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1.  Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia 
Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.
PMCID: PMC3346980  PMID: 22577401
2.  Modelling the performance of isoniazid preventive therapy for reducing tuberculosis in HIV endemic settings: the effects of network structure 
Individuals living with HIV experience a much higher risk of progression from latent M. tuberculosis infection to active tuberculosis (TB) disease relative to individuals with intact immune systems. A several-month daily course of a single drug during latent infection (i.e. isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT)) has proved in clinical trials to substantially reduce an HIV-infected individual's risk of TB disease. As a result of these findings and ongoing studies, the World Health Organization has produced strong guidelines for implementing IPT on a community-wide scale for individuals with HIV at risk of TB disease. To date, there has been limited use of IPT at a community-wide level. In this paper, we present a new co-network model for HIV and TB co-epidemics to address questions about how the population-level impact of community-wide IPT may differ from the individual-level impact of IPT offered to selected individuals. In particular, we examine how the effect of clustering of contacts within high-TB incidence communities may affect the rates of re-infection with TB and how this clustering modifies the expected population-level effects of IPT. We find that populations with clustering of respiratory contacts experience aggregation of TB cases and high numbers of re-infection events. While, encouragingly, the overall population-level effects of community-wide IPT appear to be sustained regardless of network structure, we find that in populations where these contacts are highly clustered, there is dramatic heterogeneity in the impact of IPT: in some sub-regions of these populations, TB is nearly eliminated, while in others, repeated re-infection almost completely undermines the effect of IPT. Our findings imply that as IPT programmes are brought to scale, we should expect local heterogeneity of effectiveness as a result of the complex patterns of disease transmission within communities.
PMCID: PMC3163428  PMID: 21508012
mathematical model; co-infection; re-infection; clustering; epidemics; infectious disease
3.  Candida albicans vertebral osteomyelitis in chronic renal failure. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1987;63(742):695-698.
Invasive candidal infections are encountered with increasing frequency in compromised hosts but bone infection is uncommon. A woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and end-stage renal failure managed by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis developed a painful thoracic kyphosis and a lytic lesion in the vertebral bodies of T10 and T11. Blood cultures were sterile but bone biopsy material contained Candida albicans which also grew on culture. Circulating immune complexes were measured in high levels and contained candida antigens and specific anti-candida antibody as determined by isoelectric focusing, immunoblotting and immunoprinting techniques. Pain persisted after anti-fungal therapy had sterilized the lesion necessitating surgical excision of affected vertebrae, kyphosis correction and iliac crest bone grafting. The titres of circulating immune complexes and anti-candidal precipitins closely paralleled the clinical course.
PMCID: PMC2428414  PMID: 3422876

Results 1-5 (5)