in one of three focus groups. The majority were female (n = 8) and African-American (n = 13). Most participants were housed in a shelter (n=8). Others were staying with family or friends (n=3), living on the street (n=2), or had transitioned to housing (n=1). Participants had a mixed understanding of hypertension and how TLCs impacted hypertension. They were most familiar with dietary and smoking recommendations and less familiar with exercise, alcohol, and caffeine TLCs. Participants viewed TLCs as being restrictive, particularly with regards to diet. Family and friends were viewed as helpful in encouraging some lifestyle changes such as healthy eating, but less helpful in having a positive influence on quitting smoking. Participants indicated that they often have difficulty implementing lifestyle changes because of limited meal choices, poor access to exercise equipment, and being uninformed about recommendations.
Despite the benefits of TLCs, homeless individuals experience unique challenges to implementing TLCs. Future research should focus on developing and testing interventions that facilitate TLCs among homeless persons. The findings from this study should assist healthcare practitioners, including pharmacists, with providing appropriate and effective education.
PMCID: PMC3519971  PMID: 22835705
homeless; hypertension; perceptions; barriers; lifestyle
2.  Integration of collaborative medication therapy management in a safety net patient-centered medical home 
To describe the integration of collaborative medication therapy management (CMTM) into a safety net patient-centered medical home (PCMH).
Federally qualified Health Care for the Homeless clinic in Richmond, VA, from October 2008 to June 2010.
Practice description
A CMTM model was developed by pharmacists, physicians, nurse practitioners, and social workers and integrated with a PCMH. CMTM, as delivered, consisted of (1) medication assessment, (2) development of care plan, and (3) follow-up.
Practice innovation
CMTM is integrated with the medical and mental health clinics of PCMH in a safety net setting that serves homeless individuals.
Main outcome measures
Number of patients having a CMTM encounter, number and type of medication-related problems identified for a subset of patients in the mental health and medical clinics, pharmacist recommendations, and acceptance rate of pharmacist recommendations.
Since October 2008, 695 patients have had a CMTM encounter. An analysis of 209 patients in the mental health clinic indicated that 425 medication-related problems were identified (2.0/patient). Pharmacists made 452 recommendations to resolve problems, and 384 (85%) pharmacist recommendations were accepted by providers and/or patients. For 40 patients in the medical clinic, 205 medication-related problems were identified (5.1/patient). Pharmacists made 217 recommendations to resolve the problems, and 194 (89%) recommendations were accepted.
Integrating CMTM with a safety net PCMH was a valuable patient-centered strategy for addressing medication-related problems among homeless individuals. The high acceptance rate of pharmacist recommendations demonstrates the successful integration of pharmacist services.
PMCID: PMC3280342  PMID: 21382806
Medication therapy management; patient-centered medical home; collaborative care
3.  Medication Adherence Challenges among Patients Experiencing Homelessness in a Behavioral Health Clinic 
Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP  2012;S1551-7411(12)00349-X 10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.11.004.
Behavioral health medication nonadherence is associated with poor health outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Little is known about reasons for nonadherence with behavioral health medications among homeless people.
To identify reasons for medication nonadherence including the sociodemographic, health-related factors, and behavioral health conditions associated with medication nonadherence among behavioral health patients served by a Health Care for the Homeless center (HCH) in Virginia.
The study sample was selected from an existing database that included sociodemographic, health-related information, and medication-related problems identified during a pharmacist-provided medication review conducted during October 2008–September 2009. Patients experiencing or at risk of homelessness who were ≥ 18 years old with at least one behavioral health condition who had a medication review were eligible for the study. A qualitative content analysis of the pharmacist documentation describing the patient’s reason(s) for medication nonadherence was conducted. The Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations was the theoretical framework. The outcome variable was self-reported medication nonadherence. Descriptive and multivariate (logistic regression) statistics were used.
A total of 426 individuals met study criteria. The mean age was 44.7 ± 10.2 years. Most patients were African-American (60.5%) and female (51.6%). The content analysis identified patient-related factors (74.8%), therapy-related factors (11.8%), and social or economic factors (8.8%) as the most common reasons for patients’ medication nonadherence. Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (adjusted odds ratio: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.19–0.87) were less likely to have a medication adherence problem identified during the medication review.
The content analysis identified patient-related factors as the most common reason for nonadherence with behavioral health medications. In the quantitative analysis, patients with a PTSD diagnosis were less likely to have nonadherence identified which may be related to their reluctance to self-report nonadherence and their diagnosis, which warrants further study.
