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1.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2013 
Head & Face Medicine  2014;10:3.
Contributing reviewers
The Editors of Head & Face Medicine would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 9 (2013).
PMCID: PMC3910227
2.  Reviewer acknowledgement 2012 
Contributing reviewers
The Editors of Head & Face Medicine would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 8 (2012).
PMCID: PMC3576226
3.  Early treatment of posterior crossbite - a randomised clinical trial 
Trials  2013;14:20.
The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment in contrast to normal growth effects for functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition by means of three-dimensional digital model analysis.
This randomised clinical trial was assessed to analyse the orthodontic treatment effects for patients with functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using a two-step procedure: initial maxillary expansion followed by a U-bow activator therapy. In the treatment group 31 patients and in the control group 35 patients with a mean age of 7.3 years (SD 2.1) were monitored. The time between the initial assessment (T1) and the follow-up (T2) was one year. The orthodontic analysis was done by a three-dimensional digital model analysis. Using the ‘Digimodel’ software, the orthodontic measurements in the maxilla and mandible and for the midline deviation, the overjet and overbite were recorded.
Significant differences between the control and the therapy group at T2 were detected for the anterior, median and posterior transversal dimensions of the maxilla, the palatal depth, the palatal base arch length, the maxillary arch length and inclination, the midline deviation, the overjet and the overbite.
Orthodontic treatment of a functional unilateral posterior crossbite with a bonded maxillary expansion device followed by U-bow activator therapy in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition is an effective therapeutic method, as evidenced by the results of this RCT. It leads to three-dimensional therapeutically induced maxillary growth effects. Dental occlusion is significantly improved, and the prognosis for normal craniofacial growth is enhanced.
Trial registration
Registration trial DRKS00003497 on DRKS
PMCID: PMC3560255  PMID: 23339736
4.  Embryonic stem cells in scaffold-free three-dimensional cell culture: osteogenic differentiation and bone generation 
Head & Face Medicine  2011;7:12.
Extracorporeal formation of mineralized bone-like tissue is still an unsolved challenge in tissue engineering. Embryonic stem cells may open up new therapeutic options for the future and should be an interesting model for the analysis of fetal organogenesis. Here we describe a technique for culturing embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the absence of artificial scaffolds which generated mineralized miromasses. Embryonic stem cells were harvested and osteogenic differentiation was stimulated by the addition of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and ß-glycerolphosphate (DAG). After three days of cultivation microspheres were formed. These spherical three-dimensional cell units showed a peripheral zone consisting of densely packed cell layers surrounded by minerals that were embedded in the extracellular matrix. Alizarine red staining confirmed evidence of mineralization after 10 days of DAG stimulation in the stimulated but not in the control group. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated scorching crystallites and collagenous fibrils as early indication of bone formation. These extracellular structures resembled hydroxyl apatite-like crystals as demonstrated by distinct diffraction patterns using electron diffraction analysis. The micromass culture technique is an appropriate model to form three-dimensional bone-like micro-units without the need for an underlying scaffold. Further studies will have to show whether the technique is applicable also to pluripotent stem cells of different origin.
PMCID: PMC3143924  PMID: 21752302
Embryonal stem cell; osteogenic tissue engineering; three-dimensional culture technique; scaffold free tissue; hydroxyl apatite
5.  Infection, vascularization, remodelling - are stem cells the answers for bone diseases of the jaws? 
Osteonecrosis after craniofacial radiation (ORN), osteomyelitis and bisphosphonates related necrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) are the predominant bone diseases in Cranio- and Maxillofacial surgery. Although various hypothesis for the pathophysiological mechanisms including infection, altered vascularisation or remodelling exist, the treatment is still a challenge for clinicians. As the classical pharmacological or surgical treatment protocols have only limited success, stem cells might be a promising treatment option, indicated by recently published data.
