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1.  Twin screw extrusion of kodo millet-chickpea blend: process parameter optimization, physico-chemical and functional properties 
Journal of Food Science and Technology  2012;51(11):3144-3153.
Kodo millet-chickpea flour blend (70:30) was explored for development of directly expanded snack by twin-screw extrusion. Effect of process parameters like temperature (80–150 °C), screw speed (250–300 rpm) and feeder speed (15–30 rpm) on physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, crispiness) of extrudates were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Desirable crispy extrudates were obtained at higher screw speed 293 rpm, lower feeder speed 19 rpm, and medium to high temperature of 123 °C. Effect of extreme and intermediate process conditions on functional, proximate quality and colour of the extrudates were also evaluated.
PMCID: PMC4571246  PMID: 26396306
Twin screw extrusion; Millet; Response surface methodology; Process parameters; Nutritional quality; Direct expanded snack
2.  Interaction Between Domperidone and Ketoconazole: Toward Prediction of Consequent QTc Prolongation Using Purely In Vitro Information 
We aimed to investigate the application of combined mechanistic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling and simulation in predicting the domperidone (DOM) triggered pseudo-electrocardiogram modification in the presence of a CYP3A inhibitor, ketoconazole (KETO), using in vitro–in vivo extrapolation. In vitro metabolic and inhibitory data were incorporated into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models within Simcyp to simulate time course of plasma DOM and KETO concentrations when administered alone or in combination with KETO (DOM+KETO). Simulated DOM concentrations in plasma were used to predict changes in gender-specific QTcF (Fridericia correction) intervals within the Cardiac Safety Simulator platform taking into consideration DOM, KETO, and DOM+KETO triggered inhibition of multiple ionic currents in population. Combination of in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, PBPK, and systems pharmacology of electric currents in the heart was able to predict the direction and magnitude of PK and PD changes under coadministration of the two drugs although some disparities were detected.
PMCID: PMC4150924  PMID: 25116274
3.  Isolated tuberculosis of the spleen: A case report and review of literature 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2013;75(3):235-236.
Isolated involvement of spleen in tuberculosis is a rare entity, particularly among immunocompetent hosts. Herein, we present a 28-year-old man with left abdominal discomfort for 2 years who was found to have a cystic lesion in spleen on evaluation. Eventually, he was diagnosed to have isolated splenic tuberculosis with an involvement of a single lymph node at the splenic hilum. In this rare form of tuberculosis, it seems that splenectomy in addition to standard antitubercular therapy is curative.
PMCID: PMC3689384  PMID: 24426436
Isolated spleenic tuberculosis
4.  Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India 
People in Indian region often apply Shankhpushpi and other Sanskrit-based common name to Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Canscora decussata, and Clitorea ternatea. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal plant. Before the establishment of British rule, like the other books, ayurvedic treatises were also hand written. This might be one of the reasons due to which ayurveda could not stand parallel to the western medicine and an ambiguity is reflected in the interpretation of names and description of drugs found in the books like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The most widespread application of Shankhpushpi is for mental problems, but they have been considered for an array of other human maladies. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of four ethanobotanicals of Shankhpushpi. A comparative morphoanatomy of the root, stem, and leaves has been studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. Various physicochemical, morphological, histological parameters, comparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatogram of methanolic extract presented in this communication may serve the purpose of standard parameters to establish the authenticity of commercialized varieties and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from the other species. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines.
PMCID: PMC3255406  PMID: 22247878
Ethanobotanicals; HPLC; HPTLC; physiochemical; Shankhpushpi
5.  A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter 
Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.
PMCID: PMC3255414  PMID: 22247863
Bitter; indian blue water lily; Nymphaea nouchali; nymphayol
Many of the traditional herbal formulations contain extracts of Piper longum and Glycyrrhiza glabra, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid respectively, being active constituents of these two herbs. An attempt has been made to develop a simple, precise, rapid, and cost-effective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous estimation of these in a herbomineral formulation (Efiplus® Capsules). Precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid 12.5:7.5:0.5, as mobile phase were used in chromatographic determinations. The plates were scanned and the compounds were quantified at their wavelengths of maximum absorption of 260 and 331 nm for glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine respectively. The respective RF, values of glycyrrhetinic acid and piperine were 0.51 and 0.55. Under these experimental conditions linearity was observed between 0.8-2.6 μg/ spot for glycyrrhetinic acid and between 10-50 ng/ spot for piperine and average recovery was 96.25% for glycyrrhetinic acid and 98.55% for piperine.
