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1.  Requirements for invasion of epithelial cells by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(4):1239-1245.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium implicated in human periodontal disease, was recently demonstrated to invade cultured epithelial cells (D. H. Meyer, P. K. Sreenivasan, and P. M. Fives-Taylor, Infect. Immun. 59:2719-2726, 1991). This report characterizes the requirements for invasion of KB cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans. The roles of bacterial and host factors were investigated by using selective agents that influence specific bacterial or host cell functions. Inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis decreased invasion, suggesting the absence of a preformed pool of proteins involved in A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion. Inhibition of bacterial and eukaryotic energy synthesis also decreased invasion, confirming that A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion is an active process. Bacterial adherence to KB cells was indicated by scanning electron microscopy of infected KB cells. Further, the addition of A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific serum to the bacterial inoculum reduced invasion substantially, suggesting a role for bacterial attachment in invasion. Many of the adherent bacteria invaded the epithelial cells under optimal conditions. Inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis inhibited invasion by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Like that of many facultatively intracellular bacteria, A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion was not affected by eukaryotic endosomal acidification. These are the first published observations describing the requirements for epithelial cell invasion by a periodontopathogen. They demonstrate that A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a mechanism similar to those used by many but not all invasive bacteria to gain entry into eukaryotic cells.
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PMCID: PMC281353  PMID: 8454326
2.  Invasion of epithelial cells by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans: a dynamic, multistep process. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(8):2988-2997.
The invasion process of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a periodontopathogen, was studied with microscopy and viable quantitative assays using both KB and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Microscopy revealed that the events associated with the A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion process occurred rapidly. Scanning electron micrographs revealed A. actinomycetemcomitans associated with craters on the KB cell surface and others entering the KB cells through apertures with lip-like rims within 30 min of infection. Both transmission electron and immunofluorescence micrographs demonstrated that by this time some bacteria had, in fact, already entered, replicated, and exited host cells. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that infected KB cells exhibited fibrillar protrusions which contained bulges with the conformation of bacteria. Some protrusions formed intercellular connections between KB cells. Immunofluorescence micrographs revealed protrusions which harbored A. actinomycetemcomitans. The spread of internalized A. actinomycetemcomitans from one MDCK epithelial cell monolayer to another was demonstrated using a sandwich assay developed in our laboratory. Transcytosis of A. actinomycetemcomitans through polarized MDCK cells was also demonstrated. This study indicates that soon after entry of A. actinomycetemcomitans bacteria into epithelial cells, they undergo rapid multiplication and may subsequently be found in protrusions which sometimes extend between neighboring epithelial cells. The protrusions are thought to mediate the cell-to-cell spread of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Cell-to-cell spread may also occur by the endocytosis of A. actinomycetemcomitans bacteria which have been released into the medium via rudimentary protrusions which do not interconnect epithelial cells. The finding that the A. actinomycetemcomitans invasion process is so dynamic sheds significant new light on the interaction of this periodontopathogen with mammalian cells.
PMCID: PMC174179  PMID: 8757825
3.  Characteristics of adherence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to epithelial cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1994;62(3):928-935.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans smooth variants [SUNY 75(S), SUNY 465, 652] were investigated for their ability to adhere to KB epithelial cells. Both the type of medium (broth versus agar) and anaerobicity influenced adherence levels and cell surface characteristics. Optimal adherence was observed with all three strains after growth of the bacterial cells in broth under anaerobic conditions, a condition which was associated with extracellular microvesicles. Adherence of SUNY 75(S) also was correlated with extracellular amorphous material, whereas adherence of SUNY 465 was also associated with fimbriation which accompanied a smooth to rough phenotype shift. The relationship between adherence and extracellular vesicles, extracellular amorphous material, and fimbriation suggests that all of these components may function in A. actinomycetemcomitans adherence to epithelial cells. The phenotype shift observed in SUNY 465 cells is further evidence that A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 465 is predisposed to variant shifts which are associated with changes in adherence and invasion properties.
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PMCID: PMC186205  PMID: 8112865
4.  Evidence that extracellular components function in adherence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to epithelial cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(11):4933-4936.
Extracellular microvesicles and a highly proteinaceous polymer associated with a leukotoxin-producing strain, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 75, were shown to increase adherence of other weakly adherent A. actinomycetemcomitans strains to KB epithelial cells.
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PMCID: PMC281260  PMID: 8406899
5.  Evidence for invasion of a human oral cell line by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(8):2719-2726.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterial species associated with periodontal disease, was found to invade human cell lines. Invasion was demonstrated by recovery of viable organisms from gentamicin-treated KB cell monolayers and by light and electron microscopy. Internalization occurred through a cytochalasin D-sensitive process. Invasion efficiencies of some A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were comparable to those of invasive members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Differences in invasiveness were correlated with bacterial colonial morphology. Smooth variants invaded more proficiently than rough variants. A. actinomycetemcomitans can undergo a smooth-to-rough colonial morphology shift which results in the loss of invasiveness. Coordinated regulation of genes involved in the rough-to-smooth phenotypic transitions may play a role in the episodic nature of periodontal disease.
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PMCID: PMC258078  PMID: 1855989

Results 1-5 (5)