PMCID: PMC3055822  PMID: 21332971
6.  Assessment of Reference Values for Copper and Zinc in Blood Serum of First and Second Lactating Dairy Cows 
The influence of different copper and zinc contents in rations on blood serum concentrations in dependence on feeding (Groups A and B) and lactation (Lactation 1 and 2) was tested in a feeding trial with 60 German Holstein cows. All animals received a diet based on maize and grass silage ad libitum. 30 cows received a concentrate supplemented with copper and zinc as recommended (Group A), whereas the other 30 animals were offered a concentrate with roughly double the amount of copper and zinc (Group B). Blood samples were taken several times during the lactation to analyse serum concentrations of copper and zinc. Copper serum concentration was influenced neither by the different feeding (11.7 μmol/L in Group A and 12.3 μmol/L in Group B) nor by the lactation (12.0 μmol/L in Lactation 1 and 12.1 μmol/L in Lactation 2). Zinc serum concentration was significantly influenced as well as by feeding (14.1 μmol/L in Group B and 12.5 μmol/L in Group A) and lactation (14.2 μmol/L in the second lactation and 12.8 μmol/L for first lactating cows). For an exact diagnosis of trace element supply, blood serum is a not qualified indicator; other sources (feedstuffs, liver, hair) must also be investigated.
PMCID: PMC2858949  PMID: 20445778
7.  A histomorphometric meta-analysis of sinus elevation with various grafting materials 
Head & Face Medicine  2009;5:12.
Several grafting materials have been used in sinus augmentation procedures including autogenous bone, demineralized freeze-dried bone (DFDBA), hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), anorganic deproteinized bovine bone and combination of these and others. Up to now a subject of controversy in maxillofacial surgery and dentistry is, what is the most appropriate graft material for sinus floor augmentation.
The aim of this study is to provide a body of evidence-based data regarding grafting materials in external sinus floor elevation concerning the fate of the augmented material at the histomorphological level, through a meta-analysis of the available literature.
The literature searches were performed using the National Library of Medicine. The search covered all English and German literature from 1995 until 2006. For analyzing the amount of bone the parameter "Total Bone Volume" (TBV) was assessed. TBV is determined as the percentage of the section consisting of bone tissue.
In a relatively early phase after implantation the autogenous bone shows the highest TBV values. Interestingly, the different TBV levels approximate during the time. After 9 months no statistically significant differences can be detected between the various grafting materials.
From a clinical point of view, the use of autogenous bone is advantageous if a prosthetic rehabilitation (with functional loading) is expected within 9 months. In other cases the use of anorganic deproteinized bovine bone in combination with autogenous bone seems to be preferable. Donor side morbidity is ignored in this conclusion.
PMCID: PMC2700082  PMID: 19519903
8.  Osseointegration of zirconia implants compared with titanium: an in vivo study 
Head & Face Medicine  2008;4:30.
Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used for fabrication of dental implants. Since the material composition and the surface topography of a biomaterial play a fundamental role in osseointegration, various chemical and physical surface modifications have been developed to improve osseous healing. Zirconia-based implants were introduced into dental implantology as an altenative to titanium implants. Zirconia seems to be a suitable implant material because of its tooth-like colour, its mechanical properties and its biocompatibility. As the osseointegration of zirconia implants has not been extensively investigated, the aim of this study was to compare the osseous healing of zirconia implants with titanium implants which have a roughened surface but otherwise similar implant geometries.
Forty-eight zirconia and titanium implants were introduced into the tibia of 12 minipigs. After 1, 4 or 12 weeks, animals were sacrificed and specimens containing the implants were examined in terms of histological and ultrastructural techniques.
Histological results showed direct bone contact on the zirconia and titanium surfaces. Bone implant contact as measured by histomorphometry was slightly better on titanium than on zirconia surfaces. However, a statistically significant difference between the two groups was not observed.
The results demonstrated that zirconia implants with modified surfaces result in an osseointegration which is comparable with that of titanium implants.
PMCID: PMC2614983  PMID: 19077228
9.  Behavior of osteoblastic cells cultured on titanium and structured zirconia surfaces 
Head & Face Medicine  2008;4:29.
Osseointegration is crucial for the long-term success of dental implants and depends on the tissue reaction at the tissue-implant interface. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility make zirconia a suitable material for dental implants, although surface processings are still problematic. The aim of the present study was to compare osteoblast behavior on structured zirconia and titanium surfaces under standardized conditions.
The surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In primary bovine osteoblasts attachment kinetics, proliferation rate and synthesis of bone-associated proteins were tested on different surfaces.
The results demonstrated that the proliferation rate of cells was significantly higher on zirconia surfaces than on titanium surfaces (p < 0.05; Student's t-test). In contrast, attachment and adhesion strength of the primary cells was significant higher on titanium surfaces (p < 0.05; U test). No significant differences were found in the synthesis of bone-specific proteins. Ultrastructural analysis revealed phenotypic features of osteoblast-like cells on both zirconia and titanium surfaces.