PMCID: PMC3255427  PMID: 22247845
HPTLC; glycyrrhetinic acid; piperine; herbomineral formulation
7.  Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(1):26-30.
The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
PMCID: PMC3140124  PMID: 21808535
Ceiba pentandra; hepatoprotective; hepatotoxicity; paracetamol
8.  Phytopharmacologic aspects of Canscora decussata Roem and Schult 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2010;4(7):49-57.
Nature is an inexhaustible source of secondary metabolites–different types of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and other classes of organic compounds. In the process of isolation, purification and determination of the structures of lead, with their biological effectiveness, every type of experimental tool and strategy, known too and developed over the years by various practitioners. The present review is an attempt to compile information on various aspects of Canscora decussata, “Shankhpushpi” of Indian traditional system of medicine. The phytoconstituents, such as phenolic compounds, xanthones, and triterpenoids were isolated from different parts of the plant. The plant possesses immunomodulatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antiinflammatory, spermicidal, central nervous system–depressive, and cardiostimulant properties. Clinical trials of marketed formulation showed very encouraging results.
PMCID: PMC3249902  PMID: 22228941
Shankhpushpi; phenolic compounds; xanthones; triterpenoids
9.  Nutritional changes in powdered red pepper upon in vitro infection of Aspergillus flavus 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2009;40(1):139-144.
Quantitative losses in various biochemical constituents like capsaicin, carotenes, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, mineral matter, sugars (soluble and insoluble), protein and fat were estimated after the successful growth of Aspergillus flavus for 30 days on powdered red pepper. The fungal biomass was measured by ergosterol content and Aflatoxin B1 by HPLC. Amongst the various nutritional constituents evaluated for nutritional losses and changes the highest nutritional loss was reported in total carotenoids (88.55%) followed by total sugars (85.5%). The protein content of the infected sample increased from 18.01% to 23%. The nutritional profile of chilli powder (Capsicum annum var. sannam L.) shows highest share of total soluble sugars (32.89%) and fiber content (21.05%), followed by protein (18.01%) and fat (13.32%) making it an ideal solid- substrate for mould growth. At the end of incubation the fungal biomass was 192. 25 mg / 100 gram powder, total plate count 17.5 X 10 4 CFU/g and Aflatoxin B1 content was 30.06 μg / kg.
PMCID: PMC3768520  PMID: 24031333
Aspergillus flavus; chili powder; nutritional changes; aflatoxin
10.  Simultaneous Estimation of Andrographolide and Wedelolactone in Herbal Formulations 
Andrographolide and wedelolactone are active components of Andrographis paniculata and Eclipta alba, respectively. The extracts of these plants are used in many traditional hepatoprotective formulations. An attempt has been made to develop an accurate, precise and specific HPTLC method to quantify simultaneously both these chemical markers of diversified chemical structures in different dosage forms like tablet and syrup. Precoated silica 60F254 plates with toluene:acetone:formic acid (9:6:1) as mobile phase and detection wavelength of 254 nm were used. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 200 to 400 ng/spot for andrographolide and 100 to 200 ng/spot for wedelolactone. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for andrographolide were 26.16 and 79.28 ng/spot, respectively and for wedelolactone 5.06 and 15.32 ng/spot, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3038307  PMID: 21394279
Andrographolide; wedelolactone; Andrographis paniculata; Eclipta alba; hepatoprotective agents; HPTLC
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1995;37(3):148-150.
Transsexualism is a rare disorder, and there is little literature available on its treatment. A case is presented of transsexualism with homosexual orientation in a 24 year old male. Since the disorder appeared to have behavioral antecedents, it was treated with a behavior therapy package comprising relaxation, aversion therapy with aversion relief, modelling, hypnosis, orgasmic reconditioning, behavioral counselling and sex education. Therapy resulted in normalization of gender identity, but the homosexual orientation persisted.
PMCID: PMC2971501  PMID: 21743738
transsexualism; gender identity disorder; behavior therapy
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1987;29(3):239-242.
Ten subjects diagnosed as Psychalgia were taken for study. A multiple baseline design was adapted and clients were subjected to 30 sessions of autogenic training. They were assessed using physiological (EMG and thermal change) and behavioural measures (Visual analogue scale and behavioural symptom checklist). Findings revealed autogenic therapy to be effective in reducing tension headache.
PMCID: PMC3172480  PMID: 21927245

Results 1-12 (12)