We investigated the differential regulation of p-p38 MAPK or p-NF-κB in male Sprague-Dawley rats with inferior alveolar nerve injury resulting from mal-positioned dental implants. For this purpose, we characterized the temporal expression of p-p38 MAPK or p-NF-κB in the medullary dorsal horn and examined changes in nociceptive behavior after a blockade of p-p38 MAPK or p-NF-κB pathways in rats with trigeminal neuropathic pain.
Under anesthesia, the left lower second molar was extracted and replaced with a mini dental implant to intentionally injure the inferior alveolar nerve. Western and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that p-p38 MAPK is upregulated in microglia following nerve injury and that this expression peaked on postoperative day (POD) 3 through 7. However, the activation of p-NF-κB in astrocyte peaked on POD 7 through 21. The intracisternal administration of SB203580 (1 or 10 μg), a p38 MAPK inhibitor, on POD 3 but not on POD 21 markedly inhibits mechanical allodynia and the p-p38 MAPK expression. However, the intracisternal administration of SN50 (0.2 or 2 ng), an NF-κB inhibitor, on POD 21 but not on POD 3 attenuates mechanical allodynia and p-NF-κB expression. Dexamethasone (25 mg/kg) decreases not only the activation of p38 MAPK but also that of NF-κB on POD 7.
These results suggest that early expression of p-p38 MAPK in the microglia and late induction of p-NF-κB in astrocyte play an important role in trigeminal neuropathic pain and that a blockade of p-p38 MAPK at an early stage and p-NF-κB at a late stage might be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of trigeminal neuropathic pain.
With recent increase in affordability and accessibility of high-performance computing (HPC), the use of large stochastic models has become increasingly popular for its ability to accurately mimic the behavior of the represented biochemical system. One important application of such models is to predict parameter configurations that yield an event of scientific significance. Due to the high computational requirements of Monte Carlo simulations and dimensionality of parameter space, brute force search is computationally infeasible for most large models.
We have developed a novel parameter estimation algorithm—Stochastic Parameter Search for Events (SParSE)—that automatically computes parameter configurations for propagating the system to produce an event of interest at a user-specified success rate and error tolerance. Our method is highly automated and parallelizable. In addition, computational complexity does not scale linearly with the number of unknown parameters; all reaction rate parameters are updated concurrently at the end of each iteration in SParSE. We apply SParSE to three systems of increasing complexity: birth-death, reversible isomerization, and Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) disease transmission. Our results demonstrate that SParSE substantially accelerates computation of the parametric solution hyperplane compared to uniform random search. We also show that the novel heuristic for handling over-perturbing parameter sets enables SParSE to compute biasing parameters for a class of rare events that is not amenable to current algorithms that are based on importance sampling.
SParSE provides a novel, efficient, event-oriented parameter estimation method for computing parametric configurations that can be readily applied to any stochastic systems obeying chemical master equation (CME). Its usability and utility do not diminish with large systems as the algorithmic complexity for a given system is independent of the number of unknown reaction rate parameters.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12918-014-0126-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Stochastic simulation; Parameter estimation; Rare event; Optimization
Although ABT-737, a small-molecule Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor, has recently emerged as a novel cancer therapeutic agent, ABT-737-induced apoptosis is often blocked in several types of cancer cells with elevated expression of Mcl-1. Cafestol, one of the major compounds in coffee beans, has been reported to have anti-carcinogenic activity and tumor cell growth-inhibitory activity, and we examined whether cafestol could overcome resistance against ABT-737 in Mcl-1-overexpressed human renal carcinoma Caki cells. ABT-737 alone had no effect on apoptosis, but cafestol markedly enhanced ABT-737-mediated apoptosis in Mcl-1-overexpressed Caki cells, human glioma U251MG cells, and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. By contrast, co-treatment with ABT-737 and cafestol did not induce apoptosis in normal human skin fibroblast. Furthermore, combined treatment with cafestol and ABT-737 markedly reduced tumor growth compared with either drug alone in xenograft models. We found that cafestol inhibited Mcl-1 protein expression, which is important for ABT-737 resistance, through promotion of protein degradation. Moreover, cafestol increased Bim expression, and siRNA-mediated suppression of Bim expression reduced the apoptosis induced by cafestol plus ABT-737. Taken together, cafestol may be effectively used to enhance ABT-737 sensitivity in cancer therapy via downregulation of Mcl-1 expression and upregulation of Bim expression.