The study demonstrates distinct effects of the surface composition on osteoblasts in culture. Zirconia improves cell proliferation significantly during the first days of culture, but it does not improve attachment and adhesion strength. Both materials do not differ with respect to protein synthesis or ultrastructural appearance of osteoblasts. Zirconium oxide may therefore be a suitable material for dental implants.
PMCID: PMC2614982  PMID: 19063728
10.  Ateriovenous subclavia-shunt for head and neck reconstruction 
Head & Face Medicine  2008;4:27.
Reconstruction of the facial hard- and soft tissues is of special concern for the rehabilitation of patients especially after ablative tumor surgery has been performed. Impaired soft and hard tissue conditions as a sequelae of extensive surgical resection and/or radiotherapy may impede common reconstruction methodes. Even free flaps may not be used without interposition of a vein graft as recipient vessels are not available as a consequence of radical neck dissection.
We describe the reconstruction of the facial hard- and soft tissues with a free parasacpular flap in a patient who had received ablative tumor surgery and radical cervical lymphadenectomy as a treatment regimen for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To replace the missing cervical blood vessels an arteriovenous subclavia-shunt using a saphena magna graft was created. Microvascular free flap transfer was performed as a 2-stage procedure two weeks after the shunt operation. The microvascular reconstructive technique is described in detail.
PMCID: PMC2600783  PMID: 19025619
11.  Osseointegration of zirconia implants: an SEM observation of the bone-implant interface 
Head & Face Medicine  2008;4:25.
The successful use of zirconia ceramics in orthopedic surgery led to a demand for dental zirconium-based implant systems. Because of its excellent biomechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and bright tooth-like color, zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) has the potential to become a substitute for titanium as dental implant material. The present study aimed at investigating the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surface at an ultrastructural level.
A total of 24 zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and 24 titanium implants all of similar shape and surface structure were inserted into the tibia of 12 Göttinger minipigs. Block biopsies were harvested 1 week, 4 weeks or 12 weeks (four animals each) after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed at the bone implant interface.
Remarkable bone attachment was already seen after 1 week which increased further to intimate bone contact after 4 weeks, observed on both zirconia and titanium implant surfaces. After 12 weeks, osseointegration without interposition of an interfacial layer was detected. At the ultrastructural level, there was no obvious difference between the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and titanium implants with a similar surface topography.
The results of this study indicate similar osseointegration of zirconia and titanium implants at the ultrastructural level.
PMCID: PMC2583968  PMID: 18990214
12.  Induction of osteogenic markers in differentially treated cultures of embryonic stem cells 
Head & Face Medicine  2008;4:10.
Facial trauma or tumor surgery in the head and face area often lead to massive destruction of the facial skeleton. Cell-based bone reconstruction therapies promise to offer new therapeutic opportunities for the repair of bone damaged by disease or injury. Currently, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are discussed to be a potential cell source for bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to investigate various supplements in culture media with respect to the induction of osteogenic differentiation.
Murine ESCs were cultured in the presence of LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor), DAG (dexamethasone, ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Microscopical analyses were performed using von Kossa staining, and expression of osteogenic marker genes was determined by real time PCR.
ESCs cultured with DAG showed by far the largest deposition of calcium phosphate-containing minerals. Starting at day 9 of culture, a strong increase in collagen I mRNA expression was detected in the DAG-treated cells. In BMP-2-treated ESCs the collagen I mRNA induction was less increased. Expression of osteocalcin, a highly specific marker for osteogentic differentiation, showed a double-peaked curve in DAG-treated cells. ESCs cultured in the presence of DAG showed a strong increase in osteocalcin mRNA at day 9 followed by a second peak starting at day 17.
Supplementation of ESC cell cultures with DAG is effective in inducing osteogenic differentiation and appears to be more potent than stimulation with BMP-2 alone. Thus, DAG treatment can be recommended for generating ESC populations with osteogenic differentiation that are intended for use in bone tissue engineering.
