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1.  Author's reply 
Thorax  2007;62(10):924.
PMCID: PMC2094246
2.  Progressive symptoms and signs following institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy and subsequent antituberculosis therapy: immune reconstitution syndrome or infection? 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2006;82(2):111-116.
A 36 year old man presented with weight loss, cough, fever, and exertional dyspnoea shortly after a diagnosis of HIV infection. Symptoms and initial radiological abnormalities worsened after highly active antiretroviral therapy was started. An eventual diagnosis was established but multiple problems occurred throughout the treatment period. Differentiation between immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and an infective cause was problematic.
doi:10.1136/sti.2005.019323
PMCID: PMC2564679  PMID: 16581733
HAART; HIV; AIDS; tuberculosis; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
3.  A&E department: a missed opportunity for diagnosis of TB? 
Thorax  2006;61(4):364-365.
PMCID: PMC2104612  PMID: 16565271
tuberculosis; diagnosis; accident and emergency department
4.  Survival of HIV‐infected patients in the intensive care unit in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy 
Thorax  2007;62(11):964-968.
Background
Several studies have described improved outcomes for HIV‐infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A study was undertaken to examine the outcome from the ICU for HIV‐infected patients and to identify prognostic factors.
Methods
A retrospective study of HIV‐infected adults admitted to a university affiliated hospital ICU between January 1999 and December 2005 was performed. Information was collected on patient demographics, receipt of HAART (no patient began HAART on the ICU), reason for ICU admission and hospital course. Outcomes were survival to ICU discharge and to hospital discharge.
Results
102 patients had 113 admissions to the ICU; HIV infection was newly diagnosed in 31 patients. Survival (first episode ICU discharge and hospital discharge) was 77% and 68%, respectively, compared with 74% and 65% for general medical patients. ICU and hospital survival was 78% and 67% in those receiving HAART, and 75% and 66% in those who were not. In univariate analysis, factors associated with survival were: haemoglobin (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51, for an increase of 1 g/dl), CD4 count (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.58, for a 10‐fold increase in cells/µl), APACHE II score (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90, for a 10 unit increase) and mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.83).
Conclusions
The outcome for HIV‐infected patients admitted to the ICU was good and was comparable to that in general medical patients. More than a quarter of patients had newly diagnosed HIV infection. Patients receiving HAART did not have a better outcome.
doi:10.1136/thx.2006.072256
PMCID: PMC2117109  PMID: 17517829
7.  Improved survival for HIV infected patients with severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is independent of highly active antiretroviral therapy 
Thorax  2006;61(8):716-721.
Background
Despite a decline in incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), severe PCP continues to be a common cause of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) where mortality remains high. A study was undertaken to examine the outcome from intensive care for patients with PCP and to identify prognostic factors.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of HIV infected adults admitted to a university affiliated hospital ICU between November 1990 and October 2005. Case note review collected information on demographic variables, use of prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and hospital course. The main outcome was 1 month mortality, either on the ICU or in hospital.
Results
Fifty nine patients were admitted to the ICU on 60 occasions. Thirty four patients (57%) required mechanical ventilation. Overall mortality was 53%. No patient received HAART before or during ICU admission. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with mortality were the year of diagnosis (before mid 1996 (mortality 71%) compared with later (mortality 34%; p = 0.008)), age (p = 0.016), and the need for mechanical ventilation and/or development of pneumothorax (p = 0.031). Mortality was not associated with sex, ethnicity, prior receipt of sulpha prophylaxis, haemoglobin, serum albumin, CD4 count, Pao2, A‐ao2 gradient, co‐pathology in bronchoscopic lavage fluid, medical co‐morbidity, APACHE II score, or duration of mechanical ventilation.
Conclusions
Observed improved outcomes from severe PCP for patients admitted to the ICU occurred in the absence of intervention with HAART and probably reflect general improvements in ICU management of respiratory failure and ARDS rather than improvements in the management of PCP.