While the Lasègue straight leg raising test is an established test for lumbar nerve root compression, an established equivalent for cervical nerve root compression is missing. The aim of this bi-modal study was to find the most effective way to stretch the cervical nerve roots anatomically in cadavers and to assess its value in the clinical setting.
Three positional maneuvers of the upper limb were tested on three cadavers to determine the displacement by stretch of the nerve roots C5, C6 and C7. The maneuver which was most efficient in nerve root displacement was applied in 24 patients with confirmed symptomatic cervical nerve root compression (cases) and 65 controls to assess the clinical value of the test.
The most efficient way to displace the cervical nerve roots by stretch was to apply dorsal pressure on the humeral head with the shoulder in 80° of abduction and 30° of extension, with slight elbow flexion while the head is facing the contralateral side. This maneuver produced 4–5 mm of nerve root displacement in cadavers. This test aggravated radicular symptoms in 79 % of the patients with cervical nerve root compression and was negative in 98 % of the controls.
The described abduction extension test with posterior push on the humeral head creates a fulcrum over which the brachial plexus can be displaced to create stress on cervical nerve roots. This simple test is easy to perform clinically and aggravates radicular symptoms in most of the patients with cervical nerve root compression while it is negative in nearly all of the controls.
Cervical radiculopathy; Clinical test; Root stretch
β-Lapachone activates multiple cell death mechanisms including apoptosis, autophagy and necrotic cell death in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated β-lapachone-induced cell death and the underlying mechanisms in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep1 cells. β-Lapachone markedly induced cell death without caspase activation. β-Lapachone increased PI uptake and HMGB-1 release to extracellular space, which are markers of necrotic cell death. Necrostatin-1 (a RIP1 kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited β-lapachone-induced cell death and HMGB-1 release. In addition, β-lapachone activated poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1(PARP-1) and promoted AIF release, and DPQ (a PARP-1 specific inhibitor) or AIF siRNA blocked β-lapachone-induced cell death. Furthermore, necrostatin-1 blocked PARP-1 activation and cytosolic AIF translocation. We also found that β-lapachone-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has an important role in the activation of the RIP1-PARP1-AIF pathway. Finally, β-lapachone-induced cell death was inhibited by dicoumarol (a NQO-1 inhibitor), and NQO1 expression was correlated with sensitivity to β-lapachone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that β-lapachone induces programmed necrosis through the NQO1-dependent ROS-mediated RIP1-PARP1-AIF pathway.
β-Lapachone; NQO1; ROS; RIP1; PARP1; AIF
Thioridazine has been known as an antipsychotic agent, but it also has anticancer activity. However, the effect of thioridazine on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) sensitization has not yet been studied. Here, we investigated the ability of thioridazine to sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Combined treatment with thioridazine and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in various human carcinoma cells, including renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), breast carcinoma (MDA-MB231), and glioma (U251MG) cells, but not in normal mouse kidney cells (TMCK-1) and human normal mesangial cells. We found that thioridazine downregulated c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 expression at the post-translational level via an increase in proteasome activity. The overexpression of c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 overcame thioridazine plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We further observed that thioridazine inhibited the Akt signaling pathway. In contrast, although other phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt inhibitors (LY294002 and wortmannin) sensitized TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 expressions were not altered. Furthermore, thioridazine increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caki cells, and ROS scavengers (N-acetylcysteine, glutathione ethyl ester, and trolox) inhibited thioridazine plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis, as well as Akt inhibition and the downregulation of c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1. Collectively, our study demonstrates that thioridazine enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via the ROS-mediated inhibition of Akt signaling and the downregulation of c-FLIP(L) and Mcl-1 at the post-translational level.
thioridazine; TRAIL; Akt; Mcl-1; c-FLIP; ROS
Repetitive hypoxic preconditioning (RHP) creates an anti-inflammatory phenotype that protects from stroke-induced injury for months after a 2-week treatment. The mechanisms underlying long-term tolerance are unknown, though one exposure to hypoxia significantly increased peripheral B cell representation. For this study, we sought to determine if RHP specifically recruited B cells into the protected ischemic hemisphere, and whether RHP could phenotypically alter B cells prior to stroke onset.