PMCID: PMC2443118  PMID: 18544155
13.  Principles of cartilage tissue engineering in TMJ reconstruction 
Diseases and defects of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), compromising the cartilaginous layer of the condyle, impose a significant treatment challenge. Different regeneration approaches, especially surgical interventions at the TMJ's cartilage surface, are established treatment methods in maxillofacial surgery but fail to induce a regeneration ad integrum. Cartilage tissue engineering, in contrast, is a newly introduced treatment option in cartilage reconstruction strategies aimed to heal cartilaginous defects. Because cartilage has a limited capacity for intrinsic repair, and even minor lesions or injuries may lead to progressive damage, biological oriented approaches have gained special interest in cartilage therapy. Cell based cartilage regeneration is suggested to improve cartilage repair or reconstruction therapies. Autologous cell implantation, for example, is the first step as a clinically used cell based regeneration option. More advanced or complex therapeutical options (extracorporeal cartilage engineering, genetic engineering, both under evaluation in pre-clinical investigations) have not reached the level of clinical trials but may be approached in the near future. In order to understand cartilage tissue engineering as a new treatment option, an overview of the biological, engineering, and clinical challenges as well as the inherent constraints of the different treatment modalities are given in this paper.
PMCID: PMC2288597  PMID: 18298824
14.  Dentin dysplasia type I: a challenge for treatment with dental implants 
Head & Face Medicine  2007;3:31.
Dentin dysplasia type I is characterized by a defect of dentin development with clinical normal appearance of the permanent teeth but no or only rudimentary root formation. Early loss of all teeth and concomitant underdevelopment of the jaws are challenging for successful treatment with dental implants.
A combination of sinus lifting and onlay bone augmentation based on treatment planning using stereolithographic templates was used in a patient with dentin dysplasia type I to rehabilitate the masticatory function.
(i) a predisposition for an increased and accelerated bone resorption was observed in our patient, (ii) bone augmentation was successful using a mixture of allogenic graft material with autogenous bone preventing fast bone resorption, (iii) surgical planning, based on stereolithographic models and surgical templates, facilitated the accurate placement of dental implants.
Bony augmentation and elaborate treatment planning is helpful for oral rehabilitation of patients with dentin dysplasia type I.
PMCID: PMC1995192  PMID: 17714586
15.  A retrospective analysis of submissions, acceptance rate, open peer review operations, and prepublication bias of the multidisciplinary open access journal Head & Face Medicine 
Head & Face Medicine  2007;3:27.
Head & Face Medicine (HFM) was launched in August 2005 to provide multidisciplinary science in the field of head and face disorders with an open access and open peer review publication platform. The objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of submissions, the effectiveness of open peer reviewing, and factors biasing the acceptance or rejection of submitted manuscripts.
A 1-year period of submissions and all concomitant journal operations were retrospectively analyzed. The analysis included submission rate, reviewer rate, acceptance rate, article type, and differences in duration for peer reviewing, final decision, publishing, and PubMed inclusion. Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, regression analysis, and binary logistic regression.
HFM received 126 articles (10.5 articles/month) for consideration in the first year. Submissions have been increasing, but not significantly over time. Peer reviewing was completed for 82 articles and resulted in an acceptance rate of 48.8%. In total, 431 peer reviewers were invited (5.3/manuscript), of which 40.4% agreed to review. The mean peer review time was 37.8 days. The mean time between submission and acceptance (including time for revision) was 95.9 days. Accepted papers were published on average 99.3 days after submission. The mean time between manuscript submission and PubMed inclusion was 101.3 days. The main article types submitted to HFM were original research, reviews, and case reports. The article type had no influence on rejection or acceptance. The variable 'number of invited reviewers' was the only significant (p < 0.05) predictor for rejection of manuscripts.
The positive trend in submissions confirms the need for publication platforms for multidisciplinary science. HFM's peer review time comes in shorter than the 6-weeks turnaround time the Editors set themselves as the maximum. Rejection of manuscripts was associated with the number of invited reviewers. None of the other parameters tested had any effect on the final decision. Thus, HFM's ethical policy, which is based on Open Access, Open Peer, and transparency of journal operations, is free of 'editorial bias' in accepting manuscripts.
Original data
Provided as a downloadable tab-delimited text file (URL and variable code available under section 'additional files').
PMCID: PMC1913501  PMID: 17562003
16.  Trick or treat? 
Head & Face Medicine  2007;3:22.
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to current transgressions in scientific writing and to promote commitment to ethical standards and good science. All participants of any research project, particularly under interdiciplinary team approach, should not only play an active role on the management and carrying out of their study but also ensure that their study is not fraudulent. Manuscript fabrication, data and/or figure manupilation, piracy (plagiarism), sloppy research, and transgressions in authorship are reasons for loss of scientific value and records, retraction of articles, and application of a variety of sanctions.
PMCID: PMC1871576  PMID: 17498285
17.  The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery 
Head & Face Medicine  2007;3:10.
In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1) to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2) to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3) to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach.
Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of Münster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female) were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female), seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment) are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH), and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ), who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM™.