PMCID: PMC3733792  PMID: 23218849
Medication nonadherence; homeless; behavioral health
4.  Preparation of Faculty Members and Students to Be Citizen Leaders and Pharmacy Advocates 
To identify characteristics and quality indicators of best practices for leadership and advocacy development in pharmacy education, a national task force on leadership development in pharmacy invited colleges and schools to complete a phone survey to characterize the courses, processes, and noteworthy practices for leadership and advocacy development at their institution. The literature was consulted to corroborate survey findings and identify additional best practices. Recommendations were derived from the survey results and literature review, as well as from the experience and expertise of task force members. Fifty-four institutions provided information about lecture-based and experiential curricular and noncurricular components of leadership and advocacy development. Successful programs have a supportive institutional culture, faculty and alumni role models, administrative and/or financial support, and a cocurricular thread of activities. Leadership and advocacy development for student pharmacists is increasingly important. The recommendations and suggestions provided can facilitate leadership and advocacy development at other colleges and schools of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC3872939  PMID: 24371344
student leadership; advocacy; faculty member; pharmacy student; citizen leader
5.  Educating Pharmacy Students to Improve Quality (EPIQ) in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess course instructors’ and students’ perceptions of the Educating Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists to Improve Quality (EPIQ) curriculum.
Methods. Seven colleges and schools of pharmacy that were using the EPIQ program in their curricula agreed to participate in the study. Five of the 7 collected student retrospective pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Changes in students’ perceptions were evaluated to assess their relationships with demographics and course variables. Instructors who implemented the EPIQ program at each of the 7 colleges and schools were also asked to complete a questionnaire.
Results. Scores on all questionnaire items indicated improvement in students’ perceived knowledge of quality improvement. The university the students attended, completion of a class project, and length of coverage of material were significantly related to improvement in the students’ scores. Instructors at all colleges and schools felt the EPIQ curriculum was a strong program that fulfilled the criteria for quality improvement and medication error reduction education.
Conclusion The EPIQ program is a viable, turnkey option for colleges and schools of pharmacy to use in teaching students about quality improvement.
PMCID: PMC3425924  PMID: 22919085
quality improvement; medication error; pharmacy education; pharmacy student; assessment; curriculum
6.  Development and Implementation of an Academic-Community Partnership to Enhance Care among Homeless Persons 
Innovations in pharmacy  2011;2(1):1-7.
An academic-community partnership between a Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) clinic and a school of pharmacy was created in 2005 to provide medication education and identify medication related problems. The urban community based HCH clinic in the Richmond, VA area provides primary health care to the homeless, uninsured and underinsured. The center also offers eye care, dental care, mental health and psychiatric care, substance abuse services, case management, laundry and shower facilities, and mail services at no charge to those in need. Pharmacist services are provided in the mental health and medical clinics. A satisfaction survey showed that the providers and staff (n = 13) in the clinic were very satisfied with the integration of pharmacist services. The quality and safety of medication use has improved as a result of the academic-community collaborative. Education and research initiatives have also resulted from the collaborative. This manuscript describes the implementation, outcomes and benefits of the partnership for both the HCH clinic and the school of pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC3258539  PMID: 22259752
Academic-Community partnership; medication therapy management; community engagement; homelessness; medication related problems
7.  Pharmacoepidemiology Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
To examine the type and extent of pharmacoepidemiology education offered by US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
An electronic Web-survey was sent to all 89 US colleges and schools of pharmacy between October 2005 and January 2006 to examine the type and extent of pharmacoepidemiology education offered to professional (PharmD) and graduate (MS/PhD) students.
The response rate was 100%. Of the 89 schools surveyed, 69 (78%) provided pharmacoepidemiology education to their professional students. A mean of 119 (±60) PharmD students per college/school per year received some pharmacoepidemiology education (range 1-60 classroom hours; median 10 hours). Thirty-five schools (39%) provided education to a mean of 6 (±5) graduate students (range 2-135 classroom hours; median 15 hours).
A majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy offer some pharmacoepidemiology education in their curriculum. However, the topics offered by each school and number of classroom hours varied at both the professional and graduate level.
PMCID: PMC1959224  PMID: 17786268
pharmacoepidemiology; epidemiology; curriculum

Results 1-7 (7)