Adult, male SW/ND4 mice received RHP (nine exposures over 2 weeks; 8 to 11 % O2; 2 to 4 hours) or identical exposures to 21 % O2 as control. Two weeks following RHP, a 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced. Standard techniques quantified CXCL13 mRNA and protein expression. Two days after stroke, leukocytes were isolated from brain tissue (70:30 discontinuous Percoll gradient) and profiled on a BD-FACS Aria flow cytometer. In a separate cohort without stroke, sorted splenic CD19+ B cells were isolated 2 weeks after RHP and analyzed on an Illumina MouseWG-6 V2 Bead Chip. Final gene pathways were determined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Student’s t-test or one-way analysis of variance determined significance (P < 0.05).
CXCL13, a B cell-specific chemokine, was upregulated in post-stroke cortical vessels of both groups. In the ischemic hemisphere, RHP increased B cell representation by attenuating the diapedesis of monocyte, macrophage, neutrophil and T cells, to quantities indistinguishable from the uninjured, contralateral hemisphere. Pre-stroke splenic B cells isolated from RHP-treated mice had >1,900 genes differentially expressed by microarray analysis. Genes related to B-T cell interactions, including antigen presentation, B cell differentiation and antibody production, were profoundly downregulated. Maturation and activation were arrested in a cohort of B cells from pre-stroke RHP-treated mice while regulatory B cells, a subset implicated in neurovascular protection from stroke, were upregulated.
Collectively, our data characterize an endogenous neuroprotective phenotype that utilizes adaptive immune mechanisms pre-stroke to protect the brain from injury post-stroke. Future studies to validate the role of B cells in minimizing injury and promoting central nervous system recovery, and to determine whether B cells mediate an adaptive immunity to systemic hypoxia that protects from subsequent stroke, are needed.
Hypoxic preconditioning; B cells; CXCL13; Stroke; Neuroprotection; B10
At attended locations emotion and attention interact to benefit contrast sensitivity, a basic visual dimension. Whether there are associated costs at unattended locations is unknown. Furthermore, emotion and attention affect response time, and anxiety modulates these effects. We investigated how trait-anxiety influences the interaction of emotion and attention on contrast sensitivity. On each trial, non-predictive precues (neutral or fearful faces) directed exogenous attention to four contrast-varying, tilted stimuli (Gabor patches). Attention was cued toward the target (valid), a distracter (invalid), or distributed over all locations. Observers discriminated target orientation, and completed self-report measures of anxiety. Effects of fearful expressions were mediated by trait-anxiety. Only high-trait anxious individuals showed decreased target contrast sensitivity after attention was diverted to a distracter by a fearful cue, and anxiety score correlated with degree of impairment across participants. This indicates that increasing anxiety exacerbates threat-related attentional costs to visual perception, hampering processing at non-threat-related locations.
emotion; attention; contrast sensitivity; fear expression; anxiety
The objective of this study was to assess causative pathological factors associated with diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who achieved pathological complete response (pCR) after treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer.
In total, 43 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (≥T3 or lymph node positive) who underwent neoadjuvant CRT, subsequent surgery and ultimately achieved pCR were enrolled. All patients underwent pre- and post-CRT 3.0 T rectal MRI with DWI. Two radiologists blinded to pathological staging reviewed pre- and post-CRT 3.0 T rectal MRI for the presence of diffusion restriction in the corresponding tumour areas on post-CRT DWI, with a third radiologist arbitrating any disagreement. The consensus of these findings was then correlated with pathological data such as intramural mucin and the degree of proctitis and mural fibrosis seen on surgical specimen. Additionally, the pre-CRT tumour volume was measured to define the effect of this variable on the degree of radiation proctitis and fibrosis, as well as the presence of intramural mucin.