In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw.
Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not move, or moved insufficiently (especially with respect to rotations and torque) irrespective of surgical procedures or orthodontic mechanics and materials applied, and without prognostic factors indicating these problems. Establishing occlusal contact of all teeth was difficult. Tooth movement was generally retarded, increasing the duration of orthodontic treatment. Planning of extractions was different from that of patients without this syndrome.
In one patient, the sole surgical procedure after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in the maxilla and mandible was a genioplasty. Most patients needed two- jaw surgery (bilateral sagittal split osteotomy [BSSO] with mandibular setback and distraction in the maxilla). During the period of distraction, the orthodontist guided the maxilla into final position by means of bite planes and intermaxillary elastics.
To our knowledge, this is the first article in the PubMed accessible literature describing the problems with respect to interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical procedures. Although the treatment results are not perfect, patients undergoing these procedures benefit esthetically to a high degree.
Patients need to be informed with respect to the different kinds of extractions that need to be performed, the increased treatment time, and the results, which may be reached using realistic expectations.
PMCID: PMC1821014  PMID: 17286873
18.  Perioperative complications in infant cleft repair 
Cleft surgery in infants includes special risks due to the kind of the malformation. These risks can be attributed in part to the age and the weight of the patient. Whereas a lot of studies investigated the long-term facial outcome of cleft surgery depending on the age at operation, less is known about the complications arising during a cleft surgery in early infancy.
We investigated the incidence and severity of perioperative complications in 174 infants undergoing primary cleft surgery. The severity and the complications were recorded during the intraoperative and the early postoperative period according to the classification by Cohen.
Our study revealed that minor complications occurred in 50 patients. Severe complications were observed during 13 operations. There was no fatal complication in the perioperative period. The risk of complications was found to be directly correlated to the body weight at the time of the surgery. Most of the problems appeared intraoperatively, but they were also followed by complications immediately after the extubation.
In conclusion, cleft surgery in infancy is accompanied by frequent and sometimes severe perioperative complications that may be attributed to this special surgical field.
PMCID: PMC1805427  PMID: 17280602
19.  Prospects of micromass culture technology in tissue engineering 
Tissue engineering of bone and cartilage tissue for subsequent implantation is of growing interest in cranio- and maxillofacial surgery. Commonly it is performed by using cells coaxed with scaffolds. Recently, there is a controversy concerning the use of artificial scaffolds compared to the use of a natural matrix. Therefore, new approaches called micromass technology have been invented to overcome these problems by avoiding the need for scaffolds. Technically, cells are dissociated and the dispersed cells are then reaggregated into cellular spheres. The micromass technology approach enables investigators to follow tissue formation from single cell sources to organised spheres in a controlled environment. Thus, the inherent fundamentals of tissue engineering are better revealed. Additionally, as the newly formed tissue is devoid of an artificial material, it resembles more closely the in vivo situation. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into the fundamentals and the technique of micromass cell culture used to study bone tissue engineering.
PMCID: PMC1781066  PMID: 17212823
20.  Sinus lifting before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy: a suitable method for oral rehabilitation of edentulous patients with skelettal class-III conditions: review of the literature and report of a case 
Functional rehabilitation of patients afflicted with severe mandibular and maxillary alveolar atrophy might be challenging especially in malformed patients.
Treatment planning using sinus lifting and implant placement before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy in a patient with severe mandibular and posterior maxillary alveolar atrophy and skelettal class-III conditions due to cleft palate are described.
A full functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the patient was achieved by a stepwise surgical approach performed through sinus lifting as the primary approach followed by implant placement and subsequent Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy to correct the maxillo-mandibular relation.
Stabilisation of the maxillary complex by a sinus lifting procedure in combination with computer aided implant placement as preorthodontic planning procedure before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy seems to be suitable in order to allow ideal oral rehabilitation especially in malformed patients.
PMCID: PMC1774560  PMID: 17204134
21.  New paradigm in implant osseointegration 
Head & Face Medicine  2006;2:19.
During the last years, implant dentistry has seen an dramatic increase as a treatment option in oral rehabilitation. This is based to a large extent on scientific advances and clinical improvements in implantology. The extension of indications has broadened the opprtunities to rehabilitate patients that were formerly considered to posess restricted indications to place implants. Additionally, patient desires (high aesthetic demands, fast prosthetic rehabilitation) were placed more in focus, resulting in new approaches in implant dentistry. As a result, the scientific and clinical community has reached high standards and at the same time has founded the basis for new opportunities in implantology. The advances are mirrored by a high number of high quality scientific papers, published in conventional and open-access journals. A major shift has thereby been observed in the understanding of implant healing, leading the basis for new implant systems that allow fast rehabilitation protocols. The term ossseointegration needs a new understanding since an immediate osseointegration state can be present under distinct conditions.
