MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs capable of inhibiting gene expression post-transcriptionally and expression profiling can provide therapeutic targets and tools for cancer diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor with unknown cause and differentiation status. Here, we profiled miRNA expression of chondrosarcoma, namely clinical samples from human conventional chondrosarcoma tissue, established chondrosarcoma cell lines, and primary non-tumorous adult articular chondrocytes, by miRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR. A wide variety of miRNAs were differently downregulated in chondrosarcoma compared to non-tumorous articular chondrocytes; 27 miRNAs: miR-10b, 23b, 24-1*, 27b, 100, 134, 136, 136*, 138, 181d, 186, 193b, 221*, 222, 335, 337-5p, 376a, 376a*, 376b, 376c, 377, 454, 495, 497, 505, 574-3p, and 660, were significantly downregulated in chondrosarcoma and only 2: miR-96 and 183, were upregulated. We further validated the expression levels of miRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR for miR-181a, let-7a, 100, 222, 136, 376a, and 335 in extended number of chondrosarcoma clinical samples. Among them, all except miR-181a were found to be significantly downregulated in chondrosarcoma derived samples. The findings provide potential diagnostic value and new molecular understanding of chondrosarcoma.