Diffusion restriction occurred in 18 subjects (41.9%), while 25 subjects remained diffusion restriction-free (58.1%). The diffusion restriction group tended to have more severe proctitis and mural fibrosis when compared with non-diffusion restriction group (p<0.001). Intramural mucin was also more common in the diffusion restriction group (p=0.052). Higher pre-CRT tumour volumes were significantly predictive of the degree of proctitis (p=0.0247) and fibrosis (p=0.0445), but not the presence of intramural mucin (p=0.0944). Proctitis and mural fibrosis severity were also identified as independent pathological risk factors for diffusion restriction on multivariate analysis (p=0.0073 and 0.0011, respectively).
Both radiation-induced proctitis and fibrosis were significant and independent predictors of diffusion restriction in patients achieving pCR after treatment with neoadjuvant CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer, and pre-CRT tumour volume significantly affects both variables.
The effect on methanogens attached to the surface of rumen ciliate protozoa by the addition of plant extracts (pine needles and ginkgo leaves) was studied with particular reference to their effectiveness for decreasing methane emission. The plant extracts (pine needles and ginkgo leaves) were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. The microbial population including bacteria, ciliated-associated methanogen, four different groups of methanogens and Fibrobacter succinogenes were quantified by using the real-time PCR. Gas profiles including methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and runinal fermentation characteristics were observed in vitro. The methane emission from samples with an addition of individual juices from pine needles, ginkgo leaves and 70% ethanol extract from ginko leaves was significantly lower (p<0.05, 27.1, 28.1 and 28.1 vs 34.0 ml/g DM) than that of the control, respectively. Total VFAs in samples with an addition of any of the plant extracts were significantly lower than that of the control (p<0.05) as well. The order Methanococcales and the order Methanosarcinales were not detected by using PCR in any incubated mixtures. The ciliate-associated methanogens population decreased from 25% to 49% in the plant extacts as compared to control. We speculate that the supplementation of juice from pine needles and ginkgo leaves extract (70% ethanol extract) decreased the protozoa population resulting in a reduction of methane emission in the rumen and thus inhibiting methanogenesis. The order Methanobacteriales community was affected by addition of all plant extracts and decreased to less than the control, while the order Methanomicrobiales population showed an increase to more than that of the control. The F. succinogenes, the major fibrolytic microorganism, population in all added plant extracts was increased to greater than that of the control. In conclusion, pine needles and ginkgo leaves extracts appear to have properties that decrease methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and may have a potential for use as additives for ruminants.
Methane Emission; Relative Quantification; Real-time PCR; Pine Neddle; Ginkgo Leaf
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with O2-free N2 gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at 39°C for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community in added wormwood, garlic, mandarin orange and honeysuckle extracts increased more than that of the others. The addition of onion extract increased R. albus diversity, while other extracts did not influence the R. albus community. The R. flavefaciens population in added wormwood and garlic extracts decreased, while other extracts increased its abundance compared to the control. In conclusion, the results indicated that the plant extracts used in the experiment could be promising feed additives to decrease methane gas emission from ruminant animals while improving ruminal fermentation.
Methane Emission; Microbial Population; Real-time PCR; Relative Quantification Analysis
A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs). MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence.
We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2): an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM) algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods.
This work provides a novel, accelerated version of a likelihood-based parameter estimation method that can be readily applied to stochastic biochemical systems. In addition, our results suggest opportunities for added efficiency improvements that will further enhance our ability to mechanistically simulate biological processes.
