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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1)
Miro, J M (2)
Brandt, C M (1)
Fernandez, P (1)
Gatell, J M (1)
Mallolas, J (1)
Patel, R (1)
Riquelme, R (1)
Rodríguez-Roisin, R (1)
Rouse, M S (1)
Steckelberg, J M (1)
Torres, A (1)
Valls, M E (1)
Vieigas, C (1)
Wilson, W R (1)
Zamora, L (1)
Year of Publication
Efficacy of azithromycin or clarithromycin for prophylaxis of viridans group streptococcus experimental endocarditis.
Rouse, M S
Steckelberg, J M
Brandt, C M
Wilson, W R
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
The efficacy of azithromycin or clarithromycin was compared to that of amoxicillin, clindamycin, or erythromycin for the prevention of viridans group streptococcus experimental endocarditis. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve vegetations were given no antibiotics or two doses of amoxicillin at 25 mg/kg of body weight, azithromycin at 10 mg/kg, clarithromycin at 10 mg/kg, clindamycin at 40 mg/kg followed by clindamycin at 20 mg/kg, or erythromycin at 10 mg/kg. Antibiotics were administered 0.5 h before and 5.5 h after intravenous infusion of 5 x 10(5) CFU of Streptococcus milleri. Forty-eight hours after bacterial inoculation, the rabbits were killed and aortic valve vegetations were aseptically removed and cultured for bacteria. Infective endocarditis occurred in 88% of untreated animals, 1% of animals receiving amoxicillin, 9% of animals receiving erythromycin, 0% of animals receiving clindamycin, 2.5% of animals receiving clarithromycin, and 1% of animals receiving azithromycin. All five regimens were more effective (P < 0.001) than no prophylaxis. Erythromycin was less effective (P < 0.05) than amoxicillin or clindamycin. Azithromycin or clarithromycin was as effective as amoxicillin, clindamycin, or erythromycin for the prevention of viridans group streptococcus experimental endocarditis in this model.
Prognostic factors influencing the outcome in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS.
Gatell, J M
Valls, M E
BACKGROUND--Studies attempting to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with AIDS using a multivariate analysis are few. In order to identify those prognostic factors amenable to medical intervention, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on 102 patients with AIDS suffering a first episode of PCP. METHODS--One hundred and two consecutive patients with AIDS (51% drug abusers, 45% homosexuals, and 4% with other HIV risk factors) admitted to our institution between 1986 and 1989 whose respiratory infection was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage were studied prospectively. RESULTS--The overall mortality was 28%, rising to 79% in those patients who required mechanical ventilation. According to univariate analysis the following variables were related to a poor prognosis: age > 35 years; risk factor for HIV infection other than drug abuse; and AIDS diagnosis confirmed before 1988; PaO2 < 8 kPa at admission; severe acute respiratory failure on admission (PaO2/FIO2 < 20 kPa); mechanical ventilation; antibiotic therapy for PCP other than trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole; multiple microbial pulmonary infection; serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 22.5 mukat/l on admission; serum albumin level < 30 g/l. Multivariate analysis showed that only mechanical ventilation was independently associated with a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS--The mortality of AIDS patients presenting with a first episode of PCP before 1990 was high (28%). The main prognostic factor associated with poor outcome was the requirement for mechanical ventilation due to severe acute respiratory failure.
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