doi:10.1136/thx.2005.055905
PMCID: PMC2104703  PMID: 16601092
AIDS; intensive care; mechanical ventilation;  Pneumocystis jirovecii ; opportunistic infections; respiratory failure
8.  Online First in Sexually Transmitted Infections 
Will help to reduce delays in publication
doi:10.1136/sti.2006.021501
PMCID: PMC2564735
11.  HIV infection and lymphoma 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2007;60(12):1365-1372.
The incidence of lymphoma in patients with HIV infection greatly exceeds that of the general population. The increased risk for lymphoma appears related to multiple factors, including the transforming properties of the retrovirus itself, the immunosuppression and cytokine dysregulation that results from the disease, and, most importantly, opportunistic infections with other lymphotrophic herpes viruses such as Epstein–Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8. Histologically lymphomas fall into three groups: (1) those also occurring in immunocompetent patients; (2) those occurring more specifically in HIV‐positive patients; and (3) those also occurring in patients with other forms of immunosuppression. Aggressive lymphomas account for the vast majority cases. They frequently present with advanced stage, bulky disease with high tumour burden and, typically, involve extranodal sites. Clinical outcome appears to be worse than in similar aggressive lymphomas in the general population. However, following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the risk for developing lymphoma in the context of HIV infection has decreased and the clinical outcome has improved.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2007.051953
PMCID: PMC2095580  PMID: 18042692
13.  Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Due to Multiple and Unusual HPV Infection Among Vertically-Infected, HIV-Positive Adolescents in Zimbabwe 
We have characterized the EV-like dermatosis of acquired HIV in 4 adolescents. Multiple HPV types were isolated in skin tissue samples, including β-HPV, but also high levels of HPV 1 and 2. ARV did not improve the EV eruption.
Background. We have previously described the presentation of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)–like eruptions in almost a quarter of hospitalized adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Harare, Zimbabwe, a region with a high prevalence of HIV infection.
Methods. We performed a clinical case note review and skin biopsy from affected sites in 4 HIV-infected adolescents with EV-like lesions in Harare. Biopsies were processed for histology and for human papillomavirus (HPV) typing.
Results. All patients had long-standing skin lesions that pre-dated the diagnosis of HIV by several years. The histology of skin biopsies from all patients was consistent with EV. In each biopsy, EV-associated β-HPV type 5 was identified (additionally, type 19 was found in 1 biopsy). Cutaneous wart–associated HPV types 1 and 2 were detected in all biopsies, together with genital lesion–associated HPV types 6, 16, and 52, (as well as ≥3 other genital lesion–associated HPV types). Despite immune reconstitution with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there was no improvement in EV-like lesions in any patient.
Conclusions. EV is a disfiguring and potentially stigmatizing condition among this patient group and is difficult to treat; cART appears to have no impact on the progression of skin disease. Among adolescents with longstanding HIV-induced immunosuppression and with high levels of sun exposure, close dermatological surveillance for potential skin malignancy is required.
doi:10.1093/cid/cis118
PMCID: PMC3334361  PMID: 22474219
14.  How normalised is HIV care in the UK? A survey of current practice and opinion 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2007;83(2):151-154.
Objectives
The prognosis for individuals infected with HIV has changed dramatically over the past 10 years, with patients living longer and requiring other specialist services. It is apparent that access of other healthcare professionals to clinical information about a patient's HIV care differs between centres in the UK. Lack of awareness of an individual's HIV status may compromise their clinical care.
Aim
To establish current practice and identify the views of clinicians caring for patients infected with HIV.
Methods
Lead consultants in all genitourinary medicine departments in the UK were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding use of combined HIV and hospital notes and ability of general practitioners and other hospital specialists to access information about individual patient's HIV care. Clinician's opinions on the “normalisation” of HIV management were also sought.
Results
Combined notes (outpatient and inpatient) were used by 12% (16/130) of respondents. The patient's identifying number was used to request blood tests in 86%. Of the respondents, 42% had encountered difficulties in communication that affected delivery of care for an HIV‐positive patient.
Conclusions
Centres using combined notes identified a higher frequency of communication with other doctors and specialties, suggesting a higher standard of care. Physicians involved in HIV care should consider combining patients' HIV and hospital notes for improved clinical care.
doi:10.1136/sti.2006.023176
PMCID: PMC2598617  PMID: 17229793
15.  Innovations in diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections 
doi:10.1136/sti.2006.024075
PMCID: PMC2563877  PMID: 17151026
18.  Pyrexia of undetermined origin in advanced HIV disease. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1997;73(4):308-313.
Images
PMCID: PMC1195867  PMID: 9389958
19.  Adverse events and treatment interruption in tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co‐infection 
Thorax  2006;61(9):791-794.
Background
Serious treatment associated adverse events are thought to occur more frequently in individuals with tuberculosis (TB) who are co‐infected with HIV. A study was undertaken to assess the frequency of serious (grade III/IV) adverse events and interruption of anti‐TB treatment in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy.
Methods
The incidence of serious adverse events was retrospectively compared in 312 individuals treated for TB, 156 of whom were co‐infected with HIV.