A brief exposure to systemic hypoxia (i.e., hypoxic preconditioning; HPC) prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) reduces infarct volume, blood-brain barrier disruption, and leukocyte migration. CCL2 (MCP-1), typically regarded as a leukocyte-derived pro-inflammatory chemokine, can also be directly upregulated by hypoxia-induced transcription. We hypothesized that such a hypoxia-induced upregulation of CCL2 is required for HPC-induced ischemic tolerance.
Adult male SW/ND4, CCL2-null, and wild-type mice were used in these studies. Cortical CCL2/CCR2 message, protein, and cell-type specific immunoreactivity were determined following HPC (4 h, 8% O2) or room air control (21% O2) from 6 h through 2 weeks following HPC. Circulating leukocyte subsets were determined by multi-parameter flow cytometry in naïve mice and 12 h after HPC. CCL2-null and wild-type mice were exposed to HPC 2 days prior to tMCAo, with immunoneutralization of CCL2 during HPC achieved by a monoclonal CCL2 antibody.
Cortical CCL2 mRNA and protein expression peaked at 12 h after HPC (both p < 0.01), predominantly in cortical neurons, and returned to baseline by 2 days. A delayed cerebral endothelial CCL2 message expression (p < 0.05) occurred 2 days after HPC. The levels of circulating monocytes (p < 0.0001), T lymphocytes (p < 0.0001), and granulocytes were decreased 12 h after HPC, and those of B lymphocytes were increased (p < 0.0001), but the magnitude of these respective changes did not differ between wild-type and CCL2-null mice. HPC did decrease the number of circulating CCR2+ monocytes (p < 0.0001) in a CCL2-dependent manner, but immunohistochemical analyses at this 12 h timepoint indicated that this leukocyte subpopulation did not move into the CNS. While HPC reduced infarct volumes by 27% (p < 0.01) in wild-type mice, CCL2-null mice subjected to tMCAo were not protected by HPC. Moreover, administration of a CCL2 immunoneutralizing antibody prior to HPC completely blocked (p < 0.0001 vs. HPC-treated mice) the development of ischemic tolerance.
The early expression of CCL2 in neurons, the delayed expression of CCL2 in cerebral endothelial cells, and CCL2-mediated actions on circulating CCR2+ monocytes, appear to be required to establish ischemic tolerance to focal stroke in response to HPC, and thus represent a novel role for this chemokine in endogenous neurovascular protection.
Early postoperative MRI after spinal surgery is difficult to interpret because of confounding postoperative mass effects and frequent occurrence of epidural hematomas. Purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate prevalence, extent and significance of hematoma in the first postoperative week in asymptomatic patients after decompression for lumbar stenosis and to determine the degree of clinically significant dura compression by comparing with the patients with postoperative symptoms. MRI was performed in 30 asymptomatic patients (47 levels) in the first week after lumbar spine decompression for degenerative stenosis. Eleven patients requiring surgical revision (16 levels) for symptomatic early postoperative hematoma were used for comparison. In both groups the cross-sectional area of the maximum dural compression (bony stenosis and dural sac expansion) was measured preoperatively and postoperatively by an experienced radiologist. Epidural hematoma was seen in 42.5% in asymptomatic patients (20/47 levels). The median area of postoperative hematoma at the operated level was 176 mm2 in asymptomatic patients and 365 mm2 in symptomatic patients. The median cross-sectional area of the dural sac at the operated level was 128.5 and 0 mm2 in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, respectively, at the site of maximal compression. In the symptomatic group 75% of the patients had a maximal postoperative dural sac area of 58.5 mm2 or less, whereas in the asymptomatic group 75% of patients with epidural hematoma had an area of 75 mm2 or more. The size of hematoma and the degree of dural sac compression were significantly larger in patients with symptoms needing surgical revision. Dural sac area of less than 75 mm2 in early postoperative MRI was found to be the threshold for clinical significance.