PMCID: PMC1550224  PMID: 16813645
22.  Biological and biomechanical evaluation of interface reaction at conical screw-type implants 
Initial stability of the implant is, in effect, one of the fundamental criteria for obtaining long-term osseointegration. Achieving implant stability depends on the implant-bone relation, the surgical technique and on the microscopic and macroscopic morphology of the implant used. A newly designed parabolic screw-type dental implant system was tested in vivo for early stages of interface reaction at the implant surface.
A total of 40 implants were placed into the cranial and caudal part of the tibia in eight male Göttinger minipigs. Resonance frequency measurements (RFM) were made on each implant at the time of fixture placement, 7 days and 28 days thereafter in all animals. Block biopsies were harvested 7 and 28 days (four animals each) following surgery. Biomechanical testing, removable torque tests (RTV), resonance frequency analysis; histological and histomorphometric analysis as well as ultrastructural investigations (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were performed.
Implant stability in respect to the measured RTV and RFM-levels were found to be high after 7 days of implants osseointegration and remained at this level during the experimented course. Additionally, RFM level demonstrated no alteration towards baseline levels during the osseointegration. No significant increase or decrease in the mean RFM (6029 Hz; 6256 Hz and 5885 Hz after 0-, 7- and 28 days) were observed. The removal torque values show after 7 and 28 days no significant difference. SEM analysis demonstrated a direct bone to implant contact over the whole implant surface. The bone-to-implant contact ratio increased from 35.8 ± 7.2% to 46.3 ± 17.7% over time (p = 0,146).
The results of this study indicate primary stability of implants which osseointegrated with an intimate bone contact over the whole length of the implant.
PMCID: PMC1421389  PMID: 16504052
23.  Strain driven fast osseointegration of implants 
Although the bone's capability of dental implant osseointegration has clinically been utilised as early as in the Gallo-Roman population, the specific mechanisms for the emergence and maintenance of peri-implant bone under functional load have not been identified. Here we show that under immediate loading of specially designed dental implants with masticatory loads, osseointegration is rapidly achieved.
We examined the bone reaction around non- and immediately loaded dental implants inserted in the mandible of mature minipigs during the presently assumed time for osseointegration. We used threaded conical titanium implants containing a titanium2+ oxide surface, allowing direct bone contact after insertion. The external geometry was designed according to finite element analysis: the calculation showed that physiological amplitudes of strain (500–3,000 ustrain) generated through mastication were homogenously distributed in peri-implant bone. The strain-energy density (SED) rate under assessment of a 1 Hz loading cycle was 150 Jm-3 s-1, peak dislocations were lower then nm.
Bone was in direct contact to the implant surface (bone/implant contact rate 90%) from day one of implant insertion, as quantified by undecalcified histological sections. This effect was substantiated by ultrastructural analysis of intimate osteoblast attachment and mature collagen mineralisation at the titanium surface. We detected no loss in the intimate bone/implant bond during the experimental period of either control or experimental animals, indicating that immediate load had no adverse effect on bone structure in peri-implant bone.
In terms of clinical relevance, the load related bone reaction at the implant interface may in combination with substrate effects be responsible for an immediate osseointegration state.
PMCID: PMC1277014  PMID: 16270927
24.  Tissue engineering: a challenge of today's medicine 
During the last years, tissue engineering-based therapies have been introduced in clinical practice in the head and face area. The regeneration of complex tissue structures for all sites of the body is envisioned for the future. In the present situation, specialists of the different fields publish excellent research papers in specialised journals. As a result, the scientific community, seperated towards distinct sub-specialities, has difficulties in communication. To overcome this problem, the demanding, complex and interdisciplinary aspects of tissue engineering has to be approached from new ways. We have conceptualised Head & Face Medicine therefore as a thematically broad ranged journal, including all disciplines involved in the head and neck area. We hope this journal will attract basic researchers and clinicians who are involved in investigating and applying complex themes (examplified by tissue engineering) in the head and face region and will contribute to a gain in scientific information, communication, and collaboration in order to improve the outcome of patient treatments.
PMCID: PMC1266041  PMID: 16270925

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