Results
111 HIV infected individuals (71%) received highly active antiretroviral therapy at the same time as anti‐TB treatment. Serious adverse events were recorded in 40% HIV infected and 26% HIV uninfected individuals (p = 0.008). Peripheral neuropathy and persistent vomiting were more common in co‐infected patients (p<0.001; p = 0.006), although all cause interruption of anti‐TB treatment occurred with similar frequency in the two groups (13% in HIV infected patients and 15% in HIV uninfected patients; p = 0.74). In 85% of HIV infected patients and 87% of HIV uninfected individuals this was due to hepatotoxicity, which typically presented within 2 months of starting treatment. The median delay in restarting treatment was 4 weeks, so most individuals required full TB re‐treatment.
Conclusion
Despite a greater rate of serious (grade III/IV) adverse events among HIV infected individuals, discontinuation of anti‐TB treatment occurred with a similar frequency in HIV infected and HIV uninfected individuals.
doi:10.1136/thx.2006.058867
PMCID: PMC2117099  PMID: 16844730
tuberculosis; HIV; antiretroviral treatment; hepatotoxicity; neuropathy
21.  Fulminant bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1992;68(1):11-15.
Images
PMCID: PMC1194790  PMID: 1548005
22.  Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection 
Clinical Radiology  2011;66(3):257-263.
Aim
To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Materials and methods
CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 ± 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 ± 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared.
Results
CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with “extensive” disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p < 0.005, χ2 for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness.
Conclusion
In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.
doi:10.1016/j.crad.2010.10.009
PMCID: PMC3477630  PMID: 21295205
24.  Necrotising herpetic retinopathy in patients with advance HIV disease. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1997;73(6):462-466.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the presenting features, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, response to treatment, and outcome of necrotising herpetic retinopathy (NHR) in HIV infected patients. METHODS: Retrospective case records/laboratory data review of five HIV infected patients presenting to the specialist HIV/AIDS unit at UCL Hospitals, London from April 1994 to August 1996 with a clinical diagnosis of NHR. RESULTS: All patients had advanced HIV disease with a median CD4 count of 20.10(6)/1. Three patients had cutaneous varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection within the preceding 8 weeks. All had uniocular loss of visual acuity; one also had headache and another ocular pain. All had typical retinal appearances. VZV DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid of four patients (and in vitreous fluid of one of the four) and in vitreous fluid of one other. One patient refused therapy and rapidly became blind. Four patients received intravenous foscarnet with intravenous aciclovir for 6 weeks: three subsequently received oral famciclovir and one oral valaciclovir; two patients also had intravitreal injections of foscarnet. In none of the four did treatment bring about improvement in visual acuity, but in all four visual loss from retinitis was halted. CONCLUSIONS: NHR occurs in HIV infected patients with advanced HIV disease and is strongly associated with evidence of VZV infection. With aggressive use of antiviral drugs the outcome is not uniformly poor.
Images
PMCID: PMC1195925  PMID: 9582461
25.  Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin in HIV infected patients with acute neurological episodes. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1997;73(3):181-183.
OBJECTIVES: To measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ferritin in HIV infected patients with acute neurological episodes and to correlate the findings with the type and severity of neurological disease. METHODS: CSF ferritin and the ratio of CSF to serum albumin (QAlb) were prospectively measured in 27 consecutive HIV infected patients admitted to a specialist unit for investigation of acute neurological episodes; the results were compared with their clinical diagnoses. RESULTS: Ten patients had HIV associated dementia complex, six had cryptococcal meningitis, two had primary CNS lymphoma and nine had miscellaneous conditions including herpes simplex virus encephalitis, cytomegalovirus encephalitis, cerebral toxoplasmosis and mononeuritis multiplex. Overall, 16 (59%) patients had raised CSF ferritin levels, ranging from 13.0 to 50.2 micrograms/l, (median = 16.1 micrograms/l: normal range = 1.0-12.0 micrograms/l). Thirteen of the 16 also had normal QAlb values, implying an intact CSF-blood barrier, and thus that local synthesis of ferritin had occurred. Elevated ferritin levels were not associated with particular neurological diagnoses. In those with HIV associated dementia complex there was no correlation between CSF ferritin levels and the severity of clinical cognitive deficit or the extent of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: An elevated CSF ferritin level is a non-specific finding in HIV infected patients presenting with acute neurological episodes.
PMCID: PMC1195817  PMID: 9306897

Results 1-25 (90)