Epidural hematoma; Early postoperative MRI; Spinal stenosis; Neural compression
Coaggregation is hypothesized to enhance freshwater biofilm development. To investigate this hypothesis, the ability of the coaggregating bacterium Sphingomonas natatoria to form single- and dual-species biofilms was studied and compared to that of a naturally occurring spontaneous coaggregation-deficient variant. Attachment assays using metabolically inactive cells were performed using epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Under static and flowing conditions, coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells adhered to glass surfaces to form diaphanous single-species biofilms. When glass surfaces were precoated with coaggregation partner Micrococcus luteus 2.13 cells, S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells formed densely packed dual-species biofilms. The addition of 80 mM galactosamine, which reverses coaggregation, mildly reduced adhesion to glass but inhibited the interaction and attachment to glass-surface-attached M. luteus 2.13 cells. As opposed to wild-type coaggregating cells, coaggregation-deficient S. natatoria 2.1COGgfp variant cells were retarded in colonizing glass and did not interact with glass-surface-attached M. luteus 2.13 cells. To determine if coaggregation enhances biofilm growth and expansion, viable coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells or the coaggregation-deficient variant S. natatoria 2.1COGgfp cells were coinoculated in flow cells with viable M. luteus 2.13 cells and allowed to grow together for 96 h. Coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells outcompeted M. luteus 2.13 cells, and 96-h biofilms were composed predominantly of S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells. Conversely, when coaggregation-deficient S. natatoria 2.1COGgfp cells were coinoculated with M. luteus 2.13 cells, the 96-h biofilm contained few coaggregation-deficient S. natatoria 2.1 cells. Thus, coaggregation promotes biofilm integration by facilitating attachment to partner species and likely contributes to the expansion of coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1 populations in dual-species biofilms through competitive interactions.
The present study provides the first demonstration that central cannabinoids modulate the antinociceptive actions of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) on formalin-induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) nociception. Noxious scratching behavior induced by formalin injection in the TMJ was used as a model of pain. Intracisternal injection of 30 μg of WIN 55,212-2, a non subtype selective cannabinoid receptor agonist, attenuated the number of scratches by 75% as compared with the vehicle-treated group, whereas vehicle alone or 3 or 10 μg of WIN 55,212-2 had no effect. To explore the postulated interaction between central cannabinoid receptors and mGluRs, effects of combined administration of sub-analgesic doses of WIN 55,212-2 and group II or III mGluR agonists were tested. Group II or III mGluRs agonists were administered intracisternally 10 min after intracisternal administration of WIN 55,212-2. Neither 100 nmol APDC, a group II mGluRs agonist, nor L-AP4, a group III mGluR agonist, altered nociceptive behavior when given alone but significantly inhibited the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in the presence of a sub-threshold dose (3 μg) of WIN 55,212-2. The ED50 value of APDC or L-AP4 was significantly reduced upon co-treatment with WIN 55,212-2, than in the vehicle-treated group, highlighting the important therapeutic potential of the combined administration of group II or III mGluR agonists with cannabinoids to effectively treat inflammatory pain associated with the TMJ. Potentiating effects of group II or III mGluRs agonists will likely permit administration of cannabinoids at doses that do not achieve significant accumulation to produce undesirable motor dysfunction.
Antinociception; Cannabinoid; Formalin; mGluRs; TMJ
Chronic cough is associated with increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, and both tachykinins and their receptors play important roles in the cough reflex. However, associations between polymorphisms of the tachykinin receptor genes and cough sensitivity in patients with non‐productive chronic cough have not been reported.
Direct sequencing was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for the neurokinin‐1 and neurokinin‐2 receptors (NK‐1R and NK‐2R, respectively). Informative non‐synonymous SNPs were scored using the single base extension method for 312 patients with chronic cough and for 100 age matched healthy controls. The cough response to capsaicin was recorded for 312 patients with chronic cough, and the potential genetic association between cough sensitivity to capsaicin and the NK‐1R and NK‐2R genotypes was evaluated.
Two informative SNPs were identified in NK‐2R (Gly231Glu and Arg375His), whereas no informative SNP was found in NK‐1R. After adjusting for atopy, sex, age, and smoking, the prevalence of enhanced cough sensitivity to capsaicin was higher in the chronic cough patients with the 231Glu allele (p = 0.004; OR 1.69 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.42)) and the 231Glu_375Arg haplotype (p = 0.003; OR 1.71 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.24)]. Moreover, the lowest capsaicin concentration to cause five consecutive coughs (C5) was significantly lower in patients with 231Glu (mean (SD) 44.1 (53.2) v 60.9 (55.8) μM/l, p = 0.04) and those with 231Glu_375Arg (43.2 (52.7) v 69.6 (52.0) μM/l, p = 0.03).
The results of this study suggest that NK‐2R gene polymorphisms are involved in the enhanced cough sensitivity to capsaicin of patients with chronic cough.
chronic cough; neurokinin receptors; polymorphism; capsaicin sensitivity
Background and aim: It is known that bile acids can induce mucosal injury, stimulate cell proliferation, and promote tumorigenesis. A large body of genetic and biochemical evidence indicate that the biosynthetic pathway of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) may play an important role in human and rodent tumours. Therefore, we examined the expression pattern of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), COX-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1), as well as EP receptor subtypes in rat oesophageal lesions induced by duodenal contents reflux.
Methods: Oesophagoduodenal anastomosis was performed in rats to induce duodenal contents reflux. We examined histological changes and expression of COX-1, COX-2, mPGES-1, and EP receptor subtypes in the oesophagus by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Normal control oesophageal tissues showed COX-1 expression in subepithelial stromal cells, including endothelial cells and muscular cells, and did not reveal expression of COX-2 or mPGES-1. In the case of squamous cell lesions, immunoreactivity of COX-1 was similar to that of normal lesions, and COX-2 was maximally expressed around the vascular papillae of tissues showing dysplasia and surrounding epithelial layer and basal layer. mPGES-1 was highly expressed in stromal cells with COX-2 expression. In the case of Barrett’s oesophagus, COX-2 and mPGES-1 were predominantly in subepithelial stromal cells. mRNA levels of COX-2, mPGES-1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 were higher in the experimental groups than in controls.
Conclusions: We suggest that the biosynthetic pathway of PGE2 may play an important role in oesophageal squamous cell dysplasia and glandular metaplasia induced by duodenal contents reflux.
cyclooxygenase 2; microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1; EP receptors; squamous cell dysplasia; Barrett’s oesophagus
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele is a known risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease, however, an association of the APOE genotype with schizophrenia is controversial. We investigated the association in 60 Korean schizophrenic patients and 60 healthy controls. APOE genotypes were identified by reverse hybridization-based line probe assay. There were significant differences in the distribution of APOE genotypes between schizophrenic patients and controls. APOE epsilon2 and epsilon3 allele frequencies in schizophrenic patients were significantly different from those in controls. Our results suggest that APOE alleles seem to be operative in the pathogenesis of schizophrenic disorders.
Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) is a distinctive exophytic lesion of the uterine cervix and shares some histologic and cytologic features with ordinary squamous metaplasia (SM), atypical immature squamous metaplasia (AIM), high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL) and papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSC). PIM has been suggested to be a subset of condyloma associated with low-risk type human papilloma virus (HPV), however, the etiologic role of HPV and biologic behavior of the disease are still elusive. We compared the clinical and histopathological findings, immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and p53 protein, and HPV typing of 5 cases of PIM with SM (n=9), HSIL (n=6), and PSC (n=4) to know the helpful features for the differential diagnosis. Histologically, all 5 cases showed a papillary proliferation of immature metaplastic cells involving the proximal transformation zone and endocervix. On HPV typing by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 2 out of 5 PIM were confirmed to have HPV 6 or HPV 11, while 2 out of 4 PSC were proved having HPV 31 and HPV 16 each. Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index of PIM were significantly lower than those of HSIL or PSC. There were no significant differences of Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index between PIM and SM. The expression of p53 varied among the groups and thus it was not helpful for the differential diagnosis.
We report a case of renin-secreting juxtaglomerular cell tumor which developed in a hypertensive 47-yr-old Korean man. Presumptive clinical diagnosis was made before surgery based on the high level of plasma renin and the radiologic evidence of renal mass. Grossly, a round, bulging, well-encapsulated mass of 3 x 3 cm was located in the mid-portion of the right kidney. On microscopic examination, the tumor was composed of ovoid to polyhedral cells with bland nuclei, indistinct nucleoli and light eosinophilic cytoplasm. The immunostaining for renin showed strong positivity in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. The characteristic rhomboid shaped renin protogranules were observed in ultrastructural analysis.
Citrus red mite (CRM) is known as the most common sensitizing allergen in subjects with asthma and rhinitis working on citrus farms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of specific IgG1 (slgG1) and specific IgG4 (slgG4) to CRM in citrus farmers. Questionnaire survey and skin prick test including CRM antigen was done by 136 workers. Specific IgE (slgE), slgG1 and slgG4 to CRM were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRM-sensitive-asthma was diagnosed upon presence of asthmatic symptoms by questionnaire, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and slgE to CRM. CRM-sensitive rhinitis was diagnosed upon presence of rhinitis symptoms and slgE to CRM. Eleven (8.1%) had CRM-sensitive asthma and 25 (18.4%) had CRM-sensitive rhinitis. Significant association was noted between presence of asthmatic symptoms and slgE or slgG4 (p<0.05, respectively), while no significant association was noted in slgG1 (p>0.05). Significant association was noted in the prevalence between slgG4 and slgE (p<0.05), while no significant association was noted between slgG1 and slgG4 or slgE (p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between slgE and slgG4 level (r=0.39, p<0.05). These findings suggest that the presence of slgG1 to CRM is response to CRM exposure, and further studies will be needed to evaluate the role of slgG4.
Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis is an aggressive and usually fatal form of viral hepatitis in immunosuppressed patients. We report three cases of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in various clinical situations. Case 1 was a 50-year-old man who underwent a liver transplant for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated liver cirrhosis. Two and a half years after the transplant, he complained of fever and jaundice, and liver enzymes were slightly elevated. Serum HBsAg was positive. Case 2 was a 30-year-old man in an immunosuppressed state after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. He was a HBV carrier. Liver enzymes and total bilirubin were markedly elevated. Case 3 was a 50-year-old man who underwent renal transplantation as a known HBV carrier. One year after the transplant, jaundice developed abruptly, but liver enzymes were not significantly elevated. Microscopically lobules were markedly disarrayed, showing ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, prominent pericellular fibrosis, and marked canalicular or intracytoplasmic cholestasis. Portal inflammation was mild, but interphase activity was definite and cholangiolar proliferation was prominent. Hepatocytes were diffusely positive for HBsAg and HBcAg in various patterns. Patients died of liver failure within 1 to 3 months after liver biopsy in spite of anti-viral treatment.
To compare the mediator releasability between atopic and nonatopic asthmatics, we measured basophil histamine releasability (BaHR) using a calcium-ionophore A23187 and anti-IgE in 137 subjects who were treated at Seoul National University Hospital. Subjects were categorized into atopic (group AA, n=77) or nonatopic asthmatics (group NA, n=32), or normal controls (group NC, n=28). Serum total IgE levels were determined and correlation with BaHR was assessed. Anti-IgE-induced maximal BaHR in groups AA, NA, and NC was 41.0+/-3.2, 23.1+/-4.5, and 16.8+/-3.8, respectively (mean+/-SE, %). Anti-IgE-induced BaHR in group AA was significantly higher than that in groups NA and NC (p<0.05). Calcium ionophore A23187-induced maximal BaHR was 43.1+/-2.8, 40.8+/-4.4, and 50.5+/-5.2, respectively (mean+/-SE, %), and there was no significant difference among the groups. Serum total IgE level correlated significantly with anti-IgE-induced maximal BaHR (r=0.281, p<0.01) but not with that induced by calcium ionophore A23187. In conclusion, IgE receptor-related BaHR is higher in atopic asthmatics than in nonatopic asthmatics, and this increased BaHR in atopics is significantly associated with increased serum